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FOIMH  PO&T 

UN-AMKICAN  ACTIVITY 
IN  (ALIFOfeNIA 

1945 


COMMUNIST  FROHT  OWAHIZATIOHS 


OF  M  JOINT  fA(I-flHDIN<i  (OMMIIIEt 
TO  THE  1948  DELIAS  ailfOHHIA  U«IStATUtE 
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SENATOR  }.  HOWARD  WlL 
32d  Senatorial  District 


CALIFORNIA  LEGISLATURE 

Fourth  Report  of  the 

Senate  Fact- Finding  Committee 

On  Un-American  Activities 

1948 

COMMUNIST 
FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 


MEMBERS  OF  THE  COMMITTEE 

SENATOR  NELSON  S.  DIL WORTH  SENATOR  Louis  G.  SUTTON 

SENATOR  FRED  H.  KRAFT  SENATOR  CLYDE  A.  WATSON 

SENATOR  HUGH  M.  BURNS,  Vice  Chairman 

SENATOR  JACK  B.  TENNEY,  Chairman 

LINNIE  TENNEY.  Secretary  MURRAY  STRAVERS,  Executive  Secretary 

R.  E.  COMBS,  Chief  Counsel 


PUBLISHED  BY  THE  SENATE 

LIEUTENANT  GOVERNOR  GOODWIN  J.  KNIGHT 
President  of  the  Senate 

SENATOR  HAROLD  J.  POWERS  JOSEPH  A.  BEEK 

President  Pro  Tempore  of  the  Senate  Secretary  of  the  Senate 


LETTER  OF  TRANSMITTAL 

SENATE  CHAMBER,  STATE  CAPITOL 

SACRAMENTO,  March  25,  1948 
Honorable  Goodwin  J.  Knight 

President  of  the  Senate;  and 
Gentlemen  of  the  Senate 

Senate  Chamber,  Sacramento,  California 

MR.  PRESIDENT  AND  GENTLEMEN  OF  THE  SENATE  : 

Pursuant  to  Senate  Resolution  No.  75,  which  appears  at  page  3532 
of  the  Senate  Journal  for  June  20,  1947,  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  was  created  and  the  following  were 
appointed  by  the  Senate  Committee  on  Rules  : 

Senator  Hugh  M.  Burns, 
Senator  Nelson  S.  Dilworth, 
Senator  Fred  H.  Kraft, 
Senator  Louis  G.  Sutton, 
Senator  Clyde  A.  Watson, 
Senator  Jack  B.  Tenney. 

The  committee  herewith  submits  a  partial  report  of  its  investiga- 
tions and  findings. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

HUGH  M.  BURNS, 

NELSON  S.  DILWORTH, 

FRED  H.  KRAFT, 

Louis  G.  SUTTON, 

CLYDE  A.  WATSON, 

JACK  B.  TENNEY,  Chairman 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 


Page 

INTRODUCTION   1 

Senate  Resolution  No.  75 1 

Organization  of  the  Committee 3 

Fairfax  Investigation  and  Hearing 4 

Oakland  Hearings 7 

Vern  Smith 8 

Los  Angeles  Hearings 13 

Appreciation  and  Acknowledgment 14 

Citizens'  Advisory  Committee 15 

Is  America  Blind? 20 

The  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  Is  an  Agent  of  Soviet 

Russia   20 

PART  I 

ANALYSIS  OF  COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 23 

Why  Communists  Need  Front  Organizations 24 

Every  Communist  an  Agent  of  the  Kremlin 27 

Marxian  Double-Talk 27 

Types  of  Communist-Influenced  Organizations 28 

Types  of  Communist  Front  Organizations 31 

Organizations  Classified  by  Proportion  of  Communist  Influence  32 

Communist  Created  and  Controlled  Organizations 34 

Communist  Created  or  Controlled  Unions 36 

Communist  Infiltrated  and  Controlled  Organizations 38 

Communist  Infiltrated  and  Dominated  Organizations 39 

Communist  Infiltrated,  but  Neither  Controlled  Nor  Dominated  41 

Communist  Infiltrated  Solely  for  Purposes  of  Espionage 43 

Miscellaneous  Groups 44 

Organizations  Classified  by  Communist  Purpose  and  Objective  44 

The  Six  Basic  Divisions  of  Communist  Front  Organizations 46 

(1)  The  Indispensable  Organizations  for  Revolution 46 

I.  Communist  Basic  Organizations 47 

II.  Communist  Controlled  Publications  and  Infor- 
mation Services 48 

(2)  Culture  and  Science 50 

I.  Arts  and  Culture 50 

II.  Sciences  and  Professions 52 

III.  Youth  and  Education 53 

(3)  Communist  Fronts  for  Domestic  Affairs 54 

I.  Defense,  Honoring  and  Support  of  Known  Com- 
munist Organizations 55 

II.  Legal  Defense  and  Civil  Rights 56 


iii 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS— Continued 

ANALYSIS  OF  COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS— 
Continued 

Page 

"Thought  Control"   58 

III.  Political  and  Legislative 61 

(4)  Communist  Fronts  for  Foreign  Policy 63 

I.  Fronts  for  Support  and  Praise  of  the  Soviet 

Union   65 

II.  Fronts  for  Support  and  Praise  of  Communist 
Dominated  Nations  and  Communist  Parties  in 

Other  Lands 66 

III.  Fronts  on  War,  Peace  and  Foreign  Relations 66 

(5)  Fronts  for  Appeals  to  Basic  Groups 67 

I.  Fronts  In,  and  For,  Organized  Labor 69 

II.  Fronts  for  Charity,  Relief  and  Unemployed 72 

III.  Fronts  for  Racial,  Refugee  and  Alien  Groups 73 

IV.  Fronts  for  Veterans  and  Military 75 

V.  Fronts  for  Farmers 76 

VI.  Fronts  for  Consumers 76 

What  Is  a  Stalinist? 78 

The  Stigma  of  Stalinism 80 

The  Four  Types  of  Stalinists 81 

(1)  Communists   81 

(2)  Fellow-Travelers   81 

(3)  Opportunists   82 

(4)  Dupes   : -.. 82 

Interchangeability  of  Stalinist  Types 83 

The  Telltale  Marks  of  Stalinism 83 

Stalinism  Is  a  Disease 84 

Basic  Tests  of  a  Communist-Stalinist  Organization 84 

(1)  Sponsorship    84 

(2)  Organization   85 

(3)  Printing  and  Publicity 85 

(4)  Policies   86 

(5)  Tactics 86 

(6)  Attitude  on  Foreign  Affairs 87 

(7)  Attitude  on  Domestic  Affairs 87 

(8)  Attitude  on  National  Security 88 

(9)  Attitude  on  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism 89 

PART  II 

COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 91 

Abolish  Peonage  Committee 93 

Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade 93 

Abraham  Lincoln  School 95 

Actors'  Laboratory  Theater 95 

Age  of  Treason 106 

All- America  Anti-Imperialist  League 106 

All-California  Conference  for  Defense  of  Civil  Rights  and  Aid 

To  Labor's  Prisoners 107 

iv 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS— Continued 

COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

All-Union   Society  for   Cultural  Relations  With   Foreigners 

(VOKS)    107 

American  Civil  Liberties  Union 107 

American  Committee  for  a  Free  Indonesia 112 

American  Committee  for  a  Korean  People's  Party 112 

American  Committee  for  Democracy  and  Intellectual 

Freedom  112 

American  Committee  for  Indonesian  Independence 113 

American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  113 

American  Committee  for  Russian  Famine  Relief  114 

American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom 115 

American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief £ 131 

American  Committee  to  Aid  Soviet  Russia 141 

American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees 141 

American  Communications  Association — CIO 141 

American  Federated  Russian  Famine  Relief  Committee 141 

American  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People  142 

American  Friends  of  Czechoslovakia 145 

American  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union 145 

American  Fund  for  Public  Service  145 

American  Jewish  CongresS 145 

American  League  Against  War  and  Fascism 149 

American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy  149 

American  Peace  Crusade 160 

"Information  for  Peace  Crusaders" 160 

American  Peace  Mobilization 161 

American  People 's  Fund  168 

American  Relief  for  Greek  Democracy : 168 

American  Russian  Institute  169 

American  Student  Union  178 

American  Youth  Congress  179 

American  Youth  for  Democracy  182 

Anti-Imperialist  League 188 

Anti-Nazi  News 188 

Artef  188 

Artists'  Front  to  Win  the  War 188 

Associated  Film  Audiences 193 

Black  and  White 193 

Book  Union 194 

California  Labor  School  194 

Calif ornia  Legislative  Conference 195 

Calif  ornia  Youth  Legislature 195 

Celebration  of  15  Years  Biro-Bidjan 196 

Champion  of  Youth 196 

China  Conference  Arrangements  Committee 197 

China  Today 198 

Citizens' Committee  for  Better  Education 198 

Citizens  Committee  to  Free  Earl  Browder 200 

Citizens  Committee  for  the  Motion  Picture  Strikers 201 

v 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS— Continued 

COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

Civil  Rights  Congress 201 

Committee  for  a  Democratic  Eastern  Policy  208 

Committee  for  Defense  of  Ferdinand  C.  Smith 208 

Committee  for  the  First  Amendment  . 210 

Committee  to  Aid  Chinese  Trade  Unions  211 

Committee  to  Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out  of  the  War 211 

Communist  Dominated  C.  I.  0.  Unions 212 

Communist  Party 212 

Communist  Party  Book  Stores  in  California  224 

Communist  Party  Publications  224 

Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties  in  America 226 

Congress  of  American-Soviet  Friendship 226 

Congress  of  American  Women 226 

Daily  Worker 232 

Emergency  Civil  Liberties  Conference 233 

Emergency  Committee  on  KFI  233 

Emergency  Conference  to  Halt  the  Blackout  of  Civil  Liberties 

in  California 233 

Exiled  Writers  Committee 234 

Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chemists  and  Technicians  _  234 

Film  and  Photo  League *- 237 

Film  Audiences  for  Democracy  238 

Films  for  Democracy 239 

First  State-wide  Emergency  Legislative  Conference 239 

Freedom  From  Fear  Committee 239 

Free  Italy  Society 241 

Freiheit  242 

Friends  of  Soviet  Russia 242 

Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade 244 

Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  244 

Frontier  Films 247 

Garland  Fund 247 

Garrison  Films  Distributors,  Inc 247 

Golden  Book  of  American  Friendship  With  the  Soviet  Union 248 

Harry  Bridges  Defense  Committee 248 

Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League 249 

Hollywood  Democratic  Committee 250 

Hollywood  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts, 

Sciences  and  Professions  (HICCASP) 252 

Hollywood  League  Against  Nazi-ism 255 

Hollywood  League  for  Democratic  Action %55 

Hollywood  League  of  Women  Shoppers 256 

Hollywood  Motion  Picture  Democratic  Committee 256 

Hollywood  Quarterly 257 

Hollywood  Writers'  Mobilization 258 

ICOR  261 

Independent  Citizens'  Committee  of  the  Arts, 

Sciences  and  Professions 262 

vi 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS— Continued 

COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

Institute  for  Democratic  Education,  Inc 263 

InternationalJuridical  Association 265 

International  Labor  Defense 265 

International  Workers  Order 267 

Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science 269 

John  Reed  Clubs 270 

Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee 270 

Joint  Committee  National  Negro  Congress  and 

United  Public  Workers 271 

Labor's  Non-Partisan  League 272 

Lawyers  Committee  to  Keep  the  United  States  Out  of  War 272 

League  Against  Imperialism 273 

League  of  American  Writers - 273 

League  of  American  Writers'  School  in  Hollywood 275 

League  of  Women  Shoppers 277 

League  of  Workers  Theatres 278 

Los  Angeles  Emergency  Committee  to  Aid  the  Strikers 279 

Los  Angeles  Youth  Committee  Against  Universal 

Military  Training 279 

Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards  Association 281 

Affidavit  of  William  D.  Handelsman 282 

Affidavit  of  George  W.  Crosby 292 

Communist  Persecution 298 

Affidavit  of  Alex  Harris 300 

Mobilization  for  Democracy 308 

Motion  Picture  Artists'  Committee 310 

Musicians'  Congress  Committee 310 

Affidavit  of  Rena  M.  Vale 314 

National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace 318 

National  Council  Against  Conscription 319 

National  Council  for  the  Protection  of  the  Foreign  Born 321 

National  Council  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  Workers 321 

National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship 321 

National  Emergency  Conference  for  Democratic  Rights 327 

National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties 327 

National  Institute  of  Arts  and  Letters 330 

National  Lawyers' Guild 331 

National  Negro  Congress 332 

National  People's  Committee  Against  Hearst 333 

National  Share-Croppers  Fund 334 

National  Student  League 337 

National  Youth  Assembly  Against  Universal 

Military  Training  ___  338 

.    New  Masses 340 

News  of  the  World 341 

News  Vendors  Union,  Local  75,  C.I.O 340 

Now 341 

Pacific  Weekly 341 

Pax  Productions : 341 

vii 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS— Continued 

COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

People's  Daily  World 342 

People's  Educational  Center 346 

People's  Peace 350 

Progressive  Citizens  of  America 353 

Russian  Reconstruction  Farms,  Inc 357 

Russian  War  Relief,  Inc 357 

Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense  Committee 358 

Screen  Writers  Guild 359 

Second  State-Wide  Emergency  Legislative  Conference 374 

Slavic  Council  of  Los  Angeles 374 

Sleepy  Lagoon  Defense  Committee 375 

Social  Work  Today 375 

Society  for  Technical  Aid  to  Soviet  Russia 376 

Spanish  Refugee  Appeal 376 

State- Wide  Legislative  Conference 376 

Statement  Defending  the  Communist  Party 377 

Student  Advocate 377 

Student  Review 377 

Theatre  Arts  Committee 377 

United  Negro  and  Allied  Veterans  of  America 378 

United  Public  Workers  of  America,  C.I.O 379 

United  Spanish  Aid  Committee 382 

Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade 382 

VOKS 383 

Western  Council  for  Progressive  Labor  in  Agriculture 383 

Winner 383 

Worker's  Alliance  of  America 383 

Workers  Ex-Service  Men's  League 384 

Writers  Congress  at  the  University  of  California 389 

Writers  and  Artists  Committee  for  Medical  Aid  to  Spain- 
Young  Communist  League 389 

Young  People 's  Records 

Young  Progressive  Citizen's  Committee 393 


viii 


PARTIAL  REPORT  OF  THE  SENATE  FACT-FINDING 

COMMITTEE  ON  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES 

IN  CALIFORNIA 

Introduction 

Mr.  President  and  Gentlemen  of  the  Senate 

The  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
California  was  created  by  Senate  Resolution  No.  75,  adopted  by  the 
Senate  June  20,  1947. 

The  resolution  is  as  follows: 

SENATE  RESOLUTION  NO.  75 

WHEREAS,  These  are  yet  times  of  public  danger.  Subversive  persons 
and  groups  are  endangering  our  domestic  unity  so  as  to  leave  us  unpre- 
pared to  resist  attack  from  without  or  within.  Under  color  of  the  protec- 
tion afforded  by  the  Bill  of  Rights  these  persons  and  groups  seek  to 
destroy  our  freedom  by  force,  violence,  threats,  undermining  and  sabo- 
tage, and  to  subject  us  to  the  domination  of  foreign  powers  and  ideol- 
ogies; and 

WHEREAS,  There  is  danger  that  the  ordeal  through  which  the  Country 
has  suffered  to  keep  the  pursuit  of  its  ideals  free  may  be  in  vain ;  and 

WHEREAS,  Persons  and  groups,  motivated  by  hatred  of  American 
ideals,  our  republican  form  of  government  and  democratic  processes, 
some  bound  together  by  allegiance  to  foreign  powers,  are  even  now  seek- 
ing to  achieve  by  subversion  what  we  have  so  valiantly  fought  to  sustain 
from  force ;  and 

WHEREAS,  California,  as  one  of  the  laboratories  of  this  great  Nation, 
may  profitably  study  the  problem  within  its  boundaries,  and  enact  perti- 
nent legislation  therein,  if  facts  are  available  therefor ;  and 

WHEREAS,  State  legislation  to  meet  the  problem  and  to  assist  law 
enforcement  officers  can  best  be  based  on  a  thorough  and  impartial 
investigation  by  a  competent  and  active  legislative  committee;  now, 
therefore,  be  it 

Resolved  by  the  Senate  of  the  State  of  California,  That 
1.  The  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
is  hereby  created  and  authorized  and  directed  to  investigate,  ascertain, 
study  and  analyze  all  facts  directly  or  indirectly  relating  to  the  fore- 
going, to  the  activities  of  groups  and  organizations  whose  membership 
include  persons  who  are  members  of  organizations  who  have  as  their 
objectives,  or  part  of  their  objectives,  the  overthrow  of  the  government 
of  the  State  of  California  or  of  the  United  States  by  force  and  violence 
or  other  unlawful  means,  all  organizations  known  or  suspected  to  be 
dominated  or  controlled  by  a  foreign  power  which  activities  affect  the 
conduct  of  this  State  in  national  defense,  the  functioning  of  any  state 
agency,  unemployment  relief  and  other  forms  of  public  assistance,  educa- 
tional institutions  of  this  State  supported  in  whole  or  in  part  by  public 

2— L-7088-D  (  1  ) 


2  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

funds,  or  any  political  program,  or  which  may  affect  the  conversion  of 
the  State  from  a  wartime  economy  to  a  peacetime  economy  or  affect  the 
economic  and  social  problems  incidental  thereto,  including  but  not  limited 
to  the  operation,  effect,  administration,  enforcement  and  needed  revision 
of  any  and  all  laws  in  any  way  bearing  upon  or  relating  to  the  subject 
of  this  resolution,  and  to  report  thereon  to  the  Senate. 

2.  In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities  is  authorized  and  directed  to  ascertain,  study 
and  analyze  all  facts  relating  to  the  activities  of  persons  and  groups 
known  or  suspected  to  be  dominated  or  controlled  by  a  foreign  power, 
and  who  owe  allegiance  thereto  because  of  religious,  racial,  political, 
ideological,  philosophical,  or  other  ties,  including  but  not  limited  to  the 
influence  upon  all  such  persons  and  groups  of  education,  economic  circum- 
stances, social  positions,  fraternal  and  casual  associations,  living  stand- 
ards, race,  religion,  political,  ancestry  and  the  activities  of  paid  provoca- 
tion and  any  other  factors  which  may  account  for  their  conduct  or  con- 
dition their  action,  as  well  as  the  operation,  effect,  administration,  enforce- 
ment and  needed  revision  of  any  and  all  laws  in  any  way  bearing  upon 
or  relating  to  the  subject  of  this  resolution,  and  to  report  thereon  to  the 
Senate. 

3.  The   committee   shall   consist   of   six   Members   of   the    Senate 
appointed  by  the  Committee  on  Eules  thereof.  Vacancies  occurring  or 
existing  in  the  membership  of  the  committee  shall  be  filled  by  the  appoint- 
ing power. 

4.  The  committee  is  authorized  io  act  during  this  session  of  the 
Legislature,  including  any  recess,  and  after  final  adjournment  until  the 
final  adjournment  of  the  1949  Regular  Session,  with  authority  to  file  its 
final  report  not  later  than  the  last  legislative  day  of  that  session. 

5.  The  committee  and  its  members  shall  have  and  exercise  all  of  the 
rights,  duties  and  powers  conferred  upon  investigating  committees  and 
their  members  by  the  provisions  of  the  Joint  Rules  of  the  Senate  and 
Assembly  and  the  Standing  Rules  of  the  Senate  as  they  are  adopted  and 
amended  from  time  to  time,  which  provisions  are  incorporated  herein  and 
made  applicable  to  this  committee  and  its  members. 

6.  The  committee  has  the  following  additional  powers  and  duties : 

(a)  To  select  a  chairman  and  a  vice  chairman  from  its  membership, 
and  to  employ  and  fix  the  compensation  of  a  secretary  and  such  clerical, 
investigative,  expert  and  technical  assistants  as  it  may  deem  necessary. 

(b)  To  contract  with  such  other  agencies,  public  or  private,  as  it 
deems  necessary  for  the  rendition  and  affording  of  such  services,  facilities, 
studies  and  reports  to  the  committee  as  will  best  assist  it  to  carry  out 
the  purposes  for  which  it  is  created. 

(c)  To  cooperate  with  and  secure  the  cooperation  of  county,  city, 
city  and  county,  and  other  local  law  enforcement  agencies  in  investigat- 
ing any  matter  within  the  scope  of  this  resolution  and  to  direct  the 
sheriff  of  any  county  to  serve  subpenas,  orders  and  other  process  issued 
by  the  committee. 

(d)  To  report  its  findings  and  recommendations  to  the  Legislature 
and  to  the  people  from  time  to  time  and  at  any  time,  not  later  than  herein 
provided. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  3 

(e)  To  do  any  and  all  other  things  necessary  or  convenient  to  enable 
it  fully  and  adequately  to  exercise  its  powers,  perform  its  duties,  and 
accomplish  the  objects  and  purposes  of  this  resolution. 

(f )  To  create  subcommittees  from  its  membership,  assigning  to  the 
subcommittee  any  study,  inquiry,  investigation  or  hearing  which  the 
committee  itself  has  authority  to  undertake  or  hold,  and  the  subcom- 
mittee for  the  purpose  of  this  assignment  shall  have  and  exercise  all  of 
the  powers  conferred  upon  the  committee  limited  by  the  express  terms  of 
the  resolution  or  resolutions  of  the  latter  defining  the  powers  and  duties 
of  the  subcommittee,  which  powers  may  be  withdrawn  or  terminated  at 
any  time  by  the  committee. 

(g)  To  adopt  and  from  time  to  time  amend  such  rules  governing  its 
procedure  (including  the  fixing  of  its  own  quorum  and  the  number  of 
votes  necessary  to  take  action  on  any  matter)   as  may  to  it  appear 
appropriate. 

(h)  To  hold  public  hearings  ^t  any  place  in  California  at  which 
hearings  the  people  are  to  have  an  opportunity  to  present  their  views  to 
the  committee. 

(i)  To  summon  and  subpena  witnesses,  require  the  production  of 
papers,  books,  accounts,  reports,  documents,  and  records  of  every  kind 
and  description,  to  issue  subpenas  and  to  take  all  necessary  means  to 
compel  the  attendance  of  witnesses  and  procure  testimony. 

7.  The  committee,  each  of  its  members,  and  any  representative  of 
the  committee  thereunto  authorized  by  the  committee  or  by  its  chairman, 
is  authorized  and  empowered  to  administer  oaths. 

8.  Every    department,    commission,    board,    agency,    officer    and 
employee  of  the  State  Government,  including  the  Legislative  Counsel, 
the  Attorney  General  and  their  subordinates,  and  of  any  political  sub- 
division, county,  city,  or  public  district  of  or  in  this  State  shall  furnish 
the  committee  and  any  subcommittee,  upon  request,  any  and  all  such 
assistance,  and  information,  records  and  documents  as  the  committee  or 
subcommittee  deems  proper  for  the  accomplishment  of  the  purposes  for 
which  the  committee  is  created. 

9.  The  committee,  or  a  subcommittee  or  the  chairman  when  author- 
ized by  a  majority  vote  of  the  entire  committee,  may  meet  outside  the 
State  with  similar  committees  of  Congress  or  of  the  several  states. 

10.  The  sum  of  thirty  thousand  dollars  ($30,000) ,  or  as  much  thereof 
as  may  be  necessary,  is  hereby  made  available  from  the  Contingent  Fund 
of  the  Senate  for  the  expenses  of  the  committee  and  its  members  and  for 
any  charges,  expenses  or  claims  it  may  incur  under  this  resolution,  to 
be  paid  from  said  Contingent  Fund,  and  disbursed,  after  certification  by 
the  chairman  of  the  committee,  upon  warrants  drawn  by  the  State 
Controller  upon  the  State  Treasurer. 

ORGANIZATION  OF  THE  COMMITTEE 

Pursuant  to  Senate  Resolution  No.  75,  the  Senate  Committee  on 
Rules  appointed  Senators  Hugh  M.  Burns,  of  Fresno  County ;  Nelson  S. 
Dilworth,  of  Riverside  County;  Senator  Fred  H.  Kraft,  of  San  Diego 
County ;  Senator  Louis  G.  Sutton,  of  Tehama,  Glenn  and  Colusa  Coun- 
ties ;  Clyde  A.  Watson,  of  Orange  County ;  and  Jack  B.  Tenney,  of  Los 
Angeles  County. 


4  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

At  the  committee's  organizational  meeting,  Senator  Jack  B.  Tenney 
was  elected  chairman.  Senator  Hugh  M.  Burns  was  elected  vice  chairman. 
Mrs.  Linnie  Tenney  was  elected  secretary  without  compensation. 

The  committee  has  attempted  to  continue  the  work  of  similar  com- 
mittees functioning  by  authority  of  the  Legislature  since  1941.  The 
selection  of  Senator  Jack  B.  Tenney,  who  has  headed  the  previous  com- 
mittees, as  chairman,  insured  continuity  of  investigations  in  the  field 
of  subversive  activity. 

The  committee  has  held  public  hearings  in  the  City  of  Fairfax,  the 
City  of  Oakland,  and  in  the  City  of  Los  Angeles,  in  addition  to  several 
executive  meetings. 

FAIRFAX  INVESTIGATION  AND  HEARING  ; 

The  chairman  of  this  committee  received  the  following  resolution 
from  the  City  Council  of  the  City  of  Fairfax  in  Marin  County,  California, 
on  or  about  the  tenth  day  of  August,  1947 : 

Resolved,  that  the  City  Council  of  the  City  of  Fairfax,  County 
of  Marin,  State  of  California,  in  its  investigation  on  Communism 
and  Un-American  Activities,  request  help  and  assistance  from  the 
State  of  California,  through  the  California  State  Fact-Finding 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  California  State  Legislature. 

Pursuant  to  this  resolution  a  subcommittee  of  the  Senate  Fact- 
Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  headed  by  its  vice  chair- 
man, Senator  Hugh  M.  Burns  of  Fresno,  conducted  a  one  day  hearing  in 
Fairfax  on  October  23, 1947.  Witnesses  who  were  subpenaed  and  testified 
include  Ernest  Besig,  Elsa  Gidlow,  Leslie  A.  Grosbauer,  Sidney  Hall, 
John  L.  Rockwell,  and  Clarice  Eleanor  Stevens. 

It  appears  from  the  record  that  Leslie  Grosbauer  was  authorized 
and  directed  by  the  City  Council  of  the  City  of  Fairfax  to  make  an  investi- 
gation into  alleged  un-American  activities  in  the  city. 

Mr.  Grosbauer,  a  member  of  the  City  Council  of  the  City  of  Fairfax, 
and  formerly  the  mayor  of  the  city,  testified  that  he  had  met  Elsa 
Gidlow  in  March  of  1946  when  she  was  prominent  in  the  organization  of 
a  group  which  became  known  as  the  Fairfax  Residents  and  Taxpayers 
Association.  He  stated  that  the  association  sponsored  three  candidates 
for  election  to  the  city  council  who  were  ultimately  elected.  John  L. 
Rockwell,  one  of  these  candidates,  became  chairman  of  the  council  and 
appointed  Elsa  Gidlow  to  the  City  Planning  Commission. 

After  Grosbauer  had  resigned  as  mayor,  remaining  a  member  of  the 
city  council,  he  was  appointed  by  his  successor,  Mayor  Charles  F.  Camp- 
bell, to  make  an  investigation  of  Elsa  Gidlow  and  Communist  activities 
in  the  City  of  Fairfax. 

Grosbauer  introduced  into  the  committee  record  a  photostatic  copy 
of  the  September,  1939  issue,  volume  1,  number  4,  of  the  Communist 
publication,  Black  and  White.  The  photostat  revealed  the  following 
information:  Editor:  Wilbur  Needham;  Managing  Editor:  Edward 
Wall;  Business  Manager:  Evans  Stanwood;  Associate  Editors:  Cedric 
Belfrage,  Robert  A.  Brady,  Haakon  Chevalier,  Philip  Dunne,  Elsie 
Gidlow,  Helen  Hosmer,  Carey  McWilliams,  Dolph  Winebrenner,  Don- 
ald Ogden  Stewart,  Bill  Rogers,  Louie  R.  Huber,  and  Ella-Winter. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  5 

Grosbauer  also  offered  into  evidence  a  photostatic  copy  of  a  letter- 
head of  the  communist  Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense  Committee.  Among 
other  names  included  on  this  letterhead  is  the  name  ' '  Elsa  Gidlow. ' '  Also 
accepted  in  evidence  is  a  photostatic  copy  of  a  pamphlet  entitled  ' '  Cen- 
sored News— The  News  That  the  Press  Won't  Print."  The  pamphlet  was 
issued  by  the  Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense  Committee. 

Grosbauer  testified  that  a  Captain  Henry  Hemingway,  who  had 
appeared  frequently  before  the  Fairfax  City  Council  in  tirades  of  abuse 
against  Grosbauer,  gave  a  party  at  his  home  attended  by  Councilman 
May  Hax,  Miss  Elsa  Gidlow,  Ernest  Besig  of  the  American  Civil  Lib- 
erties Union,  and  Mrs.  Isabel  Quallo.  He  stated  that  the  Marin  newspaper 
stated  that  the  '  *  decorations  for  the  occasion  featured  various  shades  of 
red." 

The  Fairfax  hearing  of  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  was  continuously  interrupted  by  Morse  Erskine, 
attorney  for  Elsa  Gidlpw. 

Mrs.  Clarice  Eleanor  Stevens  testified  that  she  had  several  conversa- 
sations  with  Elsa  Gidlow,  and  that  the  first  conversation  took  place 
during  the  formation  of  the  committee  that  organized  the  Fairfax  Resi- 
dents and  Taxpayers  Association.  Mrs.  Stevens  testified  that  she  had 
discussed  the  procedure  for  the  Fairfax  Residents  and  Taxpayers  Asso- 
ciation meetings  with  Elsa  Gidlow  and  others  and  had  suggested  that 
such  meetings  be  opened  with  a  pledge  of  allegiance  to  the  Flag,  the 
playing  of  the  national  anthem,  to  be  followed  by  "  perhaps  a  short 
prayer."  She  testified  that  her  suggestions  were  stormily  objected  to  and 
that  she  was  told  that  * '  that  was  carrying  things  just  a  little  bit  too  far. ' ' 

Sydney  Hall  testified  that  his  wife  was  Robin  Hall,  and  identified 
a  photograph  of  Mrs.  Hall  which  appeared  in  the  People's  Daily  World 
for  September  19,  1947.  He  identified  the  name  "R.  A.  Hall,  organiza- 
tional secretary,  Communist  Party,  Marin  County,  P.  0.  Box  271,  Sausa- 
lito,  California, ' '  as  that  of  his  wife,  Robin  Hall.  He  admitted  that  both 
himself  and  his  wife  are  members  of  the  Communist  Party.  His  wife  had 
disappeared  and  he  stated  he  did  not  know  where  she  was ;  that  he  had  not 
seen  her  for  about  two  weeks. 

John  L.  Rockwell,  an  attorney,  member  of  the  city  council  and  for- 
merly Mayor  of  the  City  of  Fairfax,  testified  that  the  city  had  been 
divided  into  two  camps  during  the  past  two  years  and  the  people  had 
been  engaging  in  a  ' '  rather  intense  and  protracted  political  fight. ' '  He 
stated  that  he  had  appointed  Elsa  Gidlow  to  the  city  planning  commis- 
sion when  he  was  chairman  (or  mayor)  of  the  city  council.  He  had  met 
Miss  Gidlow  some  time  in  October,  1945. 

Rockwell  admitted  that  he  had  been  a  member  of  the  Communist 
American  Student  Union  when  attending  the  University  of  California. 
He  admitted  that  he  had  known  Hazel  McKanney  (now  Mrs.  Aubrey 
Grossman,  wife  of  the  educational  director  of  the  Communist  Party  in 
San  Francisco)  when  attending  the  university.  He  denied  having  been 
arrested  by  the  Berkeley  police  during  a  demonstration  on  the  campus 
in  March  of  1935.  He  stated  that  he  was  reprimanded  by  the  police  for 
handing  out  handbills  for  a  meeting,  but  that  he  was  not  arrested. 

Rockwell  admitted  that  he  had  subscribed  to  the  Communist  Party 
periodical,  the  People's  Daily  World. 


6  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

John  L.  Rockwell  testified  before  the  Yorty  Committee  during  its 
investigation  of  subversive  activities  in  the  State  Relief  Administration 
in  March,  1940.  At  that  time  Rockwell  was  an  employee  of  the  State 
Relief  Administration.  He  also  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  initiated 
and  controlled  State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers  of  America.  He 
was  an  associate  of  Gene  Chance  and  Communist  Bronislaus  Joseph 
Zukas,  who  was  convicted  and  served  a  jail  sentence  for  contempt  of  the 
Yorty  Committee.  He  recalled  that  Communist  John  E.  Jeffrey  was  the 
president  of  the  State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers  of  America 
when  he  (Rockwell)  was  in  Visalia.  He  remembered  that  Communist 
Alexander  Noral  was  state  president  of  the  Worker 's  Alliance  of  America. 

Rockwell  admitted  having  been  president  of  the  Students  Rights 
Association,  an  organization  that  protested  the  expulsion  of  Communist 
Celeste  Strack  from  the  University  of  California.  (Western  Worker, 
November  12,  1934.) 

Elsa  Gidlow  testified  that  she  had  been  a  delegate  to  the  Communist 
Western  Writers  Congress  in  San  Francisco.  She  admitted  having 
attended  luncheons  of  the  Communist  Inter-Professional  Association  in 
1937,  and  that  she  edited  the  Inter-Professional  Association  Bulletin. 
She  attended  meetings  of  the  Communist  John  Reed  Club  in  San  Fran- 
cisco. She  admitted  that  her  name  was  listed  as  associate  editor  of  the 
Communist  publication,  Black  and  White,  but  stated  that  she  had  never 
been  active  in  that  capacity. 

Miss  Gidlow  testified  that  she  was  acquainted  with  Prof.  Robert  A. 
Brady  and  Prof.  Haakon  Chevalier.  She  did  not  remember  having  been 
affiliated  with  the  Communist  front,  the  Academic  and  Civil  Rights  Coun- 
cil of  Northern  California  (said  to  be  a  Communist  front  by  no  less  an 
authority  than  Ernest  Besig  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union), 
although  she  was  shown  a  letterhead  for  October  29,  1940,  on  which  her 
name  was  listed.  She  stated  that  she  was  unaware  that  her  name  had 
appeared  in  issues  of  the  Communist  publication,  the  People's  Daily 
World.  (March  30, 1940,  October  29, 1940,  and  November  23, 1940.) 

She  admitted  knowing  Andree  Rexroth  and  stated  that  she  believed 
that  the  woman  was  a  Communist.  Miss  Gidlow  admitted  having  been  a 
member  of  the  Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense  Committee.  She  stated  that 
Andree  Rexroth  had  once  asked  her  to  join  the  Communist  Party  but 
that  she  had  refused.  She  declared  that  she  was  ''definitely  opposed  to  the 
Communist  Party. ' ' 

The  committee  finds  that  the  officials  of  the  City  of  Fairfax  had  good 
reason  to  believe  that  the  Communist  Party  was  doing  its  level  best  to 
create  a  chaotic  situation  within  that  city.  Councilman  John  L.  Rock- 
weirs  record  indicates  his  sympathies  for  Communist  organizations,  indi- 
viduals and  causes.  He  offered  no  clear  cut  statement  concerning  his  own 
attitude  toward  Communists  or  the  Communist  Party. 

The  committee  finds  that  Elsa  Gidlow  was  affiliated  in  one  capacity 
or  another  with  the  following  Communist  organizations :  Western  Writers 
Congress,  Inter-Professional  Association,  John  Reed  Club,  Black  and 
White,  and  the  Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense  Committee. 

Some  Communist  front  organizations  cleverly  conceal  their  character 
by  the  use  of  high  sounding  names,  such  as  the  Western  Writers  Congress 
or  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy.  One  might  excusably 
plead  ignorance  in  joining  such  organizations.  The  members  of  this  com- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  7 

mittee,  however,  believe  that  membership  in  such  fronts  as  the  Citizens 
Committee  to  Free  Earl  Browder,  or  the  Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense 
Committee  is  prima  facie  evidence  of  sympathy  and  supporting  interest 
in  the  cause  represented  by  such  traitorous  individuals  as  Browder, 
Schneiderman,  and  Darcy.  No  person  in  his  good  sense  would  knowingly 
rush  to  the  defense  of  the  enemies  of  his  country.  A  person  would  have 
necessarily  been  a  moron  if  he  did  not  know  that  Schneiderman  and  Darcy 
were  Communists.  Certainly  Elsa  Gidlow  knew  that  she  was  supporting 
and  defending  Communists  when  she  became  a  member  of  the  Schneider- 
man-Darcy Defense  Committee.  She  does  not  contend  that  she  is  ignorant 
of  the  conspiratorial,  criminal  purpose  of  the  Communist  Party,  and  she 
wouldn  't  be  believed  if  she  made  such  an  assertion.  When  membership  in 
a  Communist  front,  such  as  the  Schneiderman-Darcy  Committee  is  estab- 
lished, and  it  is  then  shown  that  the  individual  in  question  is  affiliated 
with  other  Communist  fronts,  individuals  and  causes,  a  pattern  of  Com- 
munist fellow-traveling  immediately  follows  as  a  logical  conclusion. 

The  committee,  long  ago,  concluded  that  the  Red  Card  of  Communist 
membership  proved  nothing  more  than  formal  affiliation.  The  most 
important  Communists  are  not  issued  incriminating  documentary  evi- 
dence. The  real  test,  in  the  final  anaylsis,  is  activity.  When  an  individual 
is  known  to  be  associated  with  Communist  organizations,  individuals  and 
causes  over  a  period  of  years;  denounces  everything  but  Communism, 
condemns  the  United  States  while  praising  Soviet  Russia  together  with 
the  other  activities  advocated  by  the  Communist  Party,  that  individual 
is  a  Communist,  whether  he  has  a  book  signed  by  Joe  Stalin  or  not. 

The  committee  finds  that  the  Communist  Party  is  making  appreci- 
able headway  in  its  drive  in  Marin  County.  Advertisements  carried  in 
the  County's  papers  signed  by  R.  Hall  (Robin  Hall),  the  organizer  of 
the  Communist  Party  for  that  County,  illustrates  the  usual  Communist 
technique  in  its  "vanguard  role  of  the  proletariat." 

The  committee  observes  that  the  Rockwell-Gidlow  axis  in  the  City 
of  Fairfax  is  a  familiar  maneuver  of  Communist  Party  strategists.  Don 
Healy,  husband  of  Dorothy  Healy,  organizing  secretary  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  Los  Angeles  County  and  former  Communist  head  of 
Labors  Non-Partisan  League,  was  successful  in  securing  an  appoint- 
ment to  the  Planning  Commission  of  the  City  of  Los  Angeles. 

The  majority  of  the  members  of  the  City  Council,  City  of  Fairfax, 
Mayor  Charles  F.  Campbell  and  Councilman  Leslie  A.  Grosbauer,  are 
to  be  congratulated  on  their  vigilance  in  attacking  the  forces  that  are 
determined  to  destroy,  not  only  Fairfax  and  California,  but  the  United 
States  of  America  as  well. 

OAKLAND  HEARINGS 

The  committee  met  for  a  public  hearing  in  the  courthouse  in  Oak- 
land November  3  to  6,  1947.  The  committee  was  interested  in  probing  the 
personnel  and  structure  of  the  Alameda  County  Communist  Party.  It 
was  interested  in  the  functions  of  the  former  Communist  front,  the  Fed- 
eration of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chemist  and  Technicians,  now  the 
United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of  America.  Many  witnesses 
were  examined  in  reference  to  the  Communist  activities  within  the 
Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards,  C.I.O.  Among  those  who  were  questioned  at 


8  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

the  Oakland  hearing-  were  Carol  Barnes,  "William  Patrick  Brandhove, 
Haakon  Chevalier,  Richard  Gladstein,  Arthur  A.  Griffey,  David  Hedley, 
Walter  Hesse,  Martin  Kaplan,  Ruth  McGovney,  Sidney  Roger,  Rose 
Segure,  and  Eugene  Toopeekoff. 

The  over-all  purpose  of  the  Oakland  hearing  was  an  inquiry  into  the 
interlocking  directorate  and  personnel  of  a  network  of  Communist  front 
organizations  functioning  in  the  San  Francisco  Bay  area.  The  committee 
found  overwhelming  evidence  of  strong  Communist  links  between  cer- 
tain people  in  the  University  of  California,  the  California  Labor  School, 
the  Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards  Association,  the  former  Federation  of 
Architects,  Engineers,  Chemists  and  Technicians,  the  Communist  pub- 
lication, the  People's  Daily  World,  and  the  Communist  Party  generally. 

The  findings  of  the  committee  concerning  individuals  and  organiza- 
tions in  the  Oakland  inquiry  are  set  forth  under  their  respective  head- 
ings in  this  report. 

VERN  SMITH 

Vern  Smith,  a  former  member  of  the  editorial  staff  of  the  Communist 
publication,  the  People's  Daily  World,  was  subpenaed  to  testify  before 
the  committee  during  its  Oakland  hearing.  On  November  5,  1947,  Vern 
Smith  appeared  before  the  committee  but  refused  to  be  sworn  or  to 
testify.  The  following  is  from  the  committee's  transcript  of  testimony, 
Volume  XXXIII,  pages  294  to  302 : 

Mr.  Combs :  Will  Mr.  Vern  Smith  come  forward,  please  ? 

(Mr.  Smith  came  forward  and  stood  in  front  of  counsel  and 
the  committee.) 

Mr.  Smith:  I  wish  to  state  that  I  support  the  principles  of 
Communism  and  do  not  *  *  * 

Chairman  Tenney :  Mr.  Smith,  will  you  be  sworn  ? 

Mr.  Smith:  I  wish  to  state  that  I  support  the  principles  of 
Communism  and  do  not  speak  for  it. 

Chairman  Tenney :  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  about 
five  minutes. 

(Five  minutes  recess  taken) 

Chairman  Tenney :  All  right.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 
Is  Mr.  Smith  here,  Mr.  Vern  Smith  ?  The  committee  wishes  to  give 
him  another  opportunity  to  be  sworn  and  to  testify. 

(Mr.  Smith  came  forward.) 

Chairman  Tenney :  Will  you  be  sworn,  Mr.  Smith  ? 

Mr.  Smith:  I  will  object  to  this  committee  and  will  attempt  to 
read  this  statement  if  you  will  be  quiet  and  let  me,  instead  of  inter- 
rupting me  as  you  did  the  last  time. 

Chairman  Tenney:  Mr.  Combs,  Mr.  Smith  has  handed  you  a 
statement  in  which  he  makes  a  certain  declaration — I  think  it's  at 
the  end  of  the  statement;  the  last  two  lines.  Yes,  they  read:  "I 
therefore  refuse  to  answer  any  questions  by  the  Tenney  Committee 
or  to  be  sworn  as  a  witness  before  it. ' ' 

I  offer  this  as  an  exhibit,  the  next  number  in  order. 

(Received  in  evidence  and  marked  Exhibit  17.) 

Senator  Dilworth:  I  wish  the  record  to  show  that  Mr.  Smith 
is  present  and  listening. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Chairman  Tenney :  You  refuse  to  be  sworn,  Mr.  Smith  ? 

Senator  Dilworth:  I  think  it's  quite  obvious  that  he  refuses  to 
be  sworn. 

Senator  Sutton :  I  move  Mr.  Vern  Smith  be  placed  in  contempt  of 
this  committee  for  refusal  to  be  sworn,  being  under  subpena. 

Senator  Dilworth :  I  second  the  motion. 

Chairman  Tenney :  The  motion  is  that  Mr.  Smith  be  held  in  con- 
tempt of  the  committee  and  cited  therefor.  It  probably  means  we'll 
have  to  take  the  matter  up  with  the  entire  committee  before  enter- 
ing citations. 

Senator  Sutton :  Subcommittee  ? 

Chairman  Tenney:  All  in  favor  signify  by  saying  "Aye." 

(Voting) 

Chairman  Tenney:  Opposed? 

Chairman  Tenney:  The  motion  is  carried.  Mr.  Smith  will  be 
cited  for  contempt  by  the  entire  committee,  a  meeting  of  which  I 
will  call  in  the  next  week  or  two. 

Mr.  Combs :  Mr.  Chairman,  I  now  wish  to  offer  into  the  record 
the  evidence  that  I  had  prepared  to  introduce  through  questioning 
Mr.  Smith ;  the  information  that  we  have  concerning  this  prospective 
witness.  It  is  as  follows :  The  name  of  the  witness  is  Vern — it  was 
misspelled  on  the  subpena.  It  was  spelled  '  *  V-e-r-n-e. "  Our  record 
shows  it  should  have  been  spelled  ' '  V-e-r-n, ' '  and  our  records  on  him, 
which  we  would  have  endeavored  to  prove,  had  the  witness  con- 
sented to  be  sworn,  showed  in  1927,  1928,  Mr.  Smith  covered  the 
nation-wide  coal  strike  for  the  Workers  Press ;  that  in  1928  he  was 
the  editor  of  a  publication  called  "Labor  Unity,"  which  was  the 
organ  for  William  Z.  Foster,  now  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party 
of  the  United  States;  William  Foster's  organ,  known  as  the  "Trade 
Union  Educational  League/'  which  was  located  at  2  West  15th 
Street,  New  York  City,  and  in  the  issue  of  that  publication  for 
September,  1928,  Mr.  Earl  Browder  was  listed  as  Far  Eastern 
Correspondent.  In  1931  he  covered  the  Pennsylvania-Ohio  mine 
strike.  According  to  the  Daily  Worker  of  New  York  for  the — wait 
a  minute — yes,  the  third  day  of  November,  1931,  page  6,  a  person 
named  Vern  Smith  was  a  candidate  on  the  Communist  Party  ticket 
for  the  Assembly  from  Manhattan  County,  New  York.  Our  informa- 
tion doesn  't  show  whether  that  man,  that  person,  is  the  Vern  Smith 
who  is  here  present  today,  but  of  course  the  name  is  exactly  the  same. 

In  1932  he  covered  the  Lawrence  Textile  strike.  Through  1934, 
that  is,  from  1933  through  1934,  and  our  records  say  probably  1935, 
he  lived  and  worked  in  the  Soviet  Union  and  was  a  correspondent 
at  Moscow  for  the  Daily  Worker  of  New  York.  In  1937  he  resided 
in  Mexico.  On  December  20th  of  that  year,  1937,  the  Western 
Worker,  which  was  the  newspaper  which  preceded  the  People's 
Daily  World;  that  is,  in  December,  1937,  the  Western  Worker,  which 
up  to  that  time  had  carried  on  its  masthead  "Organ  for  the  Com- 
munist Party,"  and  in  parenthesis  "A  section  of  the  Communist 
International,"  went  out  of  business,  at  least  ostensibly,  and  the 
next  issue  was  called  the  "Daily  People's  World,"  of  course,  which 
it  still  is  called ;  but  the  masthead  of  the  Communist  Party  was  dis- 
continued at  that  time,  although  Mr.  Chairman — and  this  is  a 


10  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

parenthetical  remark,  but  I  think  an  important  one,  that  in  1945 — 
I  'm  quite  sure  it  was — we  had  a  hearing  in  San  Francisco,  at  which 
time  Mr.  William  Schneiderman  was  examined  by  me  in  connec- 
tion with  this  matter,  and  he  was  asked  whether  or  not  the  Daily 
People 's  World  was  the  official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party.  His 
answer  was  that  it  was  not.  He  was  then  asked  if  he  ever  heard  of 
a  publication  called  the  Party  Organizer  and  he  said  he  was  familiar 
with  it  and  identified  it  as  the  official  publication  of  the  National 
Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States.  Then 
those  issues  were  introduced  as  exhibits  and  it  was  stated  from  a 
source,  of  course,  higher  than  Mr.  Schneiderman,  who  was  Chair- 
man of  the  Communist  Party  of  California,  that  the  People's  Daily 
World  was  an  official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party.  Now,  the 
issue  that  I  mentioned,  that  is,  of  the  Western  Worker — on  Decem- 
ber 20,  1937,  it  was  announced  that  Vern  Smith  was  to  be  Labor 
Editor  of  the  People's  World.  On  May  22,  1938  Mr.  Smith  spoke 
at  a  forum  in  the  Green  Street  Theater  in  San  Francisco  on  Mexico, 
and  the  meeting  was  under  the  auspices  of  the  League  of  American 
Writers.  Now,  the  League  of  American  Writers  was,  on  the  twentieth 
day  of  May,  1942,  characterized  by  the  United  States  Department 
of  Justice  as  a  Communist  front  organization,  according  to  the 
Congressional  Record  of  the  United  States.  In  order  to  explain  it, 
the  organizations  listed  were  so  designated  as  Communist  fronts  by 
the  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States,  and  a  memorandum  to 
that  effect  was  given  to  the  executive  heads  of  the  various  depart- 
ments of  the  United  States  Government,  and  the  League  of  Ameri- 
can Writers,  which  sponsored  the  address  given  by  Mr.  Smith,  was 
included  in  that  list. 

Senator  Dilworth :  Could  I  see  that,  please  ? 

Mr.  Combs:  Yes,  of  course.  (Handing  document  to  Senator 
Dilworth.) 

Mr.  Combs:  Now,  on  March  14,  1939  the  People's  World 
announced  Mr.  Smith  had  been  indicted  by  the  Grand  Jury  of 
Shasta  County  for  violating  anti-picketing  ordinances  in  that  county. 
The  San  Francisco  Chronicle  for  September  27,  1939  announced  his 
ejection  from  the  40th  Annual  Convention  of  the  California  State 
Federation  of  Labor  in  Oakland,  after  the  privileges  of  the  conven- 
tion had  been  denied  to  representatives  of  the  Communist  press. 

On  April  2,  1941,  according  to  the  San  Francisco  Examiner, 
Mr.  Ben  Gitlow,  who  was  formerly  a  member  of  the  National  Com- 
mittee of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  testified  Mr. 
Smith  was  a  high  ranking  American  Communist.  Mr.  Smith,  inciden- 
tally, was  then  living  at  675  Linden  Street,  San  Francisco,  Califor- 
nia. Now,  Mr.  Chairman,  we  come  to  a  tie-in  between  Mr.  Smith  and 
the  San  Francisco  Workers  School.  I  have  here  an  official  announce- 
ment of  courses  at  the  fall  session  of  the  San  Francisco  Workers 
School,  675  Minna  Street,  San  Francisco,  California.  In  the  foreword 
this  statement  appears.  This  is  on  page  five,  and  I  'm  quoting :  ' '  It  is 
necessary  to  state  that  the  Workers  School  is  the  only  school  in  San 
Francisco  which  authoritatively  bases  its  education  on  the  theory 
of  Marxism — Leninism,  under  the  official  guidance  and  leadership 
of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  and  the  Communist 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  11 

International. "  I  also  have  an  official  announcement  of  the  San 
Francisco  Workers  School  for  1936.  The  one  I  just  referred  to  was 
1934.  It  was  then  located  at  121  Haight  Street,  San  Francisco,  Cali- 
fornia, which  was  the  address  of  the  Communist  Party  of  California. 

Now,  the  People's  World  for  May  22,  1942  states  that  Mr. 
Smith  is  the  Temporary  Trustee  of  the  New  Workers  School,  to 
be  established  in  San  Francisco. 

On  July  1,  1942  the  People's  World  announced  that  Mr.  Smith 
would  teach  during  the  winter  semester  at  the  Tom  Mooney  Labor 
School,  the  term  being  scheduled  to  commence  on  October  16th  of 
that  year,  1942. 

Now,  in  1943,  on  March  3d  of  that  year,  the  People's  World 
announced  that  Mr.  Smith  was  to  become  its  new  foreign  editor. 

On  March  15,  1943  the  same  publication,  People's  World, 
announced  he  was  teaching  history;  the  history  of  the  American 
labor  movement  at  the  Tom  Mooney  Labor  School  for  the  spring 
term  of  1943. 

On  August  7,  1943  the  People's  World  announced  that  Mr. 
Smith  would  speak  at  Fugazi  Hall,  North  Beach,  San  Francisco, 
under  the  auspices  pf  the  North  Beach  Branch  of  the  Communist 
Party  of  San  Francisco. 

On  September  2,  1943  the  same  publication,  the  Daily  People's 
World,  announced  that  Mr.  Smith  was  a  sponsor  of  Oleta  0  'Connor 
Yates,  Communist  Party  candidate  for  San  Francisco  Supervisor. 

On  April  7,  1945  the  People's  World  announced  Smith  would 
discuss  the  United  States  of  Soviet  Russia  at  the  San  Francisco  Labor 
School,  San  Francisco,  and  in  July,  1945  the  People's  World 
announced  he  would  teach  a  course  entitled,  and  I  'm  quoting, ' '  Our 
Allies — Britain,  China  and  the  Soviet  Union  in  World  Affairs,"  at 
the  California  Labor  School  in  Oakland. 

Chairman  Tenney:  Mr.  Combs,  I'd  like  to  announce  that  the 
Communists  are  paying  us  a  real  compliment — they  are  picketing 
the  courthouse  here.  We  will  recess  for  five  minutes.  (Five-minute 
recess.) 

Mr.  Combs :  The  next  citation  is  from  the  San  Francisco  Chron- 
icle for  August  3,  1945,  where  it  was  stated  that  Mr.  Smith  would 
analyze  the  news  at  the  California  Labor  School  in  San  Francisco. 
On  March  27, 1946,  the  People's  World  stated  that  he  was  still  foreign 
news  editor  for  that  publication. 

On  June  21,  1946,  the  People's  World  announced  he  would 
address  a  public  forum  in  Alameda  County  June  23d  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Communist  Party,  Alameda  County. 

Now,  on  August  28,  1946,  the  People's  World  announced  Mr. 
Smith  had  been  discharged  from  the  staff  of  that  newspaper  because 
of  his  disagreement  with  its  policies  and  on  the  next  day,  August  29, 
1946,  the  People's  World  announced  he  had  been  expelled  from  the 
Communist  Party  because  of  his  basic  disagreement  with  party  poli- 
cies and  principles,  and  his  participation  in  factional  and  slanderous 
attacks  against  the  party  leadership.  He  was  then  replaced,  according 
to  the  People's  World,  by  a  man  named  George  Lohr,  as  foreign  news 
editor.  The  committee  has  been  informed  that  Mr.  Smith  having  been 
expelled — was  expelled  from  the  Communist  Party  because  of  the 


12  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

fact  that  his  own  individual  attitude  was  more  revolutionary  than 
that  of  the  orthodox  party  to  which  he  had  been  affiliated,  and  for 
that  reason  he  was  expelled,  and  that  he  thereafter  formed  an  organi- 
zation in  San  Francisco  known  as  the  Committee  for  Correspondence. 
And  the  members  of  that  committee  comprised  individuals  who  had 
been  expelled  from  the  Communist  Party. 

Chairman  Tenney :  I  think  we  should  note  at  that  point,  Mr. 
Combs,  that  the  committee  is  also  aware  of  the  report  that  the  expul- 
sion of  Mr.  Smith  is  more  or  less  of  a  phony  move  on  the  part  of  the 
Communist  Party  for  rather  sinister  purposes.  Just  what  the  reason 
is  we  're  not  quite  sure,  but  we  have  a  lot  of  information. 

Mr.  Combs :  We  are  also  informed  that  the  orthodox  Communist 
Party  planted  a  so-called  informant  or  stool-pigeon,  in  Mr.  Smith's 
committee  and  that  Mr.  Smith  discovered  who  that  individual  was 
and  a  great  deal  of  internal  strife  ensued.  We  have  the  name  of  the 
individual  who  was  planted  in  that  organization.  We  also  find  that 
Mr.  Sam  Darcy,  who  along  about  1934  was  extremely  active  in  San 
Francisco,  with  Mr.  Schneiderman,  as  a  party  official,  and  who  is 
also  an  expelled  Communist.  His  real  name  is  Dardek.  Our  informa- 
tion is  that  Mr.  Smith  and  Mr.  Sam  Darcy  have  been  in  correspond- 
ence quite  recently.  Now,  I  believe  that 's  all  I  care,  Mr.  Chairman,  to 
put  into  the  record  at  this  particular  time  concerning  the  witness, 
or  prospective  witness,  Mr.  Vern  Smith,  who  is,  I  might  add,  living 
in  San  Francisco  on  Chestnut  Street.  I  might  also  add  that  we 
endeavored  to  serve  Mr.  Smith  with  a  subpena  a  year  ago  when  we 
had  our  meeting  in  Oakland,  and  we  were  unable  to  locate  him,  so 
that 's  just  all  I  have  in  connection  with  Mr.  Smith. 

Chairman  Tenney :  The  chair  will  tentatively  set  November  10th 
at  10  o  'clock  in  the  morning  at  the  State  Building  in  Los  Angeles  for 
a  meeting  of  the  entire  committee.  I  make  the  announcement  tenta- 
tively because  all  of  the  members  of  the  committee  must  be  present. 

At  the  committee's  executive  meeting  in  Los  Angeles  on  November 
10, 1947,  the  following  resolution  was  introduced  by  Senator  Sutton : 

WHEREAS,  The  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  was  by  Senate  Resolution  No.  75  of  the  1947  Regular  Session 
of  the  Legislature  of  California  created  and  authorized  and  directed  to 
investigate,  ascertain,  study  and  analyze  all  facts  directly  or  indirectly 
relating  to  activities  of  groups  and  organizations  whose  members  include 
persons  who  are  members  of  organizations  which  have  as  their  objectives, 
or  part  of  their  objectives,  the  overthrow  of  the  governments  of  the  State 
of  California  or  of  the  United  States  by  force  and  violence  or  other 
unlawful  means,  all  organizations  known  or  suspected  to  be  dominated  or 
controlled  by  a  foreign  power  which  activities  affect  the  conduct  of  this 
State  in  national  defense,  the  functioning  of  any  state  agency,  or  the 
conversion  of  the  State  from  a  wartime  economy  to  a  peacetime  economy, 
or  affect  the  economic  and  social  problems  incidental  thereto,  including 
but  not  limited  to  the  operation,  effect,  administration,  enforcement  and 
needed  revision  of  any  and  all  laws  in  any  way  bearing  upon  or  relating 
to  the  subject  of  the  resolution  creating  this  committee,  and  to  report 
thereon  to  the  Senate ;  and 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  13 

WHEREAS,  It  appears  to  this  committee  that  Vern  Smith  is  a  former 
news  editor  of  the  People's  World  and  formerly  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  and  was  discharged  from  his  position  with  the  People's 
World  and  was  expelled  from  membership  in  the  Communist  Party 
for  reasons  which  this  committee  believes  were  for  purposes  of  subter- 
fuge ;  and 

WHEREAS,  It  appears  that  Vern  Smith  formed  an  organization, 
known  as  the  Committee  of  Correspondence,  which  organization  holds 
meetings  and  engages  in  activities  which  this  committee  believes  are  for 
purposes  of  propaganda ;  and 

WHEREAS,  This  committee  caused  a  subpena  to  be  issued  to  Vern 
Smith,  directing  him  to  appear  at  Room  8  in  the  Alameda  County  Court- 
house, Oakland,  California,  at  the  hour  of  10  a.m.  on  Wednesday,  the  fifth 
day  of  November,  1947,  as  a  witness ;  and 

WHEREAS,  The  said  subpena  was  duly  served  upon  Vern  Smith  in  San 
Francisco  County,  by  Thomas  Fitzpatrick,  Jr.,  on  the  thirty-first  day  of 
October,  1947 ;  and 

WHEREAS,  Vern  Smith  appeared  before  the  committee  at  the  time 
and  place  specified  in  the  subpena  but  wilfully  refused  to  be  sworn  after 
being  directed  so  to  do  by  the  chairman  of  the  committee,  or  to  answer  any 
question ;  and 

WHEREAS,  It  further  appears  that  such  questions  are  material  and 
proper  to  the  investigation  now  being  conducted  by  this  committee ;  and 

WHEREAS,  It  appears  that  the  refusal  of  Vern  Smith  to  be  sworn  is 
wilful  and  contemptuous,  and  without  lawful  or  any  other  excuse  what- 
soever ;  now,  therefore,  be  it 

Resolved  ~by  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities,  That  the  attorney  for  the  committee,  R.  E.  Combs,  is  hereby 
instructed  to  report  the  facts  of  Mr.  Smith 's  wilful  refusal  to  be  sworn 
before  this  committee  to  the  District  Attorney  of  Alameda  County,  and 
to  take  such  other  steps  in  relation  thereto,  including  the  formal  signing 
of  any  complaint  which  may  be  necessary,  in  order  to  prosecute  Vern 
Smith  to  the  full  extent  permitted  by  law  for  his  failure  to  obey  the  lawful 
orders  of  this  committee  and  in  particular  for  his  apparent  violation  of 
Section  9412  of  the  Government  Code  of  the  State  of  California. 

Senator  Sutton  moved  the  adoption  of  the  foregoing  resolution  and 
his  motion  was  seconded  by  Senator  Burns.  All  of  the  members  of  the 
committee  were  present  and  the  resolution  was  adopted  unanimously. 

The  district  attorney's  office  in  Oakland  is  presently  preparing  a 
complaint  in  compliance  with  the  foregoing  resolution. 

LOS  ANGELES  HEARINGS 

The  committee  opened  public  hearings  in  the  Assembly  Chambers, 
State  Building,  in  Los  Angeles,  on  Monday,  February  16,  1948.  The  pur- 
pose of  this  hearing  was  similar  to  that  of  the  Oakland  hearing.  The  evi- 
dence adduced  supported  the  findings  of  the  Oakland  hearings  and 
revealed  the  interlocking  directorate  and  control  of  man}'-  Communist 
front  organizations  in  Los  Angeles  County.  Those  who  were  subpenaed 
and  testified  at  the  Los  Angeles  hearings  were :  Aileen  LaBelle,  Dr.  Helen 
Hall  Moreland,  Louis  Schwartz,  William  Axelrod,  Virginia  Gardner, 
Frank  Spector,  Ben  Richman,  H.  L.  Mitchell,  Henry  Hasiwar,  Katharine 


14  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

McTernan,  Roman  Bohnen,  Rose  Hobart,  Louis  Spector,  Ira  Gershwin, 
J.  Edward  Bromberg,  Will  Lee,  Mrs.  Frederic  March,  and  Erick  Lionel 
Pridinoff.  United  States  District  Court  Judge  Leon  R.  Yankwich  was 
not  subpenaed  to  appear  before  the  committee  but  appeared  voluntarily 
February  19, 1948. 

APPRECIATION  AND  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The  committee  wishes  to  express  its  deep  gratitude  to  the  many  indi- 
viduals and  organizations  who  have  assisted  the  committee  with  its 
extremely  difficult  task.  It  would  be  impossible  to  list  the  names  of  all 
these  individuals  and  organizations  in  this  report,  but  the  committee 
extends  its  thanks  and  acknowledgment  to  each  of  them. 

The  city  and  county  officials  of  Fairfax,  Marin  County;  Oakland, 
Alameda  County ;  and  Los  Angeles  were  courteous  and  cooperative.  The 
California  highway  authorities  and  members  were  helpful  on  all  occa- 
sions. Great  assistance  was  given  the  committee  and  its  attaches  by  the 
sheriff's  staff  and  the  city  police  department  in  San  Francisco.  The  sher- 
iff's office  in  Los  Angeles  assisted  cheerfully  and  efficiently  in  serving 
subpenas.  The  Los  Angeles  Police  Department  was  especially  cooperative 
and  the  courtesy  and  gentlemanly  efficiency  of  the  officers  who  were 
assigned  to  the  committee's  Los  Angeles  public  hearing  reflected  credit 
and  honor  on  the  city 's  chief  and  on  the  entire  department. 

The  committee  is  deeply  indebted  to  its  staff.  To  those  anonymous, 
who  for  obvious  reasons,  must  yet  remain  unnamed,  the  committee 
extends  its  thanks  for  efforts  expended  and  assignments  accomplished. 

The  committee  commends  the  work  of  its  counsel,  R.  E.  Combs  of 
Visalia,  and  wishes  to  publicly  express  its  appreciation  for  his  patriotic 
services. 

Murray  Stravers,  executive  secretary  to  the  committee,  has  been 
tireless  in  his  devotion  to  the  committee 's  work  and  has  rendered  invalu- 
able service. 

The  committee  is  deeply  appreciative  of  the  work  of  Mrs.  Linnie 
Tenney,  who  has  served  as  committee  secretary  without  compensation. 
For  the  many  long  hours  spent  in  transcribing  the  stenographic  notes 
of  this  report,  the  committee  extends  its  gratitude.  To  Mrs.  Gertrude 
Goodman,  who  has  efficiently  brought  the  committee's  files  up  to  date, 
thus  bringing  order  out  of  chaos,  goes  honorable  mention  and  the  com- 
mittee 's  thanks. 

The  participation  of  the  many  patriotic,  fraternal,  civic  and  service 
organizations  represented  in  the  Citizen's  Advisory  Committee,  men- 
tioned elsewhere  in  this  report,  indicates  the  splendid  cooperation  and 
assistance  tendered  this  committee  by  such  groups. 

The  newspapers  of  California,  as  in  the  past,  have  been  cooperative, 
fair  and  accurate  in  reporting  the  committee's  activities.  The  exception 
(including,  of  course,  the  Communist  press),  has  been  the  Sacramento 
Union.  The  Sacramento  Union  has  been  actually  inaccurate,  antagonistic, 
and  unfair. 

Again,  the  Hearst  papers — the  San  Francisco  and  Los  Angeles 
Examiners,  San  Francisco  Call-Bulletin,  Los  Angeles  Herald-Express 
and  the  Oakland  Post-Enquirer — the  Los  Angeles  Times,  the  Oakland 
Tribune,  the  McClatchy  papers,  Sacramento  Bee,  Fresno  Bee,  and  the 


UN-AMEEICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  15 

Modesto  Bee,  and  the  Hollywood  Citizen  News,  have  been  in  the  forefront 
of  newspapers  representing  the  finest  in  patriotism  and  understanding  of 
America 's  greatest  menace.  This  same  statement  can  be  made  for  the  over- 
whelming majority  of  California 's  rural  newspapers. 

To  this  group  of  outstanding  California  journals  must  be  added 
the  Criterion,  a  patriotic,  hard-hitting  American-Negro  newspaper  in 
Los  Angeles.  Its  clean-cut  Americanism,  clear-thinking  analysis  of 
American  problems,  and  its  understanding  of  the  methods  of  the  subver- 
sive elements  that  would  destroy  the  United  States,  is  refreshing  and 
encouraging.  Arnold  Scott,  Jeanne  Severins,  and  Essex  G.  Jenkins  have 
made  a  real  contribution  to  fine  journalism  and  real  Americanism  in 
giving  Los  Angeles  the  Criterion. 

CITIZENS'  ADVISORY  COMMITTEE 

In  its  executive  meeting  of  November  10,  1947,  in  Los  Angeles,  the 
committee  unanimously  adopted  a  resolution  introduced  by  Senators 
Watson  and  Kraft.  The  resolution  is  as  follows : 

Resolved  that  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-Ameri- 
can Activities  in  California  select  from  patriotic  and  fraternal  organ- 
izations which  have  heretofore  shown  an  interest  in  combatting 
un-American  activities  in  California  and  the  United  States,  an  advis- 
ory committee,  to  meet,  consult  and  advise  with  this  committee. 
Pursuant  to  the  foregoing  resolution  an  advisory  group  was  created 
and  met  with  this  committee  in  the  auditorium  of  the  State  Building  in 
Los  Angeles  on  Sunday,  February  15,  1948,  at  1.30  p.m.  The  committee 
had  approved  the  following  as  members  of  the  Citizens'  Advisory  Com- 
mittee : 

James  T.  Allen,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
David  L.  Anderson,  representing  Catholic  War  Veterans  of  the 
United  States, 

Mrs.  W.  B.  Arndt,  representing  the  Ebell  Club  of  Los  Angeles, 
Marion  Ashton,  representing  the  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Bernard  K.  Bakewell,  representing  the  Trowel  Club, 
Philip  Bancroft,  Jr.,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 
"William  Bernfeld,  representing  Southern  California  Retail  Drug- 
gists' Assn.  Ltd., 

John  L.  Bland,  representing  Improved  Order  of  Red  Men, 
A.  M.  Blumberg,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  U.  S., 
Mrs.    Delor    Bombardier,    representing    Catholic    Daughters    of 
America, 

Allan  J.  Bradshaw,  representing  Anchor  Club, 
Roy  M.  Brewer,  representing  International  Alliance  of  Theatrical 
Stage  Employees,  A.  F.  of  L., 

L.  E.  Brown,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Karl  C.  Brueck,  representing  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
Ella  Bryan,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Mrs.  Charles  D.  Burt,  representing  the  Ebell  Club  of  Los  Angeles, 
J.  P.  Butler,  representing  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 
James  T.  Byrne,  representing  Anchor  Club, 

Dr.  Reynaldo  Carreon,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 


16  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Dr.  Vincent  P.  Carroll,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Jose  Carvajol,  representing  Catholic  War  Veterans  of  the  United 
States, 

Vernon  C.  Cash,  representing  Knights  of  Pythias, 
Borden  Chase,  representing  Motion  Picture  Alliance  for  the  Preser- 
vation of  American  Ideals, 

Ralph   Clare,   representing  International  Alliance   of  Theatrical 
Stage  Employees, 

Mrs.  Betty  Cleary,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  Julius  Cohen,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  U.  S. 
Hon.  David  Coleman,  representing  B  'Nai  B  'Rith, 
Mrs.  Frank  Collins,  representing  Catholic  Daughters  of  America, 
Mrs.  Bessie  Cooper,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  Joseph  0.  Costello,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Genevieve   Cramer,   representing   Catholic   War  Veterans  of  the 
United  States, 

Loren  Critser,  representing  Lions  International, 
Diana  Curtis,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  Edward  W.  Davidson,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Ralph  E.  Davis,  representing  California  Association  of  Private 
Investigators,  Inc., 

Willard  B.  Davis,  representing  Round  Table,  International, 
Howard  H.  Desky,  representing  B  'Nai  B'Rith, 
Mrs.  Ann  H.  Dippel,  representing  Native  Daughters  of  Golden  West, 
Captain  Lester  J.  Divine,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Mrs.  Jean  Edelstein,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  U.  S., 
A.  E.  Eickholt,  representing  American  Legion, 
Major  E.  E.  Eiler,  representing  AMVETS, 
Jesse  Elliot,  representing  Improved  Order  of  Red  Men, 
Mrs.  Eva  0.  Enger,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  J.  Gordon  Epperson,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Edward  A.  Erickson,  representing  California  State  Association  of 
Life  Underwriters,  Inc., 

Mary  Files,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
G.  W.  Fisher,  representing  American  Legion, 
James  A.  Fleming,  representing  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars, 
S.  Parker  Frisselle,  representing  California  State  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, 

James  J.  Gambs,  representing  American  Legion, 
Hon.  Chester  F.  Gannon,  representing  American  Legion, 
Dr.  Don  C.  Garn,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Association, 
Walter  Gaspar,  representing  American  Legion, 
Dr.  H.  M.  Ginsburg,  representing  B'Nai  B'Rith, 
Dr.  Charles  H.  Glass,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
John  A.  Graham,  representing  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
Mark  Green,  representing  Los  Angeles  Acacia  Club, 
Miss  Geraldine  B.  Hadsell,  representing  the  E~bell  Club  of  Los 
Angeles, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  17 

Arthur  B.   Hammer,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  the 
United  States, 

Lou  Hammer,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  the  United 
States, 

Harvey   Harris,   representing  Educational   Committee   on  Amer- 
icanism, 

Esther  Hendrickson,  representing  Ladies  Auxiliary  of  Veterans  of 
Foreign  Wars, 

Bernard  G.  Hiss,  representing  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West, 
John  M.  Hoffman,  representing  Lions  International, 
C.  C.  Holloway,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Marguerite  Horn,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Paul  Huff,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 

Dr.  Herk  L.  Hutchins  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Dr.  Leta  B.  Jackson,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Associa- 
tion, 

Ed  James,  representing  Educational  Committee  on  Americanism, 
Bernice  Johndrew,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Ernest  Johnson,  representing  Knights  of  Pythias, 
Ruth  Johnson,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  James  M.  Keating,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Miss  Emma  Kircher,  representing  Catholic  Daughters  of  America, 
Bert  Kirkpatrick,  representing  Ancient  Egyptian  Order  of  Sciots, 
Mary  Kister,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Mrs.  Dana  Kleinke,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Harper  Knowles,  representing  American  Legion, 
Dr.  John  C.  Knowlton,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Jane  Krause,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
James  V.  Lawry,  representing  California  State  Association  of  Life 
Underwriters,  Inc., 

Dr.    John  R.    Lechner,    representing    Americanism    Educational 
League, 

Rena  Leigh,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Ernest  J.  Loebbecke,  representing  Kiivanis  International, 
William  Luton,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 
William  P.  Mahedy,  representing  Catholic  War  Veterans  of  the 
United  States, 

Mrs.  Tim  Malony,  representing  Catholic  Daughters  of  America, 
Jean  Mathias,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  the  United 
States, 

Dave  May,  representing  American  Legion, 
Mrs.  Lou  Meier,  representing  Catholic  Daughters  of  America, 
Herman  Mellman,  representing  AMVETS, 
E.  A.  Merritt,  representing  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 
Eldred  L.  Meyer,  representing  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West, 
Lome  D.  Middough,  representing  Educational  Committee  on  Amer- 
icanism, 

Homer  B.  Miller,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Jess  H.  Miller,  representing  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West, 
Charles  E.  Millikan,  representing  Kiwanis  International, 

3— L-7088-D 


18  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Dr.  Joseph  L.  Molle,  representing  California  Chiropractic  Associa- 
tion, 

Mae  Monteleone,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Frankie  Moore,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  Thomas  L.  Morgan,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Marie  Murphy,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
W.  K.  Murphy,  representing  California  State  Association  of  Life 
Underwriters,  Inc., 

Virginia  McClelland,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
John  J.  McDonald,  representing  Lions  International, 
Fred  McGrew,  representing  American  Legion, 
A.  Harold  Noon,  representing  Catholic  War  Veterans  of  the  United 
States, 

Phil  Ohanneson,  representing  Rotary  International, 
Mrs.  J.  Henry  Orme,  representing  the  Ebell  Club  of  Los  Angeles, 
Barbour  Klawans  Parker,  representing  Ladies  Auxiliary  of  Veterans 
of  Foreign  Wars, 

William  H.  Parker,  representing  Anchor  Club, 
Judge  C.  E.  Pecht,  representing  American  Legion, 
Miss  Genevieve  Penna,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Dr.  Willard  W.  Percy,  representing  California  Chiropractic  Asso- 
ciation, 

James  H.  Phillips,  representing  Kiwanis  International, 
George  G.  Pollock,  representing  California  State  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, 

Waldo  F.  Postel,  representing  Ancient  Egyptian  Order  of  Sciots, 
Dr.  Edward  C.  Poulsen,  representing  California  Chiropractic  Asso- 
ciation, 

L.  D.  Pratt,  representing  California  Manufacturers  Association, 
Jules  0.  Pritchard,  representing  Knights  of  Pythias, 
Mrs.  Lucile  Quiel,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
John  T.  Regan,  representing  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West, 
Neil  W.  Reid,  representing  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
Mrs.  Katherine  Rosek,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
C.  L.  Roy  Rudine,  representing  Lions  International, 
H.  Gatch  Runyan,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Dr.  Harry  R.  Salisbury,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Asso- 
ciation, 

Ruth  Sails,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Frederick  A.  Schnell,  representing  California  State  Association  of 
Life  Underwriters,  Inc., 

Allison  E.  Schofield,  representing  AMVETS, 
Frank  Dee  Scriven,  representing  AMVETS, 

Edward  A.  Seeley,  representing  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
Dr.  Earl  Shackelford,  representing  California  Osteopathic  Associa- 
tion, 

Barney  Shain,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  United  States, 
Samuel  Shannon,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 
Frank  M.  Shay,  representing  California  State  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, 

Max  Singer,  representing  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  19 

Mrs.  Esther  Skoglund,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Prentice  G.  Smith,  representing  AMVETS, 
Earl  Smittcamp,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 
Col.  Henry  Sommer,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  United 
States, 

Grant  F.  Soper,  representing  Anchor  Club, 

Miss  Grace  S.  Stoermer,  representing  Native  Daughters  of  Golden 
West, 

Jean  Strobel,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 
A.  J.  Sturtevant,  representing  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation. 
Genevieve  Sutherland,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Frank  Thornton,  representing  Catholic  War  Veterans  of  United 
States, 

Merle  Toby,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Ford  M.  Tussing,  representing  California  Manufacturers  Associa- 
tion, 

Edward  R.  Valentine,  representing  California  State  Chamber  of 
Commerce, 

Mrs.  Zella  Venable,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Joseph  A.  Vurgason,  representing  California  Newspaper  Publishers 
Association, 

Carl  Wallace,  representing  Educational  Committee  on  Americanism, 
Leon  Warmke,  representing  American  Legion, 
John  S.  Watson,  representing  California  State  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, 

Keegan  Watson,  representing  Associated  Farmers, 
Marguerita  Westmoreland,  representing  American  Legion  Auxil- 
iary, 

Charles  H.  Widdows,  representing  Round  Table  International, 
Martel  Wilson,  representing  California  State  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
Mrs.  T.  E.  Wilson,  representing  American  Legion  Auxiliary, 
Max  Wolman,  representing  Jewish  War  Veterans, 
George  Ziegler,   representing  Educational   Committee   on  Amer- 
icanism. 

Of  the  foregoing  a  majority  of  the  Southern  California  members 
were  present.  After  preliminary  introductions  and  a  statement  of 
purpose  by  the  chairman,  the  advisory  committee  met  and  organized. 
Dr.  John  Lechner  was  made  temporary  chairman,  and  other  temporary 
officers  were  elected. 

The  committee  plans  to  hold  a  meeting  in  San  Francisco  for  the 
members  of  the  advisory  committee  who  reside  in  the  northern  part  of 
the  State,  immediately  upon  adjournment  of  the  Legislature.  It  is  felt 
that  the  advice  of  this  broad  representative  group  will  prove  of  great 
assistance  to  the  Senate  committee. 

The  foregoing  list  of  members  of  the  advisory  committee  is  just 
a  start.  The  members  of  the  Senate  committee  are  hopeful  that  every 
interested  organization  will  be  represented  on  the  advisory  committee 
before  the  end  of  the  year.  All  interested  groups  are  invited  to  participate 
and  the  list  here  presented  was  only  limited  because  of  the  shortness  of 
time  between  the  decision  of  the  committee  and  its  first  joint  meeting 
in  Los  Angeles. 


20  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

It  is  intended  to  divide  the  committee  into  northern  and  southern 
groups  so  that  no  individual  member  will  be  put  to  expense  in  attending 
meetings. 

IS  AMERICA  BLIND? 

The  committee  submits  an  editorial  from  the  Banning  Live  Wire, 
published  at  78  South  San  Gorgonio  in  the  City  of  Banning.  The  editorial 
is  entitled  "Is  America  Blind?,"  and  reads  as  follows: 

It  is  an  ironical  fact  that  American  Communists  and  fellow 
travelers  always  scream  to  high  heaven  about  their  constitutional 
rights  when  called  to  the  witness  stand.  They  fervidly  embrace  the 
protections  which  the  communist  ideology,  by  its  very  essence,  is 
determined  to  destroy. 

They  have,  of  course,  a  perfect  right  to  do  this — the  Constitu- 
tion was  drawn  to  defend  the  liberties  of  people  of  all  political 
faiths,  all  races,  and  all  creeds.  But  there  is  a  grim  humor  in  seeing 
it  used  as  a  defense  by  men  and  women  who  would  destroy  it. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  the  individual,  there  is  little  difference 
between  a  communist,  a  nazi,  a  fascist,  or  a  falangist  government. 
Every  kind  of  totalitarian  state  is  built  on  the  same  set  of  principles. 
Every  one  of  them  says,  in  effect,  that  the  state  is  supreme  and  that 
the  individual  is  nothing.  There  can  be  no  such  thing  as  personal 
liberty — the  right  to  do,  think  and  speak  what  one  pleases.  They  are 
concerned  with  men  and  women  only  in  the  mass — as  millions  of 
slaves  who  may  be  used  ruthlessly  to  advance  the  purpose  of  the 
state. 

In  this  Country,  the  totalitarian  forces  are  small  in  number. 
But  they  are  extremely  well  organized,  and  they  are  adept  at  decep- 
tion and  deceit.  They  are  skilled  at  waving  the  Flag,  and  at  demand- 
ing in  the  name  of  Democracy  measures  which  would  destroy 
Democracy.  They  are  solidly  behind  every  project  which  would 
weaken  free  enterprise,  which  would  increase  industrial  strife,  and 
which  would  pit  class  against  class.  The  boring  from  within  tech- 
nique has  been  detailed  and  perfected  by  the  advocates  of  the  super- 
state from  Marx  on  down.  It  is  an  essential  prelude  to  revolution 
and  internal  chaos  which  permits  a  "strong  man"  to  sieze  power. 

A  nation  can  save  itself  from  ultimate  dictatorship  in  only  one 
way — by  aggressively  fighting  every  movement  which  would  in  any 
way  circumscribe  economic  and  social  freedom.  There  can  be  no 
such  thing  as  a  limited  freedom.  We  will  have  all  or  none.  The 
forces  of  totalitarianism  count  heavily  upon  American  blindness 
and  tolerance  as  an  aid  to  their  work.  The  American  people  must 
prove  them  mistaken. 

THE  COMMUNIST  PARTY  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 
IS  AN  AGENT  OF  SOVIET  RUSSIA 

^  The  committee  unanimously  finds  that  the  Communist  Party  of  the 
United  States  is  the  agent  of  the  Soviet  Government  and  its  totalitarian 
dictator,  Josef  Stalin.  The  committee  finds  that  the  Communist  Party 
is,  in  no  sense,  a  domestic  political  party. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  21 

The  committee  finds  that,  since  its  inception  in  September  1919  to 
the  present  day,  the  communist  movement  in  the  United  States  is — 

(1)  An  organization  operating  under  centralized  discipline 
subordinated  to  the  Communist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union,  the  single 
and  ruling  party  of  that  country ; 

(2)  A  section  of  a  World  Communist  Party,  controlled  by  the 
Communist  Party  of  the  Soviet  Union ; 

(3)  An  organization  whose  basic  aim,  whether  open  or  con- 
cealed, is  the  abolition  of  our  present  economic  system  and  Republi- 
can form  of  government  and  the  establishment  of  a  Soviet  dictator- 
ship in  its  place ; 

(4)  An  organization  resorting  to  deception,  evasion,  illegal 
methods,  violence,  and  civil  war ;  methods  implicit  in  its  revolution- 
ary purpose ;  and 

(5)  An  organization  whose  members  owe  their  first  allegiance 
to  Soviet  Russia,  and  who  will,  if  directed  by  the  dictatorship  in 
Moscow,  utilize  every  method  of  espionage,  sabotage,  and  treachery 
against  the  United  States  and  its  institutions. 

The  major  part  of  this  report  deals  with  organizations  found  to  be 
under  the  control  of  the  Communist  Party.  In  view  of  the  above  finding 
of  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
California,  the  significance  of  these  groups  as  agents  of  the  Soviet  Union 
become  extremely  important. 


Parti 
ANALYSIS  OF  COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 

The  committee  has  determined  that  the  most  important  continuing 
functions  of  the  Community  Party  in  a  nation  not  yet  dominated  by  a 
Red  Fascist  dictatorship,  are  to  defend  the  Communist  holy  land,  Soviet 
Russia,  and  to  prepare  the  way  for  the  time  when  the  Communist  leaders 
shall  decide  that  circumstances  justify  an  open  bid  for  power  through 
violent  revolution  and  establishment  of  a  "dictatorship  of  the  pro- 
letariat". 

In  contrast  to  the  blindness  and  apathy  of  citizens  who  are  opposed 
to  Communism,  the  R-ed  Fascists  do  not  delude  themselves  that  their  two 
basic  functions  can  be  carried  on  effectively  by  making  speeches  and 
passing  resolutions. 

Communists  work  day  and  night  at  the  practical  job  of  infiltrating 
existing  organizations,  so  that  they  may  be  in  a  position  to  manipulate 
it  to  their  purpose.  They  are  busy  creating  new  organizations  for  their 
purpose  when  none  exist. 

Behind  a  propaganda  barrage  of  progress,  reform  and  liberal  slogans, 
the  Communists  steadily  pursue  a  formal,  dogmatic,  organized  program 
of  infiltration  into,  and  creation  of,  mass  organizations,  because  they  are 
studious,  fanatical  and  single-minded  in  their  service  to  Soviet  foreign 
policy  and  the  preparation  for  revolution  in  the  country  where  they 
live. 

The  committee  has  carried  on  a  continuous  program  of  investigation, 
research  and  public  exposure  of  Communism  and  of  the  methods  that 
Communists  inevitably  must  pursue  to  work  toward  their  self -declared 
objectives. 

In  its  public  reports,  issued  in  1943,  1945  and  1947,  the  committee 
has  sought  to  present  to  the  people  of  California  a  clear,  unbiased  state- 
ment of  the  purposes  and  objectives,  the  tactics  and  methods  of  world 
Communism,  of  Communist  organizations  in  the  United  States;  and 
particularly,  of  Communist  organizations  in  California. 

Since  1941  the  committee  has  procured  and  made  available  to  the 
people  of  California  a  huge  mass  of  factual  material,  taken  from  official 
Communist  documents,  publications,  textbooks,  communications  and 
confidential  party  instructions  and  decisions. 

In  addition,  the  accumulated  testimony  of  witnesses  now  consists  of 
10,000  pages  of  sworn  testimony,  contained  in  41  transcript  volumes  and 
augmented  by  an  unusually  voluminous  number  of  exhibits. 

Sworn  testimony  of  known  Communist  functionaries  has  been  com- 
bined with  authorized  Communist  texts  into  a  record  that  reveals,  beyond 
question  or  dispute,  the  theories,  purposes,  objectives,  techniques  and 
methods  of  Communism. 

From  this  mass  of  testimony  and  documentation,  the  committee  has 
selected  the  most  indispensable  material  for  inclusion  within  the  limited 
space  afforded  in  three  biennial  reports.  Because  of  the  current  nature  of 
the  organizations  and  issues  that  have  been  under  investigation,  it  hith- 
erto has  not  been  possible  to  present  a  specific,  complete  explanation  and 

(23) 


24  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

compilation  on  the  subject  of  the  front  organization  as  a  major  weapon 
in  the  arsenal  of  Communist  plotting  and  intrigue. 

The  committee  is  of  the  opinion,  therefore,  that  one  of  the  most 
important  services  it  can  render  the  Members  of  the  Legislature  and  the 
people  of  California  at  this  time  is  to  present  a  definitive  explanation  of 
the  Communist  front  organization ;  an  analysis  which  will  provide,  within 
one  concise  and  factual  compilation,  the  material  that  public  officials, 
police  agencies,  journalists  and  leaders  of  all  organized  segments  of  the 
community  must  have  readily  available  to  them  in  authoritative  form  if 
they  are  to  carry  out  their  obligations  to  their  organizations,  their  State 
and  their  Nation  in  meeting  the  problems  raised  by  the  Red  Fascist  con- 
spiracy within  the  United  States. 

For  the  documented,  detailed  reports,  the  Members  of  the  Legislature 
and  the  citizens  of  California  are  referred  to  the  committee 's  1943,  1945, 
and  1947  reports. 

WHY  COMMUNISTS  NEED  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 

Communists  become  Communists  to  do  something,  not  merely  to  join 
and  meet  together.  Regardless  of  how  critical  the  citizen  of  any  country 
may  be  of  policies,  conditions  and  leadership  within  that  country,  he 
thinks  a  long  time  before  he  faces  the  naked  fact  of  revolution  through 
violence.  Communists  know  this ;  and  consequently,  while  the  hard  core 
of  veteran  revolutionaries  who  run  Communist  Parties  are  working 
toward  the  twin  goals  of  serving  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  and 
preparing  for  revolutionary  seizure  of  power  in  their  own  country,  they 
seek  to  carry  out  these  twin  programs  through  subterfuge  and  trickery. 
They  have  become  adept  in  playing  on  the  individual 's  ambitions  and  the 
complaints  of  organized  groups. 

Modern  industrial  civilization  has  complicated  living  to  the  point 
where  few  individuals  are  effective  by  themselves.  The  modern  world 
provides  modes  of  political,  cultural,  economic,  and  similar  expression, 
by  group  action.  Frequently,  individual  competition  is  supplanted  or 
supplemented  by  group  competition.  This  grouping  of  people  for  joint 
action  is  more  or  less  effective,  more  or  less  democratic,  and  more  or  less 
constructive,  according  to  the  character,  integrity  and  ability  of  those 
who  achieve  positions  of  leadership  through  the  inevitable  processes  of 
promotion,  appointment,  selection  and  election  in  organized  groups. 

The  Communist  Party  scientifically  charts  this  organization  into 
groups  in  modern  civilization  and  it  plans  and  works  to  capture  control 
of  key  positions  when  possible.  When  this  method  fails  the  Communists 
work  to  nullify  and  make  impotent  the  leadership  of  groups  it  cannot 
infiltrate  or  control,  through  ' '  rank-and-file "  disruption  and  confusion. 

Communist  confusion  is  an  organized  and  planned  confusion  and  its 
ultimate  goal  is  to  develop  the  ability  to  create  the  maximum  of  confusion 
at  the  time  when  Communist  strategy  decrees  an  open  bid  for  power 
through  revolutionary  violence. 

In  the  scientific  blueprint  for  revolution  that  is  laid  down  in  official 
Communist  textbooks  and  taught  in  the  Communist  schools,  interminable 
analysis  and  study  is  given  to  the  technique  of  manipulating  organized 
groups  toward  the  eventual  belief  that  they  cannot  solve  their  particular 
problems  or  achieve  their  particular  objectives  within  the  framework  and 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  25 

limitations  of  a  capitalist  economy  and  a  parliamentary  government.  The 
final  goal  of  Communist  infiltration  into  organized  groups  is  to  dominate 
the  sentiment  of  such  groups — running  the  gamut  from  ignorant  apathy 
to  active  acceptance — for  the  purpose  of  permitting  the  hardened  core  of 
revolutionaries  to  seize  power  at  the  proper  time. 

For  this  purpose  in  the  long  range  Communist  plan,  an  apathetic, 
inert  organization,  incapable  of  united  and  decisive  action  in  a  crisis,  is 
just  as  valuable  as  an  organization  that  is  enthusiastically  working  to 
serve  the  Communist  program.  Either  attitude  serves  the  purposes  of  the 
Red  Fascist  conspiracy. 

However,  pending  the  long-range  program  of  eventual  world-wide 
1 '  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat ' '  Communist  strategists  study  and  work 
to  put  into  effect  temporary,  immediate  popular,  localized  and  special 
purpose-policies  and  projects. 

The  creation  and  conduct  of  such  policies  and  projects  make  up 
what  has  come  to  be  known  as  the ' '  Communist  party  line. ' ' 

The  ' l  party  line ' '  consists  of  the  immediate  policies  of  the  moment, 
which  frequently  are  contradictory.  Sometimes  it  will  center  on  popular 
issues.  Again,  it  will  center  on  generally  unpopular  issues.  But,  invari- 
ably, it  follows  a  pattern  that  consistently  involves  the  members  of  labor, 
liberal,  minority  and  cultural  groups.  The  over-all  purpose  is  to  establish 
the  " vanguard"  position  of  Communism  and  to  pose  as  the  only  true 
friend  of  the ' '  struggling  masses. ' ' 

Even  when  Communists,  in  pursuing  the  devious  twists  and  turns 
of  the  " party  line,"  are  disrupting  and  confusing  formal,  considered 
policies  of  labor,  liberal  and  minority  organizations,  they  consistently 
direct  smear  campaigns  at  the  responsible  leaders  of  the  organizations 
in  question. 

Front  organizations  are  indispensable  to  such  a  program.  The  inde- 
fatigable plotting  and  scheming  of  the  leaders  of  world  Communism  has 
developed  the  theory  and  technique  of  the  front  organization  to  the  high- 
est level  of  systematic  efficiency  in  the  world 's  history. 

Communist  theory  and  technique  is  based  on  a  huge  mass  of  ana- 
lytical, historical  and  theoretical  teachings,  accumulated  since  Commu- 
nism was  launched  in  1848  with  Karl  Marx's  "Communist  Manifesto," 
a  hundred  years  ago. 

Much  of  it  is  openly  and  plainly  presented  to  Communists  as  a 
study  of  strategy  and  tactics  to  achieve  a  successful  revolution  and  com- 
plete seizure  of  power  under  a  1 1  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat. ' '  How- 
ever, a  great  mass  of  it  is  thinly  disguised  as  history.  This  later  element 
is  particularly  valuable  to  the  teaching  of  Marxist  revolutionary  doc- 
trine, where  Communists  are  obliged  to  conduct  their  proselyting  and 
organizing  surreptitiously. 

The  average  American  can  secure  a  very  good  basic  concept  of  the 
special  purpose  and  approach  of  this  huge  mass  of  revolutionary  Marxian 
literature  by  a  comparison  with  popular  American  sports. 

Football,  baseball,  golf  and  other  sports  are  described  in  detail  and 
from  every  viewpoint  in  a  mass  of  technical  literature. 

Communist  handbooks,  that  may  be  bought  openly  in  Communist 
bookstores  throughout  America,  reveal  a  pattern  of  psychological,  organ- 
izational and  propaganda  technique  that  directly  parallels  the  systems 
and  stratagems  of  the  popular  sports. 


26  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

There  the  analogy  ends ! 

In  sports,  the  object  is  to  win,  and  the  system  and  stratagems  are 
devised  for  the  purpose  of  winning.  Sportsmen  always  play  to  win,  but 
test  of  sportsmanship  is  the  will  to  win  only  within  the  rules,  to  win  fairly. 

To  Communists,  the  object  also  is  to  win  and  the  prize  is  the  Com- 
munist dictatorship  of  the  world.  But  the  literature  of  Communist  tactics 
and  strategies  proclaims  openly  and  brazenly,  and  with  never  a  variation, 
that  fraud,  deceit,  dishonesty  and  trickery  are  the  indispensable  ingredi- 
ents of  a  successful  revolutionary  movement. 

The  inability  of  the  average  American,  trained  in  the  ideals  of  fair 
play  and  good  sportsmanship,  to  understand  this  basic  tenet  of  Commu- 
nist strategy  and  tactics  in  day-to-day  relations  is  one  of  the  major  rea- 
sons why  Communists  are  consistently  successful  in  either  capturing  or 
disrupting  organized  groups  whenever  it  serves  the  purpose  of  the  ' '  party 
line." 

The  most  pronounced  difference  between  ordinary  American  mem- 
bers of  an  organization  and  the  Communist  Trojan  Horse  clique  within 
an  organization,  is  in  their  attitude  toward  parliamentary  procedure  and 
tactics. 

Parliamentary  procedure,  based  on  Robert's  Rules  of  Order  and 
other  authorities,  and  on  constitutional  provisions  and  rules,  is  the  method 
through  which  group  actions  are  accomplished  in  an  orderly  way.  Without 
some  system  such  as  the  formal  process  of  parliamentary  procedure,  an 
assemblage  of  any  group  quickly  degenerates  into  an  unruly  mob. 

Since  the  control  and  manipulation  of  organized  groups  is  vitally 
necessary  to  Red  Fascist  strategy  and  tactics,  every  Communist  must 
study  and  master  parliamentary  procedure  to  the  limit  of  his  individual 
ability  and  natural  talent. 

In  contrast,  the  average  non-Communist  member  of  an  organization 
is  familiar  with  only  the  most  rudimentary  phases  of  parliamentary  pro- 
cedure. They  are  not  obligated  by  any  secret,  conspiratorial  authority 
outside  the  organization  to  which  they  belong,  to  study  parliamentary 
procedure  and  strategy.  Further,  the  subject,  while  vitally  important  to 
the  conduct  of  organized  group  activities,  is  too  infrequently  taught  for 
information  and  guidance  to  be  easily  available  to  leaders  of  organizations 
who  want  to  learn  more  about  the  conduct  and  control  of  meetings. 

Because  of  this  disparity  between  the  Communist  professional  par- 
liamentarians and  the  anti-Communist  amateurs,  time  after  time  the 
Communists  put  over  their  programs  within  organized  groups  against 
the  openly  expressed  desire  of  the  majority.  Failing  this,  they  usually  are 
able  to  block  and  defeat  the  desires  of  the  majority  group. 

Second  to  the  Communist  study  and  mastery  of  parliamentary  tricks, 
is  the  Red  Fascist  science  of  confusion  and  misrepresentation  in  debate. 
Communists  are  not  committed  to  any  moral  or  ethical  code  and  they 
have  no  respect  for  the  basic  principles,  purposes  and  goals  of  any  organi- 
zation they  seek  to  infiltrate  and  control. 

Consequently,  while  a  non-Communist  member  or  group  in  an 
organization  is  thinking  and  talking  in  terms  of  the  ethical,  political  and 
aspirational  ideals  of  the  organization,  the  Communists  are  free  to  engage 
in  any  misrepresentation,  confusion,  personal  abuse  or  emotional  appeal 
that  will  advance  their  purpose  of  the  moment. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  27 

The  most  familiar  and  monotonously  repeated  device  of  Communists 
in  debate  is  the  use  of  the  " unity"  theme  as  a  basis  for  twisting  and 
manipulating  organized  groups  to  serve  the  purposes  of  the ' '  party  line. ' ' 

The  device  is  used  by  Communists  with  consistent  success  to  protect 
Communist  leaders  and  key  policies  from  attack  and  repudiation.  Unin- 
formed members  of  groups,  who  abhor  controversy  and  internal  dissen- 
sion, have  voted  against  their  own  best  interests  repeatedly  under  the  lure 
of  the  Communist  siren-song  of  * '  unity. ' ' 

Unity  is  necessary  within  any  organization,  but  no  group  or  groups 
ever  can  have  unity  with  Communism  or  Communist  factions  except  at 
the  price  of  unvarying  subservience  or  agreement  with  the  Communist 
"party  line"  of  the  moment.  The  sooner  this  basic  truth  is  learned  by 
the  leadership  and  the  members  of  all  organized  groups  in  America,  and 
particularly  in  California,  the  sooner  will  it  be  possible  to  prevent  and 
defeat  the  Red  Fascist  plotting  to  trick  and  confuse  organized  segments 
of  the  community  to  follow  appealing  slogans  and  wild  promises  to 
eventual  destruction. 

EVERY  COMMUNIST  AN  AGENT  OF  THE  KREMLIN 

The  committee  has  found  in  its  investigations  and  has  stated  in  pre- 
vious reports,  that  every  Communist  Party  in  every  country  is  rigidly 
committed  by  publicly  proclaimed  Communist  doctrine  to  serve  the 
purposes  of  Soviet  foreign  policy  and  to  work  steadily  and  systematically 
for  the  eventual  violent  revolutionary  overthrow  of  the  governments  of 
all  nations,  and  to  replace  them  with  the ' t  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat. ' ' 

The  committee  has  found  and  has  documented  its  findings,  and  it 
reiterates,  that  it  is  indispensable  to  Communist  Parties  in  every  country 
to  create  front  organizations,  and  to  infiltrate,  dominate  or  disrupt  all 
existing  organized  groups,  in  order  to  carry  Communist  theory  into  the 
practical  sphere  of  workaday  relations. 

Finally,  the  committee  has  found  that  a  definitive  analysis  of  the 
purpose,  structure,  types  and  uses  of  front  organizations  is  needed  at  this 
time  for  the  information  of  the  Members  of  the  Legislature  and  the  people 
of  California,  and  it  presents  herewith  such  an  analysis  together  with 
a  compilation  of  important  front  organizations  now  subject  to  Communist 
domination  or  infiltration. 

MARXIAN  DOUBLE-TALK 

A  major  feature  of  the  committee's  work  in  the  past  has  been  the 
study  and  the  presentation  of  the  Marxian  theories  and  techniques  that 
constitute  Red  Fascism  in  action.  In  this  carefully  documented  presenta- 
tion, the  committee  has  made  a  special  point  to  quote  liberally  in  its  1943, 
1945  and  1947  reports  from  the  actual  testimony  of  known  Communists 
and  from  official  Communist  textbooks  and  publications. 

In  its  presentation  of  the  analysis  of  Red  Fascist  objectives  and 
technique,  the  committee  has  used  the  terminology  and  phraseology  of 
Marxism  to  a  great  extent ;  and  in  its  devotion  to  absolute  accuracy  and 
documentation,  the  committee  has  presented  large  sections  of  Marxist 
testimony  and  writing ;  and  has  placed  this  material  before  the  Members 
of  the  Legislature  and  the  people  of  California  so  that  they  may  draw 
their  own  conclusions. 


28  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

However,  the  committee  and  its  individual  members,  many  legislators 
and  public  officials  and  leaders  of  responsible  California  organizations, 
receive  repeated  requests  and  suggestions  that  the  committee  make  avail- 
able to  the  people  of  California  a  report  on  Communistic  activity,  espe- 
cially in  the  field  of  front  organizations,  that  will  be  phrased  in  the 
language  of  the  man  in  the  street  and  which  will  translate  the  Marxian 
terms  and  phrases  into  plain  English  in  a  simplified  presentation. 

The  committee  is  cognizant  of  the  general  demand  for  such  an  author- 
itative and  simplified  interpretation  of  the  Marxist  program  for  world 
revolution  as  it  is  carried  on  behind  the  tricky  slogans  and  propaganda 
of  California  Communists  and  their  fellow-travelers  in  mass  organizations 
and  in  day-to-day  public  affairs. 

The  committee  has  given  considerable  time,  study  and  research  in 
an  effort  to  secure  an  authoritative  and  accurate  interpretation  of  the 
methods,  classifications,  techniques  and  outlets  for  Communist  front 
organization  manipulation.  It  is  hoped  that  this  interpretation  will  assist 
in  translating  Marxist  double-talk  into  plain  English.  The  committee 
believes  that  this  presentation  will  provide  a  research  and  information 
facility  that  will  be  welcomed  by  the  Members  of  the  Legislature  and  the 
responsible  leaders  of  California. 

TYPES  OF  COMMUNIST-INFLUENCED  ORGANIZATIONS 

No  organized  group  can  exist  in  America  today  without  the  Com- 
munist Party  having  some  attitude  and  policy  toward  it.  Communist 
Policy  may  run  the  gamut  from  seeking  absolute  control  to  malevolent 
destruction. 

Through  various  periods  of  the  shifting  ' '  party  line, ' '  the  Commu- 
nist Party  may  assume  utterly  contradictory  attitudes  toward  an  organi- 
zation. In  every  instance,  however,  the  attitude  will  be  what  Red  Fascist 
strategists  in  a  particular  country  assume  to  be  the  best  tactic  of  the 
moment  to  further  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia,  or  to  advance  the 
over-all  aim  of  eventual  violent  revolution  in  their  own  land. 

The  Communist  Party  position  in  and  toward  a  particular  organiza- 
tion is  determined  by  a  number  of  factors.  Consequently  there  are  readily 
identifiable  types  of  Communist-influenced  organizations  that  can  be 
catalogued. 

The  Marxist  strategists  and  tacticians  are  well  aware  of  the  fact 
that  they  are  forced  to  work  through  front  organizations  to  carry  out 
their  twin  program  of  treachery  and  conspiracy  for  two  basic  reasons : 

(1)  Communists  know  that  an  openly  Communist  political 
party  or  organization  that  frankly  puts  forward  the  fundamental 
Communist  program  inevitably  is  a  complete  failure  in  the  political 
and  propaganda  fields ; 

(2)  For  tactical  reasons  in  its  conspiratorial  operations,  the 
Communists  never  have  more  than  ten  percent  of  any  Communist 
Party  above-ground  during  the  period  of  building  toward  the 
eventual  goal  of  revolution. 

Since  the  Communist  Parties  are  pledged  to  protect  Soviet  Russia 
and  advance  the  proletarian  revolution  everywhere  else  in  the  world, 
Marxist  theorists  long  since  clearly  and  openly  have  accepted  the  need 
for  duplicity,  treachery  and  trickery  to  accomplish  their  purposes. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  29 

The  phrase,  "front  organization,"  while  it  has  taken  on  a  tone  of 
opprobium  through  public  exposure  of  Communist  front  activities,  never 
was  invented  by  anyone  as  a  smear  phrase,  but  actually  was  borrowed 
from  Communist  terminology. 

A  front  organization,  therefore,  is  an  organization  that  provides  an 
apparently  non-Communist  facade,  behind  which  Communists  and  fellow- 
travelers  in  control  of  the  organization  can  carry  out  strategical  and 
tactical  moves  in  behalf  of  the  current  "party  line". 

Marxist  recognition  of  the  need  to  operate  behind  false  fronts  has 
been  expounded  and  clarified  in  a  complicated  theory,  known  as  the 
"vanguard  role"  of  the  Communist  Party.  Under  this  theory  Marxists 
justify  to  themselves  their  established  practice  of  infiltrating  existing 
organizations  when  it  serves  their  purpose  and  of  creating  organizations 
when  none  exists  to  fill  a  special  strategical  or  tactical  need. 

This  absolute  necessity  for  advancing  a  program  that  is  supposed 
to  solve  all  the  material  problems  of  mankind  behind  a  mask  of  treachery 
and  duplicity  is  one  of  the  great  contradictions  of  Communism,  which 
itself  proclaims  is  the  only  system  that  can  save  mankind  from  the  ills 
and  problems  of  contradictions  which  Marxists  assert  are  found  in  capi- 
talist economy  and  in  parliamentary  government. 

Once  the  American  people  learn  to  understand  this  dilemma  of 
Communism,  they  will  have  the  key  to  the  analysis  and  evaluation  of 
Communist  programs  and  policies ;  and  with  it,  the  ability  to  meet  Com- 
munist disruption  and  defeat  it. 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  that  the  Marxist  program  has  been 
fully  outlined  and  documented  in  the  published  reports  by  this  com- 
mittee for  1943,  1945  and  1947 ;  and  also  by  other  authoritative  govern- 
mental agencies  and  legislative  committees. 

The  committee  points  out  specifically  that  the  basic  theory  of  the 
"vanguard  role"  of  the  Communist  Party  has  been  admitted  and 
explained  under  oath  by  William  Z.  Foster,  present  national  chairman 
of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  and  by  Earl  Browder, 
former  general  secretary  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States, 
before  Congressional  investigating  bodies;  and  by  William  Schneider- 
man,  present  secretary  and  administrative  head  of  the  Communist  Party 
of  California,  and  other  Communist  functionaries,  before  this  committee. 

The  Marxist  principle  of  creating  front  organizations  and  of  infiltrat- 
ing mass  organizations  has  been  exposed  and  documented  beyond  any 
possible  refutation.  It  has  been  proved  to  be  the  chief  business  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  in  the  United  States,  and  the  basic  framework  upon  which 
has  been  erected  the  entire  Communist  structure  of  sabotage,  sedition, 
espionage  and  treachery  against  the  American  people  and  their  govern- 
ment. 

The  gist  of  this  theory  of  the  "vanguard  role"  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  creating  and  manipulating  front  organizations,  is  summed  up 
specifically  by  the  present  titular  head  of  world  Communism,  Joseph 
Stalin,  in  the  official  Communist-published  text  of  a  brutally  frank  blue- 
print for  revolution,  "Foundations  of  Leninism." 

Discussing  the  tactical  theory  that  all  Communists  must  study  and 
rehearse  interminably,  Joseph  Stalin  says : 


30  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

' '  Tactical  leadership  is  a  part  of  strategic  leadership,  subordin- 
ated to  the  problems  of,  and  the  demands  upon,  the  latter.  The  task 
of  tactical  leadership  is  to  handle  all  the  forms  of  struggle  and  of 
organization  of  the  proletariat  and  assure  their  correct  utilization 
'  in  order  to  achieve  the  maximum  results  obtainable  with  the  relative 
strength  of  the  forces  available,  the  maximum  necessary  in  prepar- 
ing strategic  success. 

«  *  *  *  ^e  correct  utilization  of  the  forms  of  struggle  and  of 
organization  *  *  *  means  fulfilling  several  necessary  conditions  of 
which  the  following  may  be  considered  the  principal  ones : 

"First:  to  bring  to  the  forefront  those  forms  of  struggle  and 
of  organization  which  are  best  suited  to  the  conditions  prevailing 
during  the  ebb  or  flow  of  the  movement,  and,  therefore,  calculated 
to  facilitate  and  assure  the  shifting  of  the  masses  to  revolutionary 
positions,  the  shifting  of  millions  to  the  revolutionary  front  and 
their  assignment  to  various  posts  at  the  revolutionary  front. 

"The  point  here  is  not  that  the  vanguard  shall  realize  the  impos- 
sibility of  preserving  the  old  order  of  things  and  the  inevitability 
of  its  collapse  but  that  the  vast  masses  shall  understand  this  inevit- 
ability and  display  their  readiness  to  support  the  vanguard. 

"But  the  masses  can  understand  this  only  through  their  own 
experiences.  The  task  is  to  enable  the  vast  masses  to  understand 
*  *  *  the  inevitability  of  the  overthrow  of  the  old  regime,  to  bring 
into  being  such  methods  of  struggle  and  forms  of  organization  as 
will  make  it  easier  for  the  masses  to  learn  from  their  own  experience 
the  correctness  of  the  revolutionary  slogans." 

To  emphasize  his  point  that  the  Communist  Party  must  never  by 
unwise  strategy  and  tactics  be  reduced  4 '  from  the  position  of  leader  of 
the  proletariat,  to  that  of  a  band  of  inane,  uprooted  conspirators, ' '  Joseph 
Stalin  quotes  V.  I.  Lenin  to  this  effect : 

' '  With  the  vanguard  alone,  victory  is  impossible.  To  throw  the 
vanguard  alone  into  the  decisive  conflict  *  *  as  long  as  the  broad 
masses  have  not  yet  taken  up  a  position  either  of  direct  support  of 
the  vanguard  or  at  least  of  benevolent  neutrality  toward  it  and  of 
absolute  incapability  of  supporting  the  enemy — would  not  merely 
be  folly  but  an  actual  crime.  And  in  order  that  actually  the  whole 
class,  that  actually  the  broad  masses  of  toilers  and  those  oppressed 
by  capitalism  may  come  to  such  a  position,  propaganda  and  agita- 
tion alone  are  not  sufficient.  For  this,  the  masses  must  have  their  own 
political  experience.  Such  is  the  fundamental  law  for  all  great 
revolutions  *  *  *" 

This  citation  from  Lenin  by  Stalin  is  quoted  from  the  Marxist 
leader's  famous  treatise,  "Left  Communism,"  in  which  Lenin  criticized 
severely  those  leftwing  agitators  who,  to  use  a  familiar  American  phrase, 
are  like  ' '  generals  who  get  too  far  out  in  front  of  their  army. ' ' 

Lenin  and  Stalin,  in  their  writings  on  revolutionary  theory,  keep 
repeating  over  and  over  the  solemn  warning  that  the  Communists,  in 
their  "vanguard  role"  never  must  be  so  far  in  front  of  the  masses  and 
their  organizations  that  the  Communist  can  be  isolated. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  31 

Stalin's  second  point  in  what  he  describes  as  "the  correct  utiliza- 
tion of  the  forms  of  struggle  and  organization,"  follows  his  quotation 
from  Lenin,  and  points  out  that  it  is  necessary  in  ' '  correct  tactics ' ' : 

«*  *  *  ^0  locate  at  any  given  moment  that  single  link  in  the 
chain  of  events,  which,  if  siezed  upon  will  enable  us  to  control  the 
whole  chain  and  prepare  the  ground  for  the  achievement  of  success. 
"The  point  here  is  to  single  out  from  tasks  confronting  the 
Party,  precisely  the  one  that  must  be  handled  next,  which,  if  done, 
will  assure  the  successful  fulfillment  of  the  remaining  tasks. '  ' 

It  follows  from  this  plain  statement  by  Stalin,  who  quotes  Lenin  to 
hammer  his  points  home,  that  Communists  everywhere  are  under  solemn 
instructions  as  a  matter  of  basic  policy,  to  nurture  carefully  their 
so-called  "vanguard  role"  and  to  proceed  with  the  creation  and  infil- 
tration of  organizations  to  serve  as  fronts  for  their  program.  He  warns 
that  the  party  must  never  relinquish  its  "vanguard  role."  It  must  not 
enter  "alone  into  the  decisive  conflict  as  long  as  the  broad  masses  have 
not  yet  taken  up  a  position  either  of  direct  support  *  *  or  of  at 

least  benevolent  neutrality  toward  it  *  *  *  " 

It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  front  organizations  created  or  infil- 
trated by  the  U.  S.  Communist  Party  in  the  past  decade  are  easily 
recognized  for  what  they  are,  once  the  "vanguard  role"  of  the  Com- 
munist manipulators  is  understood. 

TYPES  OF  COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 

Every  organized  group  in  America  can  be  classified  with  reference 
to  Communism  from  two  basic  viewpoints : 

(1)  According    to    the    proportion    of    Communist    influence 
within ;  or 

(2)  According  to  the  purposes  or  objectives  for  which  they 
were  organized  or  infiltrated  by  Communists. 

It  is  vitally  important  to  all  Americans  that  they  learn  to  recognize 
the  character  of  organizations  with  which  they  must  deal,  or  to  which 
they  belong,  with  reference  to  Communism. 

This  is  important,  particularly  in  the  case  of  administrative  and 
executive  officers,  members  of  executive  boards  and  staff  members,  upon 
whom  falls  the  responsibility  of  relations  between  their  organization 
and  other  organized  groups. 

Members  of  organizations,  especially  in  mass  organizations,  such 
as  trade  unions,  political  parties,  and  groups  dealing  with  civic,  racial, 
religious  and  similar  relations,  must  ever  be  on  the  alert  against  Com- 
munist sabotage  of  their  particular  purposes  and  objectives. 

Officers  and  members  of  organizations  constantly  are  faced  with 
proposals  that  the  group  to  which  they  belong  affiliate  with  some  move- 
ment or  cause ;  that  they  endorse  or  support  such  movement  or  cause ; 
that  they  join  with  other  groups  in  supporting  and  endorsing  causes 
and  programs. 

Determination  of  the  proportion  of  Communist  influence  that  may 
exist  in  any  organization  is  not  as  involved  or  mysterious  as  many  citi- 
zens have  been  led  to  believe.  Communists  follow  a  pattern  of  joining 
and  supporting  similar  causes  and  organizations.  So  do  confirmed  fellow- 
travelers. 


32  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Many  of  these  organizations  will  be  publicly  proclaimed  to  be  in  the 
interest  of  some  worthy  program.  The  organization 's  self -prof  essed  goals 
may  be  high-sounding  and  humanitarian,  but  invariably  it  will  be  dis- 
covered that  in  any  Communist  front  organization  a  heavy  majority 
of  the  officers,  the  sponsors  and  the  members  of  the  committees  will  be 
found  to  have  a  record  of  affiliation  with  scores  of  other  front  organ- 
izations. Invariably  it  will  be  discovered  that  the  particular  organiza- 
tion in  question,  and  all  other  organizations  with  which  the  leadership 
has  affiliation,  never  criticize  Communism  or  Russia  and  consistently 
follow  and  support  pro-Russian  and  pro-Communist  programs  and 
policies. 

ORGANIZATIONS  CLASSIFIED  BY  PROPORTION  OF 
COMMUNIST  INFLUENCE 

All  organized  groups  in  America  may  be  classified  with  respect  to 
the  proportion  of  Communist  influence  in  six  broad  categories.  These  are : 

(1)  Communist  created  and  controlled; 

(2)  Communist  infiltrated  and  controlled ; 

(3)  Communist  dominated,  whether  created  or  infiltrated; 

(4)  Communist  infiltrated,  but  neither  controlled  nor  dominiated. 
In  such  organizations  Communists  operate  to  disrupt,  confuse,  delay  and 
nullify  the  natural  functions  of  the  organization,  which  frequently  may 
be  in  conflict  with  Communist  programs ; 

(5 )  Completely  anti-Communist  and  Communist  infiltrated  only  for 
purposes  of  espionage ; 

(6)  Miscellaneous.  All  other  organizations,  most  of  which  Com- 
munists are  unable  to  infiltrate  or  have  no  tactical  reasons  for  infiltrating. 

Organizations  can  be  identified  as  to  their  status  and  classified  in 
proportion  to  degree  of  Communist  infiltration  most  easily  011  the  basis 
of  the  organization's  responses  to  key  political,  economic  and  ethical 
issues  of  the  day. 

One  of  the  most  basic  tests  is  the  officially  recorded  attitude  of  the 
organization  on  such  basic  official  Communist  Party  line  issues  as  Soviet 
foreign  policy  in  contrast  to  the  interests  of  the  United  States. 

The  most  conspicuous  historical  instance  since  the  foundation  of  the 
U.  S.  Communist  Party  in  1919  has  been  the  famous  "pretzel  twists" 
of  the  party  line  in  connection  with  Fascism  under  Mussolini  in  Italy 
and  Nazism  under  Adolph  Hitler  in  Germany. 

In  response  to  the  rise  of  world  Fascism  and  Nazism,  American 
Communist  policy  went  through  five  contradictory  changes  of  policy. 
These  were : 

(1)  From  1928  to  1935,  world  Communism  engaged  in  conspira- 
torial activity  to  overthrow  every  government  to  prevent  what  Marxists 
described  as  "capitalist  encirclement"  of  the  Soviet  fatherland;  and 
this  Communist  activity,  combined  with  the  peculiar  foreign  policy 
tactics  of  the  Russians,  played  directly  into  the  hands  of  Mussolini  and 
Hitler,  contributing  to  their  rise  to  power ; 

(2)  From  1935  to  1939,  world  Communism  adopted  the  so-called 
"Popular  Front"  policy,  proclaimed  by  Georgi  Dimitrov  at  the  Seventh 
World  Congress  of  the  Comintern  in  Moscow  in  1935,  and  Communists 
sought  in  every  nation  to  create  coalitions  against  Fascism  and  Nazism, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  33 

using  front  organizations,  such  as  the  Anti-Nazi  League  in  America,  for 
this  purpose.  Concurrent  with  anti-Nazi  activity,  however,  the  Com- 
munists maintained  their  position  that  all  war  is  imperialistic ; 

(3)  From  August,  1939,  when  Russia  amazed  the  world  by  signing 
the  famous  Hitler-Stalin  pact,  until  June  22,  1941,  world  Communism 
collaborated  openly  with  world  Fascism.  Poland  was  divided  by  military 
force.  In  the  United  States,  the  Communists  created  scores  of  fronts  to 
proclaim  "The  Yanks  Are  Not  Coming,"  and  to  denounce  the  pre- 
paredness program  and  aid  to  the  Allies  program  advocated  by  President 
Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt.  The  Roosevelt  program  was  denounced  as 
"imperialist  war-monger  ing. ' '  The  Communist  fronts  that  characterized 
this  period  were  the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  the  American  Student 
Union,  and  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy. 

(4)  From  June  22,  1941,  when  Hitler's  armies  invaded  Russia, 
until  the  end  of  the  war,  the  American  Communists,  who  promptly  made 
a  complete  reversal  from  denouncing  "Roosevelt's  imperialist  war"  to 
demanding  "unity  in  the  people's  war,"  pretended  to  abandon  the 
Marxist  program  of  world  revolution  and  advocated  unity  and  coopera- 
tion of  all  nations  for  the  defeat  of  Hitler.  Behind  the  mask  of  patriotism 
and  humanitarianism,  the  Communists  infiltrated  into  every  organized 
segment  of  American  life,  and  finally,  Earl  Browder,  acting  on  orders 
from  the  Kremlin,  openly  advocated  collaboration  with  capitalism.  The 
name  of  the  Communist  Party  was  deceptively  changed  to  the  Com- 
munist Political  Association,  and  Stalin  announced  that  the  Comintern 
had  been  disolved.  This  was  done  solely  to  procure  aid  from  the  capitalist 
countries  for  the  homeland  of  Red  Fascist  revolution,  Soviet  Russia. 

(5)  When  Fascism  and  Nazism  went  down  to  military  defeat  under 
the  crushing  blows  of  the  United  Nations,  world  Communism  launched 
a  two-pronged  program  for  the  resumption  of  world  revolution  and  the 
"dictatorship  of  the  proletariat."  Brazen  aggression  and  territorial 
expansion  by  Soviet  Russia  followed.   In  June,  1945,  the  American 
Communist  Party  followed  world  Communism  in  a  complete  "sharp 
turn"  just  as  this  committee  had  predicted  in  its  1945  Report,  issued 
April  16,  1945.  Browder  was  deposed,  the  Communist  Political  Associa- 
tion was  junked  in  favor  of  the  restoration  of  the  Communist  Party  of 
the  United  States,  and  the  revived  Communist  Party  returned  to  the 
"class-war,"  denunciation  of  "imperialist  war,"  defense  of  Russian 
aggression  and  expansion,  plotting  and  conspiracy  for  revolutionary 
overthrow  of  the  United  States  government. 

There  are  two  basic  truths  that  send  Communists,  their  fellow- 
travelers  and  apologists  into  frenzies  of  denunciation  and  character- 
assassination  against  anyone  who  raises  these  truths  in  public  discussion. 
One  is  the  unmistakable  open  record  of  the  American  Communists  in 
following  the  "pretzel  twists"  of  the  party  line,  and  the  other  is  the 
irrefutable  evidence  that  they  are  agents  of  a  foreign  power,  com- 
mitted to  treachery  and  sabotage  of  the  United  States  whenever  its 
policies  come  in  conflict  with  those  of  Soviet  Russia  and  world  Com- 
munism. 

These  two  tests — consistent  following  of  the  twists  and  turns  of  the 
party  line,  and  treacherous  subservience  to  the  interests  of  Soviet  foreign 
policy — can  be  used  by  all  Americans  to  determine  from  the  record  the 
character  of  any  organization. 

4— L-7088-D 


34  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

COMMUNIST  CREATED  AND  CONTROLLED  ORGANIZATIONS 

Numerically,  one  of  the  largest  classifications  is  that  of  organiza- 
tions created  by  the  Communist  Party  and  completely  controlled  by  the 
Communists.  This  is  true  because  the  Communist  Party  spawns  front 
groups  and  liquidates  them  in  a  regular  pattern  to  serve  temporary 
strategic  and  tactical  purposes  of  immediate  value  to  the  party. 

In  this  category  will  be  found  the  scores  of  ''defense  committees" 
created  to  raise  funds  for  Communists,  fellow-travelers  and  Marxist- 
apologists  who  become  involved  in  arrests,  prosecutions  and  investiga- 
tions. Another  important  type  of  ' '  defense  committee  "  is  a  large  group 
formed  to  raise  funds  for  legal  defense  and  aid  to  Communist  members 
of  unions,  minority  groups  and  teachers,  political  figures  and  others  who 
may  be  arrested,  attacked,  expelled  or  otherwise  involved  in  contro- 
versies. 

Frequently,  the  persons  for  whom  the  "defense  committees"  are 
working  may  not  be  Communists  or  have  any  connection  with  Commu- 
nism. But  invariably  the  person  involved  will  present  an  opportunity 
for  the  Communists  and  their  fellow-travelers  to  appear  in  the  spotlight 
as  friends  of  the  oppressed  and  abused. 

Investigation  of  scores  of  these  front  committees  has  revealed  that 
behind  the  mask  of  humanitarianisrn  and  a  fight  for  human  and  civil 
rights,  is  hidden  one  of  the  fundamental  reasons  for  the  creation  of  such 
front  groups.  That  reason  is  to  raise  money  for  the  Communist  Party. 

It  is  the  considered  opinion  of  all  responsible  investigators  that  not 
more  than  50  percent,  and  frequently  much  less,  of  all  funds  raised  by 
these  front  groups  ever  goes  to  the  cause  for  which  the  group  publicly  is 
working. 

In  some  cases  funds  raised  for  a  so-called  worthy  cause  are  diverted 
to  the  Communist  Party  by  direct  theft  and  dishonest  bookkeeping  trans- 
actions. In  other  cases  money  is  diverted  by  payment  of  large  sums  to 
Communist  agents,  lawyers,  publicists  and  workers  within  the  particular 
group,  who  turn  over  substantial  amounts  of  their  wages  and  fees  to  the 
party. 

Typical  examples  of  the  Communist  created  and  controlled  front 
organizations  of  this  type  are:  Abolish  Peonage  Committee,  Citizens 
Committee  to  Free  Earl  Browder,  Schappes  Defense  Committee,  Schnei- 
derman  Defense  Committee,  Schneiderman-Darcy  Defense  Committee, 
Citizens  Committee  for  Harry  Bridges,  Bridges  Defense  Committee, 
Bridges  Victory  Committee,  Committee  to  Defend  Angelo  Herndon,  Com- 
mittee for  Civil  Rights  for  Communists,  Communist  Japanese  Committee, 
Galena  Defense  Committee,  Gerson  Supporters,  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refu- 
gee Committee,  Joint  Committee  for  Trade  Union  Rights,  Joint  Com- 
mittee of  Trade  Unions  in  Social  Work,  King,  Conner  and  Ramsey 
Defense  Committee,  Marian  Anderson  Citizens  Committee,  Mooiiey 
Defense  Committee,  Mooney-Billings  Mass  Meeting  Sponsors,  Murray 
Defense  Committee,  National  Free  Browder  Congress,  National  Hunger 
March  to  Washington,  Non-Partisan  Labor  Defense,  Non-Partisan  Com- 
mittee for  Reelection  of  Congressman  Vito  Marcantonio,  Open  Letter 
Protesting  Ban  on  Communists  in  American  Civil  Liberties  Union,  Peti- 
tion to  Grant  Pardons  to  McNamara  and  Smith,  Public  Use  of  Arts  Com- 
mittee, Reichstag  Fire  Trial  Anniversary  Committee,  Scottsboro  Defense 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  35 

Committee,  Sleepy  Lagoon  Defense  Committee,  Statement  by  American 
Progressives  on  the  Moscow  Trials,  Testimonial  Dinner  for  Ferdinand  C. 
Smith,  Washington  C.  I.  0.  Committee  to  Reinstate  Helen  Miller,  and  in 
the  recent  exposure  and  indictments  of  national  Communist  figures,  the 
same  pattern  has  been  followed  with  Defense  Committees  for  Hans  Eisler, 
Gerhardt  Eisler,  Eugene  Dennis,  Carlo  Marzani,  John  Williamson, 
Claudia  Jones  and  others ;  and  the  Committee  for  the  First  Amendment, 
Committee  of  One  Thousand  and  Freedom  From  Fear  Committee,  which 
have  been  created  to  raise  funds  for  the  defense  of  the  nineteen  unfriendly 
witnesses  before  the  Congressional  Committee  on  Un-American  Activi- 
ties '  investigation  of  Communist  activity  in  Hollywood,  10  of  whom  were 
indicted  for  contempt  of  Congress. 

Another  important  type  of  Communist  created  and  controlled  organ- 
ization is  the  broadly-based,  formal  organization,  created  to  serve  a  key 
function  of  international  Red  Fascism,  and  almost  invariably  linked  to 
an  international  organization  sponsored  by  the  Comintern. 

Such  organizations  are  not  as  rapidly  created  or  as  summarily  liqui- 
dated as  the  front  defense  committees.  They  are  more  stable  and  complex 
in  their  structure,  and  they  constitute  the  source  of  the  central  core  of 
Communists  and  fellow-travelers  who  join  in  the  creation  of  the  tempo- 
rary front  committees. 

While  they  also  engage  in  fund-raising  for  the  benefit  of  the  Com- 
munist program,  they  are  permitted  to  keep  more  of  the  money  raised 
through  dues  and  assessments  to  maintain  permanent  offices  and  staffs. 

Typical  of  the  permanent,  completely  Communist  created  and  con- 
trolled organizations  are  such  examples  as  the  following,  some  of  which 
no  longer  are  in  existence,  and  others  of  which  are  temporarily  in  a 
quiescent  state:  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  Friends  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade,  Academic  and  Civil  Rights  Committee,  American 
Artists  Congress,  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  American 
Council  on  Soviet  Relations,  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People, 
American  Friends  of  the  Mexican  People,  American  Friends  of  the  Soviet 
Union,  American  Friends  of  the  Spanish  People,  American  League 
Against  War  and  Fascism,  American  Slav  Congress,  American  Writers 
Congress,  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  Congress  of  American 
Women,  Congress  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  Council  for  Pan- 
American  Democracy,  International  Juridical  Association,  International 
Workers  Order,  International  Labor  Defense,  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee,  Simon  Lubin  Society,  John  Reed  Clubs,  League  of  Women 
Shoppers,  National  Negro  Congress,  Civil  Rights  Congress  and  Trade 
Union  Unity  League. 

Included  also  in  the  completely  Communist  created  and  controlled 
organizations  are  the  publications  and  organizations  that  publish  Com- 
munist newspapers,  magazines,  propaganda  and  books. 

These  organizations  and  those  committees  created  for  honoring  or 
promoting  publications  are  among  the  most  important  institutions  in  the 
Red  Fascist  network.  None  but  tested  Communist  and  fellow-travelers 
are  permitted  to  participate  in  the  management  and  direction  of  such 
enterprises. 

Among  Communist  organizations  in  this  group  the  most  notable  are : 
Daily  Worker,  People's  Daily  World,  Political  Affairs,  New  Masses, 


36  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Mainstream,  International  Publishers,  New  Century  Publishers,  In  Fact, 
Soviet  Russia  Today,  Jewish  Life,  Morning  Freiheit  Association,  and 
others  included  in  the  body  of  this  report. 

COMMUNIST  CREATED  OR  CONTROLLED  UNIONS 

Another  important  group  of  Communist  created  and  controlled 
organizations  are  certain  trade  unions,  political  groups,  committees  and 
citizens'  committees  for  purported  worthy  purposes. 

In  spite  of  the  Communist  claim  that  the  Communists  are  the  true 
leaders  of  trade  unionism,  it  is  an  historical  fact  that  the  Communists 
have  met  the  same  fate  in  the  labor  movement  as  that  achieved  in  the 
political  arena.  No  openly  sponsored  Communist  union  in  the  United 
States  ever  has  been  a  success. 

The  majority  of  Communist  created  and  controlled  trade-unions  in 
existence  in  the  United  States  today  are  the  so-called  "paper  unions" 
which  parallel  the  craft  union  structure  of  the  A.  F.  of  L. 

The  American  history  of  Communism  in  trade-unions  can  be  summed 
up  briefly  in  four  broad,  basic  stages : 

.(1)  When  the  Communist  Party  was  organized  formally  in  1919, 
it  denounced  the  A.F.  of  L.  as  "reactionary"  and  proclaimed  that  U.  S. 
Communists  would  lead  the  way  to  "revolutionary  industrial  unionism. " 
The  Trade  Union  Unity  League  was  launched  and  attempted  to  create 
blatantly  Communist-sponsored  and  controlled  trade  unions; 

(2)  After  a  long  record  of  failure,  the  Communist  Party  abandoned 
the  Trade  Union  Unity  League  and  returned  to  the  pre-Communist  Party 
program  of  the  radical  organizations.  Every  attempt  was  made  to  infil- 
trate and  dominate  the  A.F.  of  L.,  then  the  only  major  national  trade 
union  organization.  Meanwhile  the  party  planned  and  worked  to  prepare 
the  way  for  "revolutionary  industrial  trade  unionism".  Their  efforts 
were  rewarded  by  the  creation  of  the  Committee  for  Industrial  Organi- 
zation within  the  A.F.  of  L. ; 

(3)  John  L.  Lewis  ultimately  led  the  Committee  for  Industrial 
Organization  out  of  the  A.F.  of  L.  to  form  the  dual  national  labor  organi- 
zation that  has  become  the  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations.  Most  of 
the  Communists  in  labor  rushed  into  the  C.I.O.,  leaving  behind  in  the 
A.F.  of  L.  only  those  who  were  solidly  entrenched  in  strong  craft  unions. 
Meanwhile  John  L.  Lewis  pondered  over  the  hunter  and  the  dog.  The 
Communists  now  face  an  attack  from  within  the  C.I.O.,  identical  with 
the  anti-Communist  stand  that  traditionally  has  been  pursued  by  the 
majority  of  the  leadership  within  the  A.F.  of  L. 

C.I.O.  unionism  always  has  been  centered  in  the  large  unions  in 
mass  production  fields — steel,  auto,  rubber,  clothing,  shipping,  ware- 
housing, oil  and  electrical  manufacture — supplemented  by  a  few  strong 
but  numerically  small  unions  in  newspapers,  textiles,  mining,  agricultural 
and  food  processing,  and  in  shoe,  fur,  leather  and  furniture  production. 

Many  sections  of  these  latter  unions  in  the  C.I.O.,  as  well  as  a  num- 
ber of  A.F.  of  L.  unions,  are  what  is  known  as  "paper  organizations." 
There  may  be  many  local  unions  in  such  organizations,  each  numerically 
small,  but  enabled  to  exercise  important  voting  influence  in  central  bodies 
by  taking  advantage  of  a  traditional  policy  of  trade-unions,  fraternal 
groups  and  similar  associations  that  gives  special  consideration  to  numeri- 
cally small  unions,  lodges  or  chapters. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  37 

Under  the  system  for  determining  the  number  of  delegates  to  which 
each  local,  chapter  or  lodge  is  entitled,  many  central  organizations  make 
special  concessions  to  small  groups.  A  widely  used  formula  is  to  allow 
2  delegates  for  the  first  50  members  or  less ;  an  additional  delegate  for 
the  next  50  members  or  less ;  a  fourth  delegate  for  the  next  150  members 
or  less ;  and  a  fifth  delegate  for  the  next  250  members  or  less ;  with  addi- 
tional delegates  thereafter  for  every  500  members  or  majority  fraction 
thereof. 

However,  contrary  to  the  organization  of  fraternal,  veteran  and 
similar  bodies,  in  which  individual  lodges,  chapters  and  posts  are  created 
and  chartered  solely  by  the  one  governing  national  organization,  the  two 
major  labor  organizations,  A.F.  of  L.  and  C.I.O.,  are  voluntary  associa- 
tions of  many  separate  international  unions.  Hence,  the  delegates  to 
central  bodies,  state  bodies,  conferences  and  assemblies  of  an  official 
character,  are  delegates  from  subunits  of  an  international  organization ; 
i.e.,  one  of  a  number  of  organizations  that  go  to  make  up  the  national 
union  organization. 

Under  this  system,  Communists  in  control  of  an  international  union 
can  create  many  small  local  unions,  "paper  organizations";  each  less 
than  125  members,  each  with  three  delegates  to  a  city  central  labor  body ; 
and,  according  to  the  formula  for  delegate  representation  cited  above, 
three  of  these  Communist-controlled  "paper  unions"  of  125  members, 
each  with  three  votes,  can  cancel  out  the  nine  delegates  that  would  be 
allowed  to  a  large  anti-Communist  local  union  of  2,500  members. 

One  of  the  surest  tests  of  the  Communist  domination  and  control  of 
a  labor  union  or  civic  group  is  the  existence  of  many  ' '  paper  local  unions ' ' 
or  chapters,  adding  up  to  a  large  bloc  of  votes  in  city,  county  and  state 
central  bodies,  and  whose  delegates  consistently  vote  as  a  unit  in  support 
of  Communist  programs  or  act  to  delay,  disrupt  or  confuse  the  attempt 
of  the  large  majority  of  bona  fide  unions  or  chapters  to  carry  out  the 
basic  policies  of  the  central  organization  of  a  particular  city,  county  or 
state. 

Three  other  basic  tests  also  can  be  used  to  determine  the  Communist 
character  of  a  labor  or  civic  organization,  in  addition  to  the  "paper 
unions ' '  or  chapters  that  vote  the  Communist  Party  line  in  a  bloc.  These 
questions  should  be  asked : 

(1)  Does  the  union  and  its  delegates  consistently  introduce  and 
support  resolutions,  communications  and  motions  to  place  the  trade- 
union  central  body  of  a  community  or  an  industry  on  record  in  support 
of  issues  and  organizations  foreign  to  the  functions  and  purposes  of  a 
labor  union,  especially  when  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  is 
involved  ? 

(2)  Does  the  union  and  its  delegates  consistently  introduce  and 
support  resolutions,  communications  and  motions  for  so-called  "rank- 
and-file"  protests  and  condemnation  of  traditional  basic  policies  of  the 
national  organization  ? 

(3)  Does  the  union,  its  officers  and  delegates  independently  collabo- 
rate with  and  accept  affiliation  and  formal  positions  as  sponsors,  officers, 
speakers  and  participants  in  a  large  number  of  Communist  front  organi- 
zations, causes  and  committees  ? 


38  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Typical  of  the  completely  Communist  created  and  controlled  organi- 
zations in  the  trade-union,  political  association  and  civic  committee 
field  are : 

Trade  Unions :  Trade  Union  Unity  League,  Food,  Tobacco  and  Agri- 
cultural Workers  (formerly  United  Cannery,  Agricultural,  Packing  and 
Allied  Workers  of  America),  United  Studio  Technicians  Guild  of  North 
America,  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers — C.I.O.,  United  Public 
Workers — C.I.O.,  some  locals  and  units  of  the  United  Auto  Workers — 
C.I.O.,  and  United  Steel  Workers— C.I. 0.,  United  Electrical,  Radio  and 
Machine  Workers  of  America — C.I.O.,  and  United  Farm  Equipment  and 
Machine  Workers — C.I.O. 

Political  Associations:  National  Citizens  Political  Action  Committee, 
Progressive  Citizens  of  America  (successor  to  National  Citizens  Political 
Action  Committee  and  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts, 
Sciences  and  Professions),  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee,  Motion 
Picture  Democratic  Committee,  California  Legislative  Conference,  Pro- 
gressive A.F.  of  L.  of  Los  Angeles,  and  others. 

Civic  Associations :  League  of  American  Writers,  American  Writers 
Congress,  Allied  Voters  Against  Coudert,  American  Council  on  Soviet 
Relations,  American  Committee  for  Friendship  with  the  Soviet  Union, 
National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  Southern  Conference 
for  Human  Welfare,  American-Russian  Institute,  Morning  Freiheit 
Associations,  International  Workers  Order,  American  Youth  for  Demo- 
cracy, and  many  others. 

COMMUNIST  INFILTRATED  AND  CONTROLLED  ORGANIZATIONS 

Second  in  importance,  but  not  as  conspicuous  numerically  as  the 
completely  Communist  created  and  controlled  organizations,  are  those 
that  are  Communist  infiltrated  and  controlled. 

Such  groups  naturally  are  more  valuable  to  the  purposes  of  the  Red 
Fascist  conspirators  than  those  openly  sponsored  by  the  Communist 
Party.  Invariably  they  are  organizations  that  were  started  for  a  legitimate 
purpose,  and  in  virtually  every  instance  for  a  liberal,  progressive  and 
constructive  activity  to  solve  some  problem  or  need  of  a  large  mass  of 
people. 

Trade-unions  naturally  fall  into  this  grouping,  since  the  Communists 
long  ago  discovered  that  they  had  little  success  in  their  own  Red  trade- 
unions.  In  America  they  resort  to  infiltrating  into  existing  non-Com- 
munist trade-unions  in  order  to  spread  Marxist  poison  and  establish 
their  " vanguard  role". 

Organizations  sponsored  by  racial,  religious,  cultural  and  other 
minority  groups  are  a  prime  target  for  Communist  infiltration.  Due  to  the 
comparitive  amateurishness  of  most  honest  participants  in  such  organiza- 
tions, the  trained,  disciplined  Communist,  with  access  to  information, 
pressure,  guidance  and  publicit}^  from  the  entire  Red  Fascist  network, 
frequently  is  able  to  maneuver  into  key  positions  and  thus  control  an 
organization  for  the  bidding  of  Red  Fascist  top  strategists. 

Another  type  of  organization  in  this  category  is  the  unending  proces- 
sion of  citizens'  committees  for  many  purported  worthy  purposes,  such 
as  transit  reform,  housing  progress,  taxes,  zoning,  welfare,  neighborhood 
improvement,  and  the  many  legitimate  protest  movements  against  some 
community  or  civic  situation  that  irks  a  large  number  of  people.  Invari- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  39 

ably,  Communists  will  seek  to  infiltrate  and  dominate  such  groups  if  Red 
Fascist  strategists  see  any  opportunity  for  promoting  their  basic  pro- 
grams through  such  groups  or  of  winning  adherents  to  Marxism  as  *  *  the 
one  best  way  to  solve  all  problems. ' ' 

A  similar  basic  target  for  Communist  infiltration  and  control  is  the 
subdivision  of  political  organizations.  Communists  follow  a  scientific 
pattern  in  attempting  to  infiltrate  and  control  Assembly  districts,  con- 
gressional districts,  and  councilmanic  district  clubs  and  organizations, 
and  thus  plant  Communists  and  fellow-travelers  in  county  and  state  com- 
mittees of  political  organizations. 

Another  target  for  Red  Fascist  infiltration  is  any  organization 
created  for  the  purpose  of  doing  anything  associated  with  foreign  policy. 

Red  Fascist  strategy  also  calls  for  similar  tactics  against  any  organi- 
zation dealing  with  consumer,  price,  farmer,  veteran  and  youth  problems. 

Typical  examples  of  organizations  not  created  by  Communists,  but 
in  which  Communists  have  infiltrated  and  secured  control  are  certain 
local  unions  of  A.  F.  of  L.,  C.  I.  0.,  Machinists,  Railroad  Brotherhood 
and  independent  unions.  Such  local  unions  invariably  follow  the  pattern 
of  Communist  created  and  controlled  organizations  cited  above.  The 
Young  Democrats,  and  certain  Democratic  county  committees  are  further 
examples. 

COMMUNIST  INFILTRATED  AND  DOMINATED  ORGANIZATIONS 

The  third  major  section  of  Communist  influenced  organizations  (and 
one  of  the  most  important  from  a  strategic  and  tactical  standpoint)  is 
the  group  that  has  been  either  created  or  infiltrated  by  Communists, 
and,  while  not  completely  controlled,  is  dominated  by  the  Communist 
"caucus." 

Organizations  in  all  the  types  described  in  the  two  classifications 
above  will  be  found  in  this  group.  Almost  invariably,  however,  they  will 
be  found  to  be  organizations  with  large  memberships,  most  of  which  are 
not  Communists.  In  such  organizations  the  Communists  must  depend  upon 
political  cunning,  misrepresentation  and  confusion  to  maintain  their 
effectiveness. 

In  this  grouping  will  be  found  many  trade  unions,  political  organi- 
zations, civic,  racial,  religious,  minority  and  welfare  associations  and 
organizations  formed  to  accomplish  some  worthy  purpose  or  to  solve  a 
particular  problem  or  problems  of  a  particular  group  of  citizens. 

Such  organizations  will  have  formal  structures,  parliamentary  pro- 
cedures, and  frequently  will  be  broken  into  units,  with  delegates  to  central 
bodies;  which  makes  them  easy  targets  for  the  specialized  Communist 
technique  of  infiltration,  and  manipulation  of  the  disorganized  and  sin- 
cere majority  membership. 

The  committee  wishes  to  emphasize  that  this  large  group  of  organi- 
zations in  fields  of  humanitarian  and  welfare  endeavor  are  not  in  them- 
selves necessarily  Communist,  nor  is  it  a  prime  indication  of  Communistic 
activity  that  a  group  be  engaged  in  reform,  in  improvement  or  ameliora- 
tion of  some  condition  or  abuse.  The  fact  is  that  Red  Fascists  bitterly 
oppose  and  attack  the  idea  of  reform  and  reformers  because  the  basic 
tenet  of  Communism  is  that  no  reform  is  useful  that  does  not  go  the  com- 
plete "whole  hog"  toward  a  proletarian  dictatorship  in  a  Soviet  state. 


40  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  reason  that  trade-unions,  racial  and  religious  organizations  and 
reform  and  improvement  movements  consistently  are  infiltrated  and  dis- 
rupted by  Communist  agitators  and  conspirators  is  that  the  Communists 
work  relentlessly  to  either  control  or  make  impotent  such  mass  organiza- 
tions ;  to  either  bend  them  to  the  Communist  Party  line  and  the  twin 
program  of  serving  the  interests  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia 
and  of  preparing  the  way  for  violent  revolution  at  home,  or  to  destroy 
them. 

The  committee  fervently  hopes  that  the  factual  presentation  of  the 
motives,  techniques  and  objectives  of  the  Communist  Party  will  awaken 
leaders  of  trade-unions,  racial,  religious  and  minority  groups  and  their 
members;  and  all  citizens  who  join  in  organizations  and  causes  for 
improvement  and  betterment  of  civic  conditions,  to  the  basic  truth  that 
the  Communist  Party  and  its  program  of  treachery  and  disruption  is  the 
greatest  threat  to  their  organizations  and  the  purposes  for  which  they 
organized. 

The  committee  has  reported  in  the  past,  and  it  reiterates  again  with 
the  greatest  possible  emphasis,  that  the  one  sound  and  American  way  to 
defeat  the  Communist  disruption  of  worthy  organizations  and  programs 
is  for  the  sincere  leaders  and  members  to  participate  fully  in  the  conduct 
of  their  organizations ;  to  study  and  practice  the  techniques  of  constitu- 
tional government  and  democratic  procedure. 

The  record  of  success  of  aggressively  patriotic  leaders  in  political 
organizations,  in  trade-unions,  in  racial,  religious  and  other  minority 
groups,  in  consistently  exposing  and  defeating  Red  Fascist  traitors  within 
their  midst,  whenever  they  have  organized,  cooperated  and  worked  full 
time  at  the  job  of  preserving  their  own  organization  and  its  devotion  to 
American  ideals,  is  the  most  convincing  proof  that  it  can  be  done. 

Failure  to  guard  the  precious  jewels  of  liberty,  freedom  and  justice 
by  real,  day-to-day  participation  in  the  affairs  of  a  nation  or  an  organiza- 
tion, invariably  will  result  in  a  surrender  by  default  to  the  fanatical 
agents  of  Red  Fascism. 

Beyond  any  laws  or  any  activity  of  police  agencies  against  criminals 
and  traitors,  the  safest  assurance  of  the  continued  liberty  and  integrity 
of  a  nation  or  an  institution,  rests  on  the  loyalty,  devotion  and  courage 
of  those  who  enjoy  its  benefits  and  privileges. 

The  immediate  result  of  failure  in  loyalty,  devotion  and  courage 
invariably  will  be  the  corruption  by  Red  Fascists  of  the  purpose  and 
principles  for  which  people  have  come  together.  When  this  happens  to  an 
organization  it  brings  impotence  and  destruction.  When  it  happens  to 
a  nation  it  brings  confiscation,  the  concentration  camp  and  the  police  state. 

The  committee  finds  that  one  of  the  most  important  battle  grounds  in 
the  present  world  struggle  between  the  ideologies  of  freedom  and  of  totali- 
tarianism, is  the  mass  organizations;  and  the  committee  calls  on  all 
citizens  of  California  to  alert  themselves  to  the  danger  of  Communist 
infiltration  and  domination  of  their  organizations  and  institutions. 

Among  typical  mass  organizations  that  are  victims  of  Communist 
domination,  the  following  are  representative  and  significant.  The  com- 
mittee calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  many  sincere,  non-Communist  indi- 
viduals are  victimized  by  the  Red  Fascists  who  have  gained  positions  of 
domination  in  such  organizations :  Certain  international  unions,  councils 
and  locals  of  the  C.  I.  0.  unions ;  San  Francisco  and  Los  Angeles  C.  I.  0, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  41 

industrial  union  councils,  certain  councils  and  local  unions  of  the  A.  F. 
of  L.  unions ;  certain  councils  and  locals  of  the  independent  unions ;  the 
American  Labor  Party,  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  the  Inde- 
pendent Progressive  Party,  and  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

COMMUNIST  INFILTRATED,  BUT  NEITHER  CONTROLLED 
NOR  DOMINATED 

Numerically  one  of  the  largest  groups  of  Communist-influenced 
organizations,  and  next  to  the  completely  Communist  controlled  or  domi- 
nated from  a  strategical  and  tactical  Marxist  approach,  is  the  large 
number  of  organizations  that  are  infiltrated  by  Communists,  but  neither 
controlled  nor  dominated. 

Based  on  cold-blooded  strategy  and  tactics  for  revolution  as  laid 
down  by  Lenin  and  Stalin,  all  Communists  are  ordered  to  disrupt  and 
make  impotent  any  organized  group  that  they  neither  can  control  or 
dominate. 

This  fundamental  tenet  of  Marxist  activity  is  explained  clearly 
in  the  citations  from  Lenin  and  Stalin  at  the  opening  of  this  section 
of  the  committee 's  report. 

It  follows  naturally,  that  no  trade  union,  political  organization, 
racial,  religious  or  minority  group  organization;  no  organization  deal- 
ing with  foreign  policy,  business  and  economic  affairs,  or  the  problems 
of  workers,  unemployed,  veterans,  consumers,  taxpayers,  public 
employees,  farmers,  investors,  and  educators ;  or  groups  concerned  with 
charity,  welfare,  the  aged,  handicapped  and  youth,  or  any  group  con- 
cerned with  health,  safety,  delinquency,  housing,  transportation  and 
similar  problems,  can  be  immune  from  Communist  infiltration,  no  matter 
how  anti-Communist  the  organization  may  be. 

It  is  a  plain  fact,  familiar  to  the  committee  in  repeated  hearings 
and  investigations,  that  Communists  frequently  infiltrate  and  operate 
within  organizations  that  flatly  ban  Communists  from  membership. 
Communist  agents  openly  pursue  Communist  policies  and  tactics,  and 
when  exposed,  move  on  to  other  assignments,  to  be  replaced  by  new 
Communist  agents. 

The  committee  fully  is  aware  of  the  Communist  participation  in 
such  organizations  as  anti-Communist  A.  F.  of  L.  and  C.I.O.  unions, 
and  in  such  indisputably  patriotic  organizations  as  the  American  Legion, 
the  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars,  and  Disabled  American  Veterans,  and 
in  the  Democratic  and  Republican  Parties. 

It  is  a  matter  of  record  that  such  Communist  agents  have  been 
exposed  and  expelled  from  such  organizations.  Their  Red  Fascist  activi- 
ties invariably  follow  a  consistent  pattern. 

In  mass  organizations  that  Communists  cannot  control  or  dominate, 
the  strategy  of  the  Communist  agent  is  to  disrupt,  confuse,  divide  and 
nullify. 

In  these  organizations,  Communists  frequently  make  a  pretense  in 
bidding  for  control  or  domination.  Actually,  however,  recognizing  the 
tactical  facts  for  what  they  are  in  any  mass  organization  that  basicalty 
is  anti-Communist,  the  sole  purpose  of  the  Communists  in  such  groups 
is  to  make  them  ineffective  and  impotent  in  relation  to  the  Communist 
Party  line  issues  of  the  moment, 


42  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

All  Communists  are  indoctrinated  with  the  tactical  theory  laid 
down  in  the  sacred  text  of  Stalin's  blueprint  for  revolution,  "Problems 
of  Leninism,"  that  the  "party  never  must  relinquish  its  vanguard  role, 
but  at  the  same  time  it  must  not  commit  the  crime  of  entering  alone 
into  the  decisive  conflict  as  long  as  the  broad  masses  have  not  yet  taken 
up  a  position  either  of  direct  support  *  *  *  or  of  at  least  benevolent 
neutrality  toward  it  *  *  *. " 

It  is  a  matter  of  record  that  the  Communists  will  go  to  any  length 
and  suffer  any  indignity  in  order  to  render  a  mass  organization  impo- 
tent to  act  against  the  Communist  program,  if  they  are  unable  to  control 
or  dominate  the  organization. 

The  importance  of  this  stategy  to  the  Communist  Party  is  empha- 
sized by  Lenin  in  the  plainest  words  possible  in  "Leftwing  Communism, 
an  Infantile  Disorder."  Lenin  says: 

"It  is  necessary  to  *  *  *  agree  to  any  and  every  sacrifice,  and 
even — if  need  be  to  resort  to  all  sorts  of  devices,  maneuvers  and 
illegal  methods,  to  evasion  and  subterfuge,  in  order  to  penetrate 
into  the  trade-unions,  to  remain  in  them,  and  to  carry  on  Communist 
work  in  them  at  all  costs. ' ' 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  Communists  will  pretend  to  support 
any  shade  of  political,  economic  and  ethical  thinking  whenever  it  serves 
their  purpose  of  penetration  and  infiltration,  actually,  to  the  Com- 
munists, there  is  only  the  Communist  and  the  anti-Communist. 

To  a  Communist,  every  person  and  group  falls  into  one  of  two 
classifications:  Either  a  follower  and  completely  complacent  tool  to 
be  used,  or  else  an  enemy  to  be  destroyed  or  immobilized.  To  a  Com- 
munist, every  person  and  group  is  judged  according  to  their  possible 
value,  either  to  serve  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  or  to  prepare 
the  way  for  the  eventual  violent  revolution  at  home.  If  the  Communist 
cannot  win  a  person  or  organization  over  to  the  party  line,  his  alterna- 
tive tactic  is  to  destroy  or  immobilize. 

It  is  important  to  Communist  strategy  that  Communist  agents  pre- 
vent an  impression  of  unified  opposition  to  Communist  Party  line  activi- 
ties. Every  effort  is  made  to  have  a  dissident  element  present  in  such 
organizations  as  the  A.  F.  of  L.,  C.I.O.,  American  Legion  and  the  major 
political  parties  and  civic  groups  to  provide  a  publicity  springboard 
for  so-called  "rank  and  file"  protests  when  such  organizations  attack 
Communism  or  criticize  a  "party  line"  policy. 

Communists  always  must  be  concerned  with  keeping  up  the  morale 
and  enthusiasm  of  their  dupes.  Members  of  mass  groups,  who  mis- 
guidedly  follow  Communist-controlled  programs  and  policies  need,  and 
receive,  back-slapping  encouragement.  A  rebellious  and  noisy  minority 
in  a  large  anti- Communist  mass  organization,  therefore,  is  an  indis- 
pensable factor  in  Communist  activity. 

Among  organizations  that  fall  into  the  classification  of  Communist 
infiltrated,  but  neither  controlled  nor  dominated,  and  in  which  the  Com- 
munists operate  principally  to  disrupt,  confuse,  nullify,  and  delay,  may 
be  listed  virtually  every  mass  labor,  veteran,  civic  and  reform  organ- 
ization in  California. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  43 

Typical,  however,  of  organizations  faced  with  consistent  Communist 
disruption  and  confusion  are  most  A.  F.  of  L.,  C.I.O.  and  other  trade 
unions,  American  Legion,  Disabled  American  Veterans,  Veterans  of 
Foreign  Wars,  AMVETS,  American  Veterans  Committee  (the  Cali- 
fornia section  of  American  Veterans  Committee  falls  into  the  Com- 
munist-dominated class,  and  is  a  vociferous  dissident  minority  in  national 
AVC  affairs),  the  Democratic  and  Republican  parties,  National  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People,  bar  associations,  medical 
associations,  etc. 

The  committee  has  emphasized  in  previous  reports,  and  it  again 
calls  to  the  attention  of  all  patriotic  citizens  that  membership  in  civic 
organizations,  trade  unions,  political,  veteran  and  fraternal  organiza- 
tions carries  with  it  responsibilities  as  wrell  as  privileges. 

The  committee  urges  members  of  all  organized  groups  to  be  watchful 
constantly  against  Communist  infiltration  with  its  program  of  duplicity, 
treachery  and  disruption.  History  has  proved  repeatedly  that  no  nation, 
institution  or  organization  can  collaborate  with  Communism  without 
courting  destruction. 

COMMUNISTS  INFILTRATED  SOLELY  FOR  PURPOSES  OF  ESPIONAGE 

A  special  classification  of  Communist  infiltrated  organizations  is 
those  groups  that  are  so  patently  and  consistently  anti-Communist  that 
open  Communist  activity  would  be  recognized  promptly  and  effectively 
dealt  with. 

In  this  group  are  service  clubs,  fraternal  and  patriotic  organizations, 
most  posts  and  chapters  of  veteran  organizations,  many  trade  unions, 
business  associations,  police  and  public  agencies,  military  units,  religious 
organizations  and  sections  of  political  parties  and  civic  organizatons. 

The  Marxist  plotters  do  not  overlook  the  strategical  importance 
of  information  about  the  plans  and  programs  of  such  openly  anti- 
Communist  organizations. 

Typical  of  the  Communist  strategy  in  this  field  is  the  infiltration 
into  the  strongly  ant i- Communist  trade  unions.  In  such  organizations 
the  underground  element  of  the  Communist  Party  works  whenever  and 
wherever  possible  gathering  information  about  anti-Communist  pro- 
grams and  policies. 

This  field  of  Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist  strategy  and  tactics  is  based 
on  treachery  and  espionage,  yet  the  Kremlin  always  find  tools  to  do 
its  bidding. 

Since  this  is  a  secretive  and  conspiratorial  phase  of  Communist 
infiltration,  it  is  not  subject  to  the  customary  checks  and  tests  that  apply 
to  other  Communist  work  in  organized  groups. 

Need  for  such  investigation  in  this  field  arises  when  Communist 
activity,  propaganda  and  tactical  operations  indicate  that  the  Commu- 
nist too  frequently  appears  in  advance  possession  of  information  about 
the  plans  and  policies  of  responsible  organizations. 

Virtually  every  organized  group  in  America  is  subject  to  this  type 
of  Communist  infiltration.  In  the  light  of  present  world  relations,  and 
the  experiences  of  Canada  and  other  nations  with  Communist  spy  rings 
and  espionage  operations,  government,  business,  labor,  and  civic  institu- 
tions must  be  particularly  alert. 


44  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

MISCELLANEOUS  GROUPS 

There  are  many  institutions  and  organizations  which,  for  tactical 
or  strategic  reasons,  appear  to  be  permanently,  or  for  long  periods, 
immune  from  Communist  infiltration. 

The  committee  warns  that  no  group  can  feel  secure  from  Communist 
infiltration  and  disruption. 

The  committee  is  familiar  with  the  complacency  and  apathy  toward 
the  problem  of  Communist  conspiratorial  plotting  in  America.  This 
smug  attitude  may  be  summed  up  as  follows : 

"We  have  no  Communists  in  our  organization.  We  are  not  worried 
about  Communistic  attacks.  We  cannot  understand  why  everybody  gets 
so  excited  about  Communism.  All  we  have  to  do  is  proceed  with  our  own 
affairs  and  let  others  tend  to  theirs. ' ' 

This  is  the  identical  attitude  assumed  by  leaders  of  many  organiza- 
tions in  Germany  while  Hitler  was  rising  to  power,  and  it  was  the  atti- 
tude of  complacent  leaders  in  the  countries  now  behind  the  ' '  Iron  Cur- 
tain, ' '  while  the  Communists  and  the  traitors  plotted  to  seize  power. 

The  committee  warns  the  Members  of  the  Senate  and  the  leaders  of 
all  institutions  and  organizations  that  the  menace  of  Red  Fascist  con- 
spiracy is  a  real,  solemn  and  dangerous  one.  Leaders  of  organizations 
fortunate  enough  to  be  free  from  immediate  Communist  confusion  and 
disruption  should  take  an  interest  in  the  problems  of  the  many  institu- 
tions and  organizations  that  do  suffer  from  Communist  attacks.  They 
should  keep  informed  of  the  facts  of  Communist  activity  and  they  should, 
in  time  of  freedom  from  Communist  infiltration  and  disruption,  prepare 
their  own  organizations  to  meet  such  problems  in  the  future. 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  frequently  in  the  past,  and  it  again 
reiterates,  that  Communist  policy  is  ruthless  and  that  no  organization  is 
immune.  Since  the  objective  of  Communism  in  America  is  to  serve  the 
twin  program  fostering  the  interests  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet 
Russia  and  preparing  for  violent  revolutionary  overthrow  of  the  Ameri- 
can government,  no  individual,  institution  or  organization  can  afford 
the  luxury  of  complacency,  apathy  and  unconcern  toward  the  problem 
of  Communism  in  America  today. 

ORGANIZATIONS  CLASSIFIED  BY  COMMUNIST 
PURPOSE  AND  OBJECTIVE 

In  addition  to  the  classification  of  organizations  and  institutions  in 
accordance  with  the  proportion  of  Communist  Party  influence  that  may 
affect  them,  most  organizations  subject  to  Communist  influence  may  be 
classified  in  accordance  with  the  purpose  and  objective  of  world  Com- 
munism. 

Any  such  classification  will  embrace  the  four  first  classifications  in  the 
immediately  preceding  section  of  this  report:  (1)  Communist  created 
and  controlled ;  (2)  Communist  infiltrated  and  controlled ;  (3)  Commu- 
nist infiltrated  or  created,  and  dominated ;  and  (4)  Communist  infiltrated 
and  influenced  for  purposes  of  disruption,  confusion,  delay  and  nullifi- 
cation. 

The  other  two  classifications  of  organizations  infiltrated  for  espion- 
age purposes  and  those  not  of  immediate  interest  to  Communist  conspir- 
ators, obviously  have  no  value  to  the  Communist  Party  4n  advancing  its 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  45 

purpose  toward  its  final  objective  of  a  world  dictatorship  of  the  prole- 
tariat. 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  in  previous  sections  of  this  report 
that  it  is  vital  to  the  preservation  of  the  United  States  and  its  institutions 
that  every  citizen  learn  to  distinguish  the  proportion  of  Communist  influ- 
ence in  a  given  organization  in  order  to  meet  problems  that  may  arise  as 
a  result  of  Red  Fascist  activity  within  the  organization. 

We  are  all  aware  that  modern  life  creates  conflicts  between  groups. 
Many  are  healthy  and  proper.  Others  are  based  on  prejudice  and  intoler- 
ance, and  provide  material  for  manipulators  to  spread  disunity  and  to 
practice  their  unholy  doctrine  of  hate  and  conflict.  Wisdom  and  temper- 
ance in  interorganizational  affairs  are  equally  as  important  as  alertness 
and  f  orthrightness  in  meeting  subversive  disruption  head  on. 

The  committee  has  stated  previously  and  the  committee  again  reiter- 
ates, that  the  most  completely  vicious,  unholy  doctrine  of  hate,  discord 
and  strife  in  world  history  is  the  psuedoscientific  theory  of  Marx  as  prac- 
ticed by  world  Stalinites  in  their  conception  of  the  class-struggle. 

Communism  plays  upon  all  conflicts,  disagreements  and  group  ten- 
sions to  divert  organized  groups  from  the  sane  solution  of  specific  prob- 
lems. The  intensification  of  group  hatreds  is  the  Communists '  solution  to 
all  problems.  The  destruction  of  all  classes,  said  Marx,  is  the  only  road  to 
the ' '  classless  society. ' ' 

It  follows,  therefore,  that  conflict  and  disagreement  is  lush  soil  for 
Red  Fascist  revolutionary  manipulation.  Where  there  is  no  conflict  the 
Communist  must  create  conflict. 

It  is  important  that  every  citizen  understand  how  the  Communists 
play  upon  discords  and  conflicts  for  the  purpose  of  manipulating  and 
bending  organized  groups  toward  the  Eed  Fascist  twin  program  of  serv- 
ing the  interests  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  and  of  preparing 
the  way  for  violent  revolution  at  home. 

Only  on  the  basis  of  thoughtful  judgment  and  analysis  through 
factual  determination  of  the  proportion  of  Communist  influence  in  a  par- 
ticular organization,  together  with  a  thorough  understanding  of  why  the 
infiltration  and  corruption  of  such  an  organization  is  important  in  the 
strategic  pattern  of  revolutionary  Communist  plotting,  will  responsible 
citizens  be  able  to  adopt  correct  decisions  in  interorganizational  relations. 

The  committee  is  well  aware  of  the  fact  that  this  places  upon  all 
citizens  a  burden  of  effort  and  the  expenditure  of  time  and  money.  How- 
ever, the  benefits  of  the  American  system  carry  with  them  responsibilities 
of  loyalty  and  devotion.  Every  American  is  under  sacred  obligation  to  act 
for  the  protection  and  preservation  of  the  institutions  and  ideals  that 
have  protected  his  liberties  and  freedom  throughout  our  nation's  exist- 
ence. 

Californians  cannot,  and  will  not,  fail  in  this  period  of  crisis.  They 
will  meet  the  problem  of  Communism  intelligently  and  bring  to  its  solu- 
tion the  same  pioneer  spirit  of  determination,  vigor  and  cooperation  that 
marked  the  creation  of  this  great  State  as  a  shining  star  in  the  Star 
Spangled  Banner. 

The  committee  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  California  is  in  a  key 
position  in  national  defense ;  in  economic  and  agricultural  contributions 
to  national  defense;  in  aviation,  motion  picture,  radio,  shipping  and 


46  UN-AMEEICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

transportation ;  and  that  it  has  become  a  crucial  State  in  major  political 
decisions  affecting  the  welfare  of  the  Nation  and  the  future  of  the  world. 

The  unprecedented  growth  in  California's  population  has  created 
conditions  and  groupings  that  provide  lush  material  upon  which  Com- 
munist disruption  can  feed. 

California's  great  past,  and  imposing  future,  presents  a  challenge 
to  both  the  Communists  and  the  Americans,  marking  the  division  of 
world-thinking  between  the  two  ideologies  of  totalitarianism  and  of 
freedom. 

The  final  record  of  how  that  challenge  will  be  met,  will  be  deter- 
mined by  the  energy,  devotion,  courage  and  morality  of  the  advocates 
of  these  two  utterly  contradictory  philosophies. 

The  committee  has  determined  from  past  investigations  that  too 
many  Americans  are  completely  ignorant  of  the  purposes  and  objectives 
of  world  Communism ;  and  therefore,  are  ill-equipped  to  cope  with  prob- 
lems raised  by  Red  Fascist  activity  in  interorganizational  relations.  The 
committee  believes,  therefore,  that  it  is  of  supreme  importance  that  the 
citizens  of  California  have  readily  available  a  simple,  understandable 
source  of  information  on  the  purposes  and  objectives  of  world  Commu- 
nist revolutionary  conspiracy,  so  that  they  will  understand  how  the  strat- 
egy and  tactics  of  Red  Fascist  plotting  are  directed  and  applied. 

THE  SIX  BASIC  DIVISIONS  OF  COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 

All  Communist  front  organizations  can  be  classified  conveniently 
and  logically  under  six  basic  headings. 

The  six  basic  classifications  of  Communist  front  organizations  are : 

( 1 )  The  Indispensable  Organizations  for  Revolution ; 

(2)  Culture  and  Science ; 

(3)  Organizations  Dealing  With  Domestic  Problems  and  Activity; 

(4)  Organizations  Dealing  With  Foreign  Affairs  and  Problems ; 

( 5 )  Organizations  With  Appeals  to  Basic  Groups ;  and 

( 6 )  Miscellaneous  Organizations,  Committees  and  Alliances. 

An  examination  of  the  purposes  and  objectives  of  Red  Fascism 
reveals  that  behind  the  apparent  confusion  and  disorder  of  the  creation, 
dissolution  and  manipulation  of  thousands  of  front  groups,  there  are 
basic,  essential  patterns  that  are  molded  by  the  functions  and  needs  of  a 
revolutionary  organization  forced  by  necessity  to  operate  behind  false 
fronts  and  fagades. 

Consequently,  the  apparently  confused  and  spontaneous  mass  of 
front  organizations  can  be  classified  logically  within  the  framework  of  the 
six  basic  classifications. 

The  committee  presents  herewith  an  analytical  classification  of  the 
various  Communist  fronts  into  the  essential  subdivisions  under  the  gen- 
eral headings  of  the  six  basic  classifications. 

(1)   The  Indispensable  Organizations  for  Revolution 

Any  organized  program  for  revolution  that  is  committed  to  serve 
the  foreign  policy  of  one  nation — which  is  the  program  and  commitment 
of  world  Communism — must  have  two  fundamental  types  of  organiza- 
tions, whose  work  is  closely  coordinated  and  frequently  interchangeable. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  47 

These  two  essential  fundamental  types  of  organization  are : 
I.  Completely  Communist  controlled  basic  organizations  to  carry 
out  Communist  work  in  every  segment  of  society ;  and 

II.  Completely  Communist  controlled  publication  and  information 
organizations  to  carry  out  Communist  propaganda  in  every  seg- 
ment of  society. 

Within  these  two  classifications  will  be  found  the  permanent  struc- 
ture of  the  Communist  Party — the  hard  core  of  trained,  disciplined, 
militant  and  fanatical  disciples  of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism.  These 
revolutionaries  work  day  and  night  to  penetrate  organized  groups  to 
either  control  or  immobilize  them  to  the  interest  of  the  foreign  policy  of 
Soviet  Russia  or  to  prepare  for  violent  revolution  at  home. 

I.  Communist  Basic  Organizations 

Organizations  for  Communist  work  naturally  begin  with  the  Com- 
munist Party  itself.  The  organizational  structure  of  the  Communist 
Party  has  been  outlined  in  detail  in  the  1943,  1945,  1947  reports  by  this 
committee.  The  committee  has  pointed  out  that  the  organizational  struc- 
ture of  the  Communist  Party  is  subject  to  constant  modification  and 
revision  for  immediate  tactical  and  strategical  purposes,  but  its  essential 
character,  as  a  secret,  conspiratorial,  revolutionary  institution,  never 
changes. 

Next  in  importance  to  the  Communist  Party  itself  are  the  American 
sections  of  basic  international  organizations,  created  by  the  Comintern 
to  carry  on  the  program  of  Red  revolution  throughout  the  world. 

Among  such  organizations  are  those  for  "friendship  with  Soviet 
Russia,"  for  defense  of  Communists,  and  for  political,  racial,  economic 
and  educational  purposes.  The  most  important  of  all  are  those  that  oper- 
ate within  the  trade-union  field  on  an  international  scale,  because  the 
Communists  depend  on  ' '  revolutionary  industrial  unionism  "  as  an  indis- 
pensable element  in  preparing  the  way  for  eventual  violent  revolution 
and  establishment  of  the  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat  in  any  one 
country. 

With  the  exception  of  such  comparatively  broadly  based  completely 
Communist  controlled  organizations  as  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, International  Workers  Order,  Morning  Freiheit  Association,  Con- 
gress of  American  Women,  International  Labor  Defense  and  Civil 
Rights  Congress,  Labor  Research  Association,  and  similar  completely 
controlled  Red  fronts,  the  Communist  Party  does  not  seek  or  desire  large 
memberships  in  its  fundamental  front  organizations. 

The  reason  for  this  must  be  obvious  to  any  intelligent  observer.  These 
organizations  are  the  hard  core  of  the  revolutionary  conspiracy  and,  in 
accordance  with  the  "vanguard  role"  of  the  party,  any  other  attitude 
would  be  ridiculous  and  contradictory. 

For  the  guidance  of  Californians  in  untangling  this  pattern  of  Red 
intrigue,  the  committee  presents  a  quotation  from  an  official  Communist 
source  that  states  in  the  plainest  possible  language  the  Communistic  idea 
of  its  * '  vanguard  role. ' ' 


48  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  pamphlet  published  in  1943  by  Workers  Library  Publishers, 
entitled:  "A  Talk  About  the  Communist  Party/'  contained  the  follow- 
ing specific  boast : 

« *  *  *  Qur  party  *  *  *  while  being  a  small  well-knit  group, 
thinking  and  working  collectively  in  a  way  that  makes  it  act  dif- 
ferent from  any  other  party  and  different  from  the  masses,  at  the 
same  time,  if  it  is  really  functioning  as  the  Communist  Party,  is 
always  in  the  closest  contact  with  the  masses  *  "  *  Our  program 
is  the  most  powerful  thing  in  the  political  life  of  our  country  today, 
the  most  powerful  thing  in  the  world  today.  We  are  planting  it  in 
America  so  that  it  grows  right  out  of  the  ground  of  our  country  and 
our  community.  Our  party  is  strong  because  of  this,  strong  beyond 
its  numbers,  because  we  grow  slowly  in  numbers,  we  grow  by  leaps 
and  bounds  in  our  influence  *  *  *  We  are  the  ones  who  always 
know  what  we  are  doing  and  where  we  are  going  *  *  *  We  work 
together,  we  think  together,  and  that  gives  us  strength  beyond  any 
individuals  *  *  *  In  our  agitation  around  these  demands  (the 
everyday  needs  of  the  workers)  we  must  emphasize  the  absolute 
necessity  for  the  proletarian  revolution.  Our  strategy  is  to  utilize 
these  immediate  demands  to  educate  and  organize  the  masses  in  prep- 
aration for  the  final  revolutionary  struggle,  which  will  abolish  capi- 
talism altogether.  Reliance  on  immediate  demands  would  lead  us 
merely  to  reformism.  Our  party  is  a  revolutionary  party.  It  aims 
not  to  ease  conditions  a  bit  under  capitalism  for  the  workers,  but  to 
abolish  capitalism  altogether  *  *  *  The  Commanist  Party  *  *  * 
knows  how  to  participate  in  the  daily  struggle  of  the  workers.  It 
knows  how  to  utilize  all  these  struggles  to  develop  class  conscious- 
ness *  *  *  and  thus  begin  the  mobilization  for  the  eventual  over- 
throw of  capitalism. ' ' 

This  is  the  purpose  and  objective  of  Communism  in  a  plain  statement 
from  an  official  Communist  source  and  it  explains  the  method  to  be  used 
to  accomplish  the  goal  of  violent  revolution. 

Typical  of  the  Communist  organization  under  this  subdivision  are : 
The  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, International  Labor  Defense,  Civil  Rights  Congress,  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade, 
and  League  of  American  Writers,  etc. 

II.  Communist  Controlled  Publications  and  Information  Services 

The  life-blood  of  Communist  conspiracy  is  the  party's  press  and 
publishing  businesses.  Through  their  newspapers,  magazines,  books,  sym- 
posiums, pamphlets,  handbills  and  analytical  publications,  the  Commu- 
nists train  and  educate  their  converts  for  the  revolution ;  and,  at  the  same 
time,  they  spread  their  propaganda  to  confuse,  disrupt  and  divide. 

The  Communist  press  and  publication  system  in  the  United  States 
is  comprehensive,  well-financed  and  efficient.  Making  use  of  the  network 
of  Communist  organizations  and  front  groups  it  is  able  to  systematically 
and  scientifically  circulate  Communist  publications  and  propaganda 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  United  States. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  49 

The  gigantic  propaganda  apparatus  of  Fascism  and  Nazism  at  its 
peak  never  approached  the  efficient  and  extensive  operation  of  the  net- 
work of  Red  Fascist  propaganda. 

Equally  important  with  the  task  of  proselyting  carried  on  by  the 
Communist  press,  is  the  fundamental  requirement  for  machinery  and 
methods  for  attack  and  smear.  Anyone  who  opposes  or  exposes  the  Com- 
munist conspiracy  must  be  destroyed. 

A  continuous  program  of  character  assassination  is  conducted  by  the 
Communist  publication-system  designed  to  discredit  anyone  who  attacks 
or  exposes  Communism.  Public  officials  and  law  enforcement  agencies  are 
to  be  constantly  smeared  and  discredited  in  the  minds  of  members  of  mass 
organizations. 

A  characteristic  of  the  Communist  conspiracy  is  the  unbroken  pro- 
gram for  villification ;  the  smearing  of  non-Communist  radical,  liberal, 
progressive,  and  even  revolutionary  movements.  Non-Stalinist  socialism  is 
attacked  with  the  same  fury  as  capitalism  and  parliamentary  government. 

The  committee  has  in  its  voluminous  files  innumerable  Communist 
publications  devoted  to  attacks  on  individuals,  organizations  and  institu- 
tions, who  refuse  to  kowtow  to  the  Moscow  brand  of  "progress,  peace  and 
prosperity. ' ' 

No  more  vicious  criticism  of  trade-unions  and  trade-union  leadership 
exists  than  the  abusive  Communist  propaganda  smears  of  anti-Communist 
trade  unions  and  leaders. 

Among  typical  examples  of  the  Communist  press  and  publications 
are :  The  Worker  (weekly)  and  The  Daily  Worker,  New  York  Commu- 
nist daily  newspaper,  circulated  nationally;  People's  Daily  World,  and 
People's  World  Weekend  Edition,  San  Francisco  Communist  daily  news- 
paper, circulated  nationally;  New  Masses-Mainstream;  Political  Affairs 
(formerly  The  Communist)  ;  Four  Continent  Book  Corp.;  Universal  Dis- 
tributors; Book  Find  Club;  International  Publishers;  New  Century  Pub- 
lishers; Soviet  Russia  Today;  Fraternal  Outlook;  The  Chart;  Clarity; 
Railroad  Workers  Link;  Jewish  Life;  Woman  Power;  Teeners'  Topics; 
Youth;  Student  Outlook;  Economic  Notes;  Among  Friends;  Congress 
Views;  Freiheit;  Labor  Defender;  Midwest  Daily  Record;  Black  and 
White;  In  Fact;  New  Times;  New  Africa;  I  cor;  New  World;  Pacific 
Weekly;  Action  Bulletin;  and  the  California  Eagle. 

In  addition  to  completely  Communist  controlled  and  dominated  pub- 
lications, there  also  is  a  long  list  of  trade-union,  racial,  minority,  liberal 
and  special-interest  publications  into  which  Communists  have  infiltrated 
as  editors,  correspondents  and  contributors.  The  Communist  influence  is 
established  through  such  news  services  as  Federated  Press,  Economic 
Notes,  Allied  Labor  News  Service,  Associated  Magazine  Contributors, 
Inc.,  Trade  Union  Service,  Inc.,  and  Labor  Research  Association. 

The  Communist  propaganda  system,  combined  with  the  nation-wide 
network  of  publications,  information  exchange,  special  writers,  and  serv- 
ices is  so  comprehensive  and  integrated  that  the  average  leadership  of 
organized  groups  in  America  today  are  totally  unequipped  to  cope  with 
its  flood  of  propaganda. 

Communists  are  so  efficiently  disciplined  that  they  are  able  to  organ- 
ize a  propaganda  campaign  on  a  few  hours  notice.  They  will  produce 
publications,  press  releases,  plant  Red  propaganda  in  newspaper  and 

5— L-7088-D 


50  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

wire  service  stories,  and  start  a  flood  of  letters,  postcards,  telegrams  and 
resolutions,  that  amazes  and  bewilders  the  ordinary  American. 

(2)    Culture  and  Science 

The  second  basic  classification  of  Communist  activity,  with  relation 
to  the  purposes  and  objectives  of  world  Communism,  is  that  dealing  with 
culture  and  sciences. 

Next  to  the  organizations  of  trained  revolutionary  fanatics  and  their 
systematic  press  and  propaganda  service,  infiltration  of  culture  and 
science  is  regarded  by  the  Marxists  as  an  indispensable  adjunct  of  prac- 
tical and  successful  revolutionary  work. 

The  best  test  of  the  importance  of  this  classification,  too  frequently 
disregarded  or  minimized  by  the  average  citizen,  is  the  attitude  toward 
culture  and  science  taken  by  Communists  once  they  have  seized  control 
of  a  nation  and  established  a  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat. 

Communism  is  so  inimical  to  the  concept  of  freedom  and  liberty  that 
its  exponents  know  full  well  that  they  cannot  tolerate  a  breath  of  individ- 
ual freedom  and  liberty,  lest  their  entire  system  be  swept  away  by  an 
indignant  populace. 

This  basic  classification  of  Communist  work  in  this  category  falls 
naturally  into  three  subdivisions. 

I.  Arts  and  Culture ; 
II.  Sciences  and  Professional ;  and 
III.  Youth  and  Education. 

In  every  one  of  these  classifications,  Communists  work  incessantly  to 
pervert,  to  control  or  to  immobilize  every  institution  and  organization  in 
these  fields  to  the  benefit  of  Marxism  as  ordained  by  the  Communist  dicta- 
tors in  the  Kremlin. 

I.  Arts  and  Culture 

There  is  no  field  of  art  or  culture  in  which  Communists  have  not 
developed  a  program  and  charted  organizational  and  propaganda  actvity. 
Literature,  painting,  music,  the  theatre,  opera,  ballet,  and  every  one  of 
the  popular  arts  are  logical  targets  for  Red  corruption  because  of  their 
recognized  influence  upon  masses  of  people. 

Motion  pictures  and  radio  are  particular  targets  for  Marxist  infiltra- 
tion because  of  their  propaganda  value.  Additionally,  films,  radio,  litera- 
ture and  similar  fields  are  attractive  to  Communists  because  of  the 
tremendous  fund-raising  possibilities  that  exist  in  the  confusion  and 
bewilderment  among  many  high-salaried  creative  workers  on  such  sub- 
jects as  economics,  politics,  government,  foreign  affairs  and  reform;  and 
in  the  traditional  warm-hearted  susceptibility  of  theatrical  and  artistic 
folk  to  charitable  and  humanitarian  appeals. 

Since  all  art  is  critical  to  a  greater  or  lesser  degree  of  nature,  human- 
ity and  the  imperfect  institutions  of  mankind,  artists  and  art  mediums 
are  prime  material  for  the  Communist  program.  Communism,  we  must 
always  remember,  feeds  011  dissent  and  discord. 

The  committee  has  presented  detailed  analysis  and  comment  in 
previous  reports  upon  the  psychological  aspects  of  those  who  become 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  51 

victims  of  the  Marxist  philosophy.  The  committee  is  well  aware  of  the 
fact  that  many  sincere  and  misguided  individuals  in  the  literary,  the- 
atrical, film,  music  and  other  artistic  fields  are  deluded  by  the  apparent 
enthusiasm  of  Communists  for  humanitarian  ventures. 

Celebrities  in  the  public  limelight  should  be  particularly  careful 
not  to  fall  for  the  Red  conspiracy  through  appeal  to  their  sympathetic 
and  charitable  impulses.  There  are  scores  of  bona  fide,  responsible  organi- 
zations through  which  anyone  can  express  such  impulses.  It  should  be 
obvious  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  rush  into  special  committees  and 
"letterhead  organizations7'  in  order  to  accomplish  worthy  purposes. 

The  motion  picture  industry,  itself  a  prime  target  for  Communist 
manipulation  and  fund  raising,  has  been  victimized  repeatedly  by  brazen 
and  financially  dishonest  Communist  front  organizations.  The  Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi  League,  the  Motion  Picture  Democratic  Committee, 
the  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee,  the  Hollywood  Independent  Citi- 
zens Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions,  and  scores  of 
swiftly  created  and  soon  dissolved  "letterhead  organizations,"  all  con- 
trolled and  directed  by  Communists,  are  typical  examples. 

A  significant  feature  of  Communist  front  organizations  in  the 
artistic  and  cultural  spheres  is  the  consistent  repetition  of  the  same 
names  in  group  after  group ;  and  the  consistent  repetition  in  the  impor- 
tant paid  and  executive  positions  of  secretary,  treasurer,  executive 
director,  executive  secretary,  program  chairman,  public  relations  direc- 
tor and  editor,  of  the  same  monotonously  familiar  procession  of  Com- 
munist hacks  and  party-liners,  each  of  whom  is  deftly  insinuated  into 
these  key  positions  by  veteran  fellow-travelers  in  the  arts  organizations. 

A  major  and  subtle  feature  of  Communist  infiltration  into  the  arts 
and  cultural  fields  is  the  steady,  persistent  and  successful  Communist 
program  of  planting  trusted  and  adept  Communist  agents  in  positions 
that  influence  hiring,  purchase  of  material  or  talent,  and  the  critical 
and  editorial  handling  of  art  creations. 

This  activity  is  carried  on  in  conjunction  with  the  network  of  Com- 
munist schools.  Many  of  these  Red  institutions  pose  as  general  schools 
of  learning  and  specialize  in  courses  of  the  arts,  professions,  trade-union, 
and  economic  problems  of  the  day. 

Two  of  the  most  notorious  of  these  schools  in  California  are  the 
People's  Educational  Center,  of  Hollywood,  which  is  the  direct  suc- 
cessor to  the  openly  Communist  Workers'  School  of  Los  Angeles,  and 
the  California  Labor  School  of  San  Francisco.  The  Communist  char- 
acter and  history  of  these  Red  centers  of  intrigue  and  treachery  are 
documented  fully  in  the  committee's  previous  reports. 

Through  infiltration  into  key  positions  where  Communists  and  fel- 
low-travelers can  be  advanced,  aided  and  promoted  in  their  careers,  Com- 
munist propaganda  experts  are  able  to  engage  in  smearing,  sabotaging 
and  hampering  anti-Communist  writers,  actors,  composers,  and  other 
creative  workers,  and  are  able  to  conduct  an  intellectual  and  psycho- 
logical reign  of  terror  among  liberal  minded  workers  in  the  arts. 

Most  of  the  prominent  pro-Communist  fellow-travelers  among  the- 
atrical, motion  picture,  literary,  and  musical  celebrities  have  back- 
grounds of  membership  in,  and  association  with,  the  front  organizations 
sponsored  by  the  Communist  Party  in  the  realms  of  art  and  culture. 


52  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Communists  regard  the  infiltration,  manipulation  and  control  of 
artistic  and  cultural  media  as  one  of  the  indispensable  phases  of  their 
program  of  revolution. 

The  committee  finds  that  this  is  a  vital  phase  of  American  life  in 
which  the  Communists  wield  an  amazing  and  unprecedented  degree  of 
influence.  Such  intellectural  sabotage  provides  a  fundamental  weapon 
in  talent  and  material  for  the  Red  propaganda  attack  on  American  insti- 
tutions ;  and  it  provides  celebrities  and  funds  to  be  used  for  the  promo- 
tion of  Communist  causes  and  programs. 

One  of  the  most  dangerous  manifestations  of  this  Communist 
attack  on  American  art  and  culture  is  found  in  the  alleged  scientific 
program  of  Marxist  writers  for  corrupting  American  history,  and 
ghoulishly  fastening  the  label  of  Marxism  upon  great  American  his- 
torical figures  in  an  attempt  to  sell  Communism  to  the  American  people. 
Communist  writers  and  composers  have  attempted  with  subtlety  and 
trickery  to  twist  and  pervert  the  traditional  radical  history  and  pioneer 
spirit  of  Americans  to  serve  the  interests  of  their  unholy  aim  for  totali- 
tarian dictatorship. 

Typical  of  Communist  front  organizations  in  this  classification  are : 
Actors  Laboratory  Theater,  American  Writers  Congress,  Artists  Front 
to  Win  the  War,  Congress  of  American  Revolutionary  Writers,  Film 
Audiences  for  Democracy,  Group  Theater,  Hollywood  Writers  Mobili- 
zation, Frontier  Films,  League  of  American  Writers,  League  of  Workers 
Theaters,  National  Committee  Against  Censorship  of  the  Theatre  Arts, 
New  Dance  League,  New  Theatre  League,  Theatre  Arts  Committee, 
United  American  Artists,  etc. 

II.  Sciences  and  Professions 

Parallel  to  and  identical  with  Communist  front  organization  in  the 
subclassification  for  Arts  and  Culture,  are  the  Communist  fronts  for 
the  Sciences  and  Professions. 

For  tactical  and  strategic  reasons,  such  as  the  Communist  attempt 
to  capture  support  for  an  independent  political  program  or  movement, 
these  groups  are  combined.  The  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the 
Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions  was  merged  in  the  present  major  Com- 
munist political  front  group,  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America, 
although  it  functions  independently  on  occasion. 

Communist  front  groups  in  the  Sciences  and  Professions  follow  the 
same  pattern,  and  have  the  same  general  purpose,  as  those  in  the  field 
of  Art  and  Culture. 

A  significant  feature  in  both  groups  is  the  establishment  of  a  long 
list  of  ready-and-willing  fellow-travelers  who  provide  "window-dress- 
ing" promptly  and  meekly  whenever  Communist  Party  strategy  and 
tactics  call  for  the  creation  of  a  new  front  organization  in  a  hurry. 

Typical  of  Communist  front  organizations  in  the  Sciences  and  Pro- 
fessions classification  are:  Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chem- 
ists and  Technicians  (now  the  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers, 
C.I.O.),  International  Juridical  Association,  National  Lawyers  Guild, 
Committee  for  the  first  amendment,  Screen  Writers  Guild,  Artists  Com- 
mittee to  Win  the  War,  etc. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  53 

III.  Youth  and  Education 

Communists  devote  interminable  discussion  and  analysis  to  strategy 
and  tactics  to  subvert,  cajole  and  lure  every  segment  of  the  community 
into  either  falling  victim  to  the  Communist  philosophy,  or  else  becom- 
ing so  confused  and  disunited  that  it  is  incapable  of  effective  opposition 
to  Communist  intrigue. 

The  committee 's  files  contain  scores  of  analytical  discussions  of  the 
two  preceding  subclassifications,  Art  and  Culture,  and  Sciences  and 
Professions.  This  material  is  completely  flooded  out  by  the  downpour 
of  tactical  and  propaganda  material  on  how  to  corrupt  youth  and  to 
dominate  and  influence  education. 

From  William  Z.  Foster  on  down,  the  Communist  leadership  con- 
tinues to  beat  its  followers  over  the  head  with  criticism  of  their  mis- 
takes in  this  field.  Communist  agents  are  continually  admonished  to 
cultivate  this  field  to  the  fullest  in  true  Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist  style. 

No  phase  of  education  is  immune  from  Communist  infiltration, 
strategic  and  tactical  attack.  From  teachers'  unions  to  child  care  centers ; 
from  textbooks  to  the  classroom,  Communist  infiltration  proceeds  steadily 
and  persistently. 

A  close  relationship  will  be  found  between  Communist  front  groups 
and  their  familiar  window-dressing  of  confirmed  fellow-travelers  in  the 
fields  of  Art  and  Culture,  and  Sciences  and  Professions,  and  the  front 
groups  directly  intend  to  influence  the  educational  structure  of  America. 
Likewise,  many  professors  and  educators  will  be  found  repeatedly  in 
the  directorship  of  front  organizations  in  these  interlocking  fields,  as  a 
glance  at  the  index  of  this  report  will  disclose. 

Through  a  complicated  net  of  Marxist  groups,  Ked  agents  have 
penetrated  into  the  writing,  editing,  printing,  publishing  and  purchasing 
of  textbooks  to  be  used  in  American  schools.  The  objective  of  this  Com- 
munist penetration  is  to  insinuate  condemnation  and  criticism  of  the 
American  system  into  the  minds  of  students,  while  praising  and  com- 
mending Soviet  Russia  and  socialism  as  the  solution  of  all  our  problems. 

One  of  the  principal l  i  transmission  belts ' '  for  such  propaganda  has 
been  the  Committee  on  Education  of  the  National  Council  of  American- 
Soviet  Friendship. 

Another  major  phase  of  Communist  educational  work  is  the  Com- 
munist Party's  own  network  of  schools  and  classes,  running  from  inno- 
cent-appearing classes  for  aspiring  artists  and  trade-unionists  to  the 
ultimate  postgraduate  courses  conducted  by  selected  American  Com- 
munists in  the  Lenin  School  in  Moscow,  where  the  fine  arts  of  espionage, 
sabotage,  street-fighting,  dynamiting,  and  other  indispensable  skills  for 
violent  revolution  are  taught  by  the  Kremlin's  most  authoritative  experts. 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  in  a  previous  section  of  this  report 
that  the  two  most  important  Communist  schools  in  California  are  The 
California  Labor  School  in  San  Francisco,  and  People's  Educational 
Center  in  Hollywood.  These  schools  are  under  the  complete  control  and 
domination  of  the  Communist  Party.  In  addition  to  serving  the  cause 
of  Communist  educational  work,  they  also  function  as  intelligence  and 
communication  centers  between  the  formal  Communist  apparatus  in. 
California  and  the  many  front  groups  spawned  by  the  Party. 


54  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

These  two  schools  serve  as  important  and  convenient  meeting  places 
for  important  Communist  functionaries  and  fellow-travelers.  The  record 
of  these  schools  and  their  management  is  reported  fully  in  the  alphabeti- 
cal listing  of  Communist  front  organizations  of  this  report. 

Of  comparable  importance  in  the  network  of  Communist  schools  is 
another  Pacific  Coast  institution,  The  Seattle  Labor  School. 

The  key  mass  organization  for  Communist  infiltration  and  corrup- 
tion of  American  youth  is  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  which  is  the 
direct  successor  to  The  Young  Communist  League.  (See  1945-1947 
reports.)  An  important  adult  adjunct  to  American  Youth  for  Democracy 
is  The  Citizens  Committee  on  Academic  Freedom  and  similar  organiza- 
tions, formed  to  defend  A.Y.D.  from  attempts  to  bar  and  ban  it  from 
participating  in  campus  activities  in  schools,  colleges  and  universities. 

Another  important  mass  organization,  heavily  infiltrated  and  effec- 
tively dominated  by  the  Communist  Party,  is  American  Youth  for  a 
Free  World,  which  is  a  success6r  to  the  Communist-influenced  American 
Youth  Congress. 

American  Youth  for  a  Free  World  was  linked  directly  to  the  inter- 
national Communist  dominated  youth  organization,  World  Youth  Coun- 
cil, with  headquarters  in  London,  England.  At  an  international  World 
Youth  Conference  in  November,  1945,  in  London,  a  commission  was 
created,  which  developed  The  World  Federation  of  Democratic  Youth. 

This  is  a  completely  Communist  dominated  international  body,  which 
has  close  ties  with  two  other  important  Red  international  bodies.  These 
are  The  World  Federation  of  Trade  Unions  and  The  International  Demo- 
cratic Women's  Federation. 

World  Federation  of  Democratic  Youth  publishes  an  official  maga- 
zine, World  Youth,  in  four  languages,  Russian,  French,  Spanish,  and 
English.  It  staged  an  international  conference  and  youth  festival  in 
Prague,  Czechoslovakia,  in  July,  1947. 

(3)   Communist  Fronts  for  Domestic  Affairs 

The  committee  has  emphasized  in  past  reports,  and  it  here  reiterates 
as  strongly  as  possible,  that  the  Communist  Party  in  any  country  is 
dedicated  to  the  twin  program  of  serving  the  interests  of  the  foreign 
policy  of  Soviet  Russia,  and  of  preparing  the  way  for  violent  revolution 
at  home.  This  pattern  is  followed  in  Communist  fronts  for  domestic 
affairs. 

There  are  two  broad  divisions  of  Communist  activity  in  the  field  of 
domestic  affairs:  those  dealing  with  direct  Communist  programs  and 
those  dealing  with  Communist  infiltration  and  manipulation  of  basic 
community  groups.  The  latter  subject  is  dealt  with  in  the  Basic  Group 
Appeal  section  as  Classification  Five  of  the  Six  Basic  Classifications,  in 
a  subsequent  section  of  this  report. 

In  the  field  of  domestic  affairs,  the  Communist  front  groups  dealing 
with  direct  Communist  activities  fall  into  three  sub  classifications : 

I.  Defense,  Honoring  and  Support  of  Known  Communists  and 

Communist  Organizations ; 
II.  Legal  Defense  and  Civil  Rights;  and 

III.  Political  and  Legislative. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  55 

In  addition,  the  Basic  Group  Number  Five,  described  in  a  subsequent 
section  of  this  report,  provides  Communist  front  organizations  with 
special  appeal  for  charity,  relief  and  unemployed,  racial,  religious  and 
refugee,  trade-unions,  consumers,  farmers,  veterans  and  similar  segments 
of  the  community. 

I.   Defense,  Honoring  and  Support  of  Known  Communists  and  Communist 
Organizations 

An  acid  test  of  an  individual  or  organization  for  Communist  leaning 
is  the  attitude  toward  this  classification  of  Communist  front  work. 

No  matter  how  sincere  or  confused  an  individual  or  group  may  be, 
there  is  no  excuse  for  lending  his  name  or  the  prestige  of  an  individual 
or  group  to  the  honoring,  support  and  defense  of  known  Communists 
and  front  groups  under  the  pretext  that  the  supporters  of  such  movements 
1 '  do  not  know  what  they  are  doing. ' ' 

This  subclassification  is  entirely  separate  from  the  following  sub- 
classification  under  the  general  heading  of  Legal  Defense  and  Civil 
Rights,  in  which  are  to  be  found  Communist  fronts  that  specialize  in 
capitalizing  on  controversies  that  are  useful  to  the  Red  program  of  dis- 
cord and  confusion,  and  which  lend  themselves  to  fund-raising  campaigns 
wherein  Communists  can  secure  control  of  large  sums  under  the  pretext 
of  carrying  on  a  humanitarian  activity. 

The  most  conspicuous  recent  phase  of  this  type  of  front  organiza- 
tion manipulation  has  been  the  series  of  committees,  resolutions,  rallies, 
protests  and  publicity  statements  drummed  up  by  the  Communist  Party 
and  its  fellow-travelers  to  defend  known  Communists  from  charges  of 
perjury,  contempt  of  Congress  and  the  courts,  immigration  and  passport 
fraud,  illegal  registration,  and  other  violations  of  law. 

It  is  a  standard  policy  of  the  Communist  Party  to  contend,  in  every 
case  where  a  Communist  is  arrested,  indicted  or  prosecuted,  that  the 
criminal  action  against  the  Communist  is  not  for  purposes  of  law  enforce- 
ment and  protection  of  the  United  States,  but  solely  for  purposes  of 
intimidation,  "thought  control"  and  persecution  of  minorities.  It  is 
significant  that  Communists  display  little  concern  for  the  problems  of 
non-Communists  who  become  involved  in  the  same  legal  predicaments; 
and  that  further,  the  Communists  will  not  hesitate  to  demand  total  denial 
of  civil  rights  to  those  individuals  and  organizations  they  have  labeled 
as  Fascist  and  reactionary. 

Among  typical  Communist  front  organizations  in  this  activity  are : 
Citizens  Committee  to  Free  Earl  Browder,  Protest  Against  Ban  on 
Browder,  Bridges  Defense  Committee,  Bridges  Victory  Committee,  Open 
Letter  Protesting  Ban  on  Communists  in  the  American  Civil  Liberties 
Union,  International  Labor  Defense,  Civil  Rights  Congress,  Prestes 
Defense,  Schappes  Defense  Committee,  Statement  Urging  Ballot  Rights 
for  Communists,  Defense  Committees  for  Alexander  Bittelman,  Eugene 
Dennis,  Gerhardt  Eisler,  Hans  Eisler,  Claudia  Jones,  John  Williamson, 
and  other  Communists ;  Committee  for  the  First  Amendment,  Committee 
of  One  Thousand,  Committee  for  Defense  of  Joint  anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee,  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  Joint  Defense  Rallies  spon- 
sored by  Los  Angeles  Public  Workers — C.I.O.  and  Social  Workers  Local 
558,  American  Federation  of  State,  County  and  Municipal  Employees — 
A.F.L.  •  etc. 


56  .  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

In  addition  to  defending  and  supporting  known  Communist  and 
front  organizations  when  they  are  in  trouble,  the  Communist  Party 
periodically  stages  rallies,  banquets,  fund-drives  and  other  celebrations 
in  honor  of  important  anniversaries  of  leading  Communists,  front  organ- 
izations, party  publications,  and  Soviet  anniversaries. 

Among  the  most  significant  of  such  unquestionably  Communist 
activities  are  the  testimonial  banquets  for  such  well-known  Communists 
as  Mother  Ella  Reeve  Bloor  and  Leo  Gallagher,  rallies  honoring  anni- 
versaries or  Marxist  achievements  of  Lenin,  May  Day,  California  Labor 
School,  People's  Educational  Center,  Daily  Worker,  People's  Daily 
World,  New  Masses,  Mainstream,  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  and 
other  important  Communist  heroes  and  front  organizations. 

Amongst  typical  examples  of  such  Communist  activities  are:  Ben 
Leider  Memorial  Fund,  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigades  Banquets  and  Testi- 
monials, Harry  Bridges  Victory  Committee,  Julius  Rosenthal  Memorial 
Committee,  Leo  Gallagher  Testimonial  Dinner,  Annual  Anniversary 
Fund  Drives  of  the  People 's  Daily  World,  10th  Anniversary  Celebration 
of  People 's  Daily  World,  etc. 

II.  Legal  Defense  and  Civil  Rights 

One  of  the  most  fertile  fields  for  financial  gain  to  the  Red  Fascists 
as  well  as  for  the  promotion  of  the  fundamental  tenets  of  Marxism,  is 
the  field  of  civil  liberties.  Symptoms  of  oppression  by  one  group  or 
another,  majority  restrictions  on  a  minority,  abuse  or  persecution  of 
individuals  for  racial,  religious  or  class  reasons,  and  any  grievance, 
fancied  or  legitimate,  by  a  minority  or  underprivileged  group,  is  lush 
material  for  the  Communists. 

The  general  phases  of  this  subject  will  be  reported  more  fully  in 
Classification  Number  Five — the  Basic  Group  Appeals.  Specifically, 
campaigns  and  programs  for  legal  defense  and  defense  of  civil  rights 
are  a  keystone  in  the  Marxists'  structure  for  discord  and  disunity. 

The  entire  theory  of  Marxism  is  based  on  the  conception  of  a  class 
war  between  the  "oppressors"  in  control  of  the  instruments  of  produc- 
tion and  the  "toiling  masses."  Communists  contend,  under  a  peculiar 
theory  of  ' l  colonial  oppression, ' '  that  American  Negroes  and  American 
Jews  and  other  racial  minorities,  can  be  considered  the  equivalent  of 
oppressed  colonial  nations. 

The  revolutionary  application  of  this  theory  is  the  attempt  to  con- 
vince every  segment  of  the  community  that  it  can  solve  its  particular 
problems  and  advance  its  particular  interests  and  aspirations  only  by 
joining  in  the  class  war  and  eventually  playing  a  part  with  the  prole- 
tariat— of  which  the  Communist  Party  is  the  most  advanced  unit — in 
the  violent  overthrow  of  non-Communist  government  and  the  establish- 
ment of  the  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat. 

It  is  natural,  therefore,  to  fit  into  the  pattern  of  revolutionary 
preparation,  that  front  organizations  must  be  created  by  the  Communist 
Party  continuously,  to  specialize  in  legal  defense  of  minority  or  work- 
ing class  individuals  or  groups  involved  in  legal  troubles,  discrimination, 
employment,  housing  and  job  opportunities,  and  persons  who  come 
under  public  censure  in  connection  with  activities  of  a  radical,  revo- 
lutionary or  subversive  character. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  57 

The  striking  exception  to  this  Marxist  rule — and  an  exception  that 
refutes  the  dishonest  pretense  to  humanitarian  motives — is  that  Com- 
munists never  concern  themselves  with  defending  or  assisting  anti- 
Communists,  no  matter  how  radical  they  may  be. 

The  general  subject  of  civil  rights  also  is  a  fertile  field  for  Com- 
munist agitation.  Because  of  the  deep  concern  for  these  rights,  liberal- 
minded  Americans  ever  are  quick  to  act  to  preserve  liberty  and  freedom. 
By  playing  upon  the  theme  of  civil  rights,  Communists  repeatedly 
lure  well-meaning  innocents  into  providing  window-dressing  for  Com- 
munist front  organizations;  and  in  the  name  of  prominent  liberals, 
huge  sums  are  raised  through  "  letterhead "  organizations  and  com- 
mittees, very  little  of  which  ever  goes  to  the  humanitarian  purpose  that  is 
espoused  in  screaming  propaganda. 

The  committee  has  devoted  much  investigation,  thought  and  study 
to  this  phase  of  Communist  activity.  The  committee  finds  that  one  of 
the  best  ways  to  prevent  Red  manipulation  of  Americans  and  their 
patriotic  devotion  to  the  protection  of  liberties  and  freedoms,  is  for  all 
citizens  to  exercise  extreme  caution  in  associating  themselves  with 
"wildcat"  committees  and  organizations. 

California  numbers  among  its  organized  groups  scores  of  substantial, 
reliable  and  representative  organizations  for  every  segment  and  need 
of  the  populace.  These  include  business  and  trade  associations,  chambers 
of  commerce,  farm  organizations,  trade-unions,  service,  fraternal,  wel- 
fare clubs  and  associations,  veteran,  professional,  religious,  civic,  charity 
and  educational  organizations. 

The  committee  is  firmly  convinced  that  any  problem  confronting 
American  citizens  can  be  dealt  with  through  responsible,  bona  fide  organ- 
izations; and  that  recourse  to  association  with  Communist  traitors  and 
to  Communist  created  and  controlled  front  organizations  is  the  surest 
prescription  for  defeating  the  objective  of  any  legitimate  program  by 
any  segment  of  the  people. 

The  committee  again  calls  attention  to  the  plainly  worded  directive 
for  revolutionary  manipulation  of  "day-to-day"  problems: 

«  *  *  *  Qur  program  is  the  most  powerful  thing  in  the  political 
life  of  our  country  today.  We  are  planting  it  in  America  so  that  it 
grows  right  out  of  the  ground  of  our  country  and  our  community 
*  *  *  our  strategy  is  to  use  *  *  *  immediate  demands  to  educate 
and  organize  the  masses  in  preparation  for  the  final  revolutionary 
struggle  *  *  *  reliance  on  immediate  demands  would  lead  us  only 
to  reformism.  Our  party  is  a  revolutionary  party.  It  aims  not  to 
ease  conditions  a  bit  under  Capitalism  for  the  workers,  but  to  abolish 
Capitalism  altogether  *  *  *  the  Communist  Party  knows  how  to 
participate  in  the  daily  struggle  of  the  workers  *  *  *  it  knows 
how  to  utilize  all  these  struggles  to  develop  class  consciousness  *  *  * 
and  thus  begin  the  mobilization  for  the  eventual  overthrow  of 
Capitalism. "  (A  Talk  About  the  Communist  Party.) 

Under  this  plainly  stated  outline  of  purpose,  and  following  its  inter- 
minably propagandized  theory  of  the  "vanguard  role,"  the  Communist 
Party  never  spends  one  moment  of  work,  one  drop  of  sweat,  one  adjective 
pf  denunciation  unless  it  is  amalgamated  with  the  "daily  struggle"  of 


58  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

the  ' '  toiling  masses ' '  and  advances  its  program  for  the  ' '  eventual  over- 
throw of  Capitalism. ' ' 

The  committee  finds  that,  despite  the  propaganda  smoke  screen,  no 
Communist  has  ever  participated  with  a  trade-union,  racial,  religious 
or  minority  group,  or  joined  in  a  program  for  the  protection  of  Amer- 
ican civil  rights,  except  for  the  sole  purpose  of  twisting  the  program 
to  serve  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  or  to  prepare  the  way  for 
eventual  violent  revolution  in  the  United  States. 

"Thought  Control" 

A  major  feature  of  the  Communist  Party's  current  defense  pro- 
gram is  its  nation-wide  campaign  against  what  they  have  termed ' '  thought 
control."  In  view  of  the  brutal,  murderous  suppression  of  free  speech, 
freedom  of  association,  and  the  free  exchange  of  news  and  ideas  behind 
the  Iron  Curtain,  imposed  by  the  Kremlin,  this  Communist  smoke  screen 
becomes  a  tragic  joke  of  cosmic  significance. 

The  current  Communist  strategy  for  the  defense  of  its  treacherous 
activities  is  neither  improvised  nor  casual.  The  entire  program  was 
carefully  worked  out  as  far  back  as  1946,  and  thoroughly  organized 
in  1947.  An  aroused  American  public  was  anticipated.  When  the  Com- 
munist Party  was  reconstituted  as  a  revolutionary  party  after  the  war 
ended,  and  the  "Political  Association"  was  abandoned,  the  Communist 
Commissars  did  a  lot  of  streamlining  and  reorganizing  in  order  to  get 
back  on  the  beam  as  a  revolutionary  party  and  an  instrument  of  the 
Soviet  Union.  The  American  Communist  leadership  realized  that  the 
resumption  of  the  revolutionary  class  war  and  treachery  in  the  United 
States  would  necessarily  provoke  indignation,  suspicion  and  investiga- 
tion, plus  determined  action  on  the  part  of  governmental  agencies. 
American  Communist  Party  strategists  consequently  planned  in  advance 
to  make  an  asset  of  a  liability.  An  immediate  attack  was  decided  upon 
as  the  best  possible  defense. 

"Fight  Thought  Control"  was  launched  publicly  in  December  of 
1946.  A  series  of  forum  meetings  were  held  at  the  El  Patio  Theater  in 
Hollywood  under  the  general  title  "Counter- Attack  Against  the  Plot 
to  Control  America's  Thinking."  (See  Committee's  1947  Report.)  The 
Communist  front,  Hollywood  Writers '  Mobilization,  sponsored  the  series. 
Among  those  who  participated  in  the  "Forum  Series"  were  John 
Howard  Lawson,  Howard  Koch,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Irving  Pichel,  and 
Robert  W.  Kenny. 

Both  Lawson  and  Kenny  demanded  an  l '  investigation  of  the  investi- 
gators. ' '  The  purpose  of  the  forums,  of  course,  was  to  condition  so-called 
" liberals"  and  " innocents "  in  the  film  industry  to  accept  official  investi- 
gations of  Communist  activities  as  an  effort  on  the  part  of  the  ' '  bosses ' ' 
to  impose  " thought  control"  upon  the  nice,  kind  people  who  only  want 
to  destroy  the  Government  of  the  United  States  in  a  bloody  civil  war. 

Following  the  ' '  Forum  Series ' '  the  Communists  launched  a  public 
rally  at  the  Gilmore  Stadium  in  Los  Angeles,  starring  Henry  Wallace 
and  Katharine  Hepburn.  Robert  W.  Kenny  introduced  Wallace,  who 
was  billed  as  the  principal  speaker,  but  Katharine  Hepburn  stole  the 
show.  Her  subject,  of  course,  was  "thought  control,"  and  while  her 
speech  was  probably  written  by  one  of  the  red  writers  in  the  Screen 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  59 

Writers  Guild,  she  spoke  the  lines  well  and  the  comrades  gave  her  an 
ovation.  Miss  Hepburn  denounced  President  Harry  S.  Truman  and  his 
Democratic  supporters;  the  Republican  Party;  Attorney  General  Tom 
Clark;  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities;  Chairman  J. 
Parnell  Thomas;  the  California  Legislature's  Fact-Finding  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities;  State  Senator  Jack  B.  Tenney;  the  Holly- 
wood Motion  Picture  Alliance ;  and  others,  as  responsible  for  a  "plot"  to 
foist  "thought  control"  on  the  "liberal"  and  "progressive"  people  of 
America. 

The  affair  was  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Communist  front, 
the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  After  the  Hepburn  tirade,  no  one 
was  interested  in  printing  Wallace 's  speech,  but  the  Progressive  Citizens 
of  America  boasted  that  more  than  three  million  copies  of  the  Hepburn 
proclamation  had  been  printed  and  distributed,  in  addition  to  extensive 
radio  rebroadcasts. 

The  key  ' '  line ' '  was  thus  established.  Through  the  Communist  skill 
in  amalgamation,  defense  of  the  Bill  of  Rights,  freedom  of  the  press,  radio 
and  films,  is  to  be  identified  with  the  Communist  Party 's  desperate  fight 
against  investigation  and  exposure. 

Following  the  Hepburn  incident  a  "Conference  on  Thought  Con- 
trol" was  held  at  the  Beverly  Hills  Hotel  on  July  9  to  13,  1947,  also 
sponsored  by  the  communist  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  and  its 
Hollywood  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions  Council.  The  "conference" 
featured  papers  by  50  individuals  on  various  phases  of ' '  thought  control ' ' 
together  with  suggestions  on  strategy  and  tactics  in  fighting  investigating 
governmental  agencies.  Among  those  who  offered  "papers"  were  Henry 
Wallace,  Harlow  Shapley,  Norman  Corwin,  John  Cromwell,  Frank 
Kingdon,  Morris  E.  Colin,  Charlotta  Bass,  Sam  Moore,  Darr  Smith, 
Milton  S.  Tyre,  Harold  Orr,  Paul  Draper,  Ann  Revere,  Donald  Ogden 
Stewart,  and  Hugh  De  Lacy. 

Subsequent  to  this  thinly  disguised  Communist  conference,  Pro- 
gressive Citizens  of  America  published  the  full  proceedings  in  a  series  of 
six  pamphlets.  It  constitutes  a  compendium  of  Communist  Party  "line" 
thinking  and  tactics  on  the  '  *  thought  control ' '  program. 

Every  Communist  Party  functionary  has  been  called  in  and  alerted 
to  the  current  program,  and  detailed  directives  have  been  passed  down 
to  the  most  obscure  Communist  Party  member  and  fellow-traveler. 

The  first  concrete  action  based  on  the  "thought  control"  strategem 
was  directed  against  President  Truman's  order  for  a  loyalty  check  of 
federal  employees.  The  second  barrage  was  leveled  against  the  Los 
Angeles  loyalty  check  program  of  the  courageous  members  of  the  Los 
Angeles  County  Board  of  Supervisors.  (This  county  ordinance  has  just 
been  declared  constitutional  by  the  Los  Angeles  Superior  Court  as  this 
report  goes  to  press.)  The  third  operation  was  launched  against  the 
House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  October  of  1947.  This 
Senate  committee  is  the  most  recent  target  because  of  its  Oakland  and 
Los  Angeles  hearings. 

This  committee  wishes  to  go  on  record,  at  this  point,  in  congratulating 
the  four  alert,  patriotic  members  of  the  Los  Angeles  County  Board  of 
Supervisors  who  had  the  courage  and  the  vision  to  adopt  the  county 
loyalty  check  ordinance.  It  is  to  be  devoutly  hoped  that  other  public 
bodies  will  be  encouraged  to  follow  the  course  now  successfully  charted 


60  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

by  the  Los  Angeles  County  Board  of  Supervisors  and  its  chairman,  Ray- 
mond V.  Darby. 

Communist  groups  in  California  that  are  taking  a  leading  role  in 
the  " thought  control"  tactic  is  the  Communist  Party  of  California, 
Mobilization  for  Democracy,  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  California 
Legislative  Conference,  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  United  Public 
Workers— C.I.O.,  County  Social  Workers,  Local  558,  of  the  A.F.L., 
County  and  Municipal  Employees,  and  the  Civil  Rights  Congress.  Every 
Communist  front  organization,  however,  has  been  alerted,  and  will  carry 
a  share  of  the  fight  in  order  to  make  the  entire  program  appear  to  be 
spontaneous  and  of  ' '  grass  root ' '  character. 

It  should  be  pointed  out  that  the  A.F.L.  County  and  Municipal 
Employees  is  not  listed  here  as  a  Communist  front  organization.  The 
national  organization  is  strongly  anti-Communist.  The  International 
President,  Arnold  Zander,  flew  to  Los  Angeles  and  notified  the  officers 
of  Local  558  that  they  were  ''dangerously  violating"  A.F.L.  policy  in 
collaborating  with  the  Communist  controlled  United  Public  "Workers  of 
America — C.I.O. 

The  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  staged  a  rally  at  the  Shrine 
Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  October  16,  1947,  in  honor  of  the  Hollywood 
"Ten"  cited  for  contempt  of  the  Thomas  Committee  in  Washington. 
Speakers  on  this  program  for  the  10  Hollywood  Communists  were  Larry 
Parks,  Norman  Corwin,  Lester  Cole,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Albert  Maltz, 
Evelyn  Keyes,  Burgess  Meredith,  Marsha  Hunt,  and  Irving  Pichel.  Gene 
Kelly  acted  as  master  of  ceremonies  and  Bert  Witt  did  the  "collection 
show" — the  most  important  part  of  any  Communist  rally.  Robert  W. 
Kenny  introduced  Bartley  Crum,  who  described  the  10  recalcitrant  Com- 
munist witnesses  as  * '  great  Americans. ' ' 

' '  Stop  Operation  Witch  Hunt ' '  was  staged  at  the  Shrine  Auditorium 
November  9,  1947,  under  the  sponsorship  of  Mobilization  for  Democracy, 
United  Public  Workers  of  America  and  Local  558  of  the  A.F.L.  County 
Social  Workers.  Robert  W.  Kenny,  O.  John  Rogge,  former  United 
States  Deputy  Attorney  General,  and  New  York's  top  communist  cultural 
figure,  Howard  Fast,  were  scheduled  as  the  "stars"  of  this  rally.  The 
purpose  of  the  meeting  was  to  launch  the  Communist  attack  on  the  county 
board  of  supervisors'  loyalty  check  ordinance. 

The  Communist  Party  plan  may  be  summed  up  as  a  series  of  activi- 
ties designed  to  play  on  conflicts  and  tensions : 

(a)  By  challenging  and  questioning  the  legality,  rights,  duties  and 
authority  of  investigations,  hearings,  and  loyalty  checks  that  threaten 
to  expose  Communist  aims,  tactics,  strategy  and  members ; 

(b)  By  appealing  to  prejudices  and  beliefs  on  issues,  other  than  that 
of  Communism,  to  transfer  those  prejudices  and  beliefs  against  indi- 
viduals and  agencies  that  are  conducting  or  supporting  investigations, 
hearings,  and  loyalty  checks;  and 

(c)  By   Communists   conducting   themselves,  in   connection  with 
investigations,  hearings  and  loyalty  checks,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  create 
incidents  that  can  be  used  by  world  Communist  propagandists,  to  delude 
people  in  other  nations  into  believing  that  Fascism,  imperialism  and  a 
police  state  are  being  set  up  in  America. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  61 

Part  and  parcel  of  the  "thought  control"  campaign  is  the  Com- 
munist directive  to  its  members  to,  (1)  refuse  to  answer  questions  con- 
cerning their  affiliation  with  the  party,  and,  (2)  to  boldly  challenge  the 
right  of  'any  committee  or  agency  to  inquire  concerning  such  affiliation. 
It  has  become  increasingly  evident  to  the  members  of  this  committee  that 
the  adoption  of  these  directives  by  a  witness  indicates,  better  than  the 
display  of  a  red  card,  that  the  witness  is  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party  acting  under  orders  from  Communist  Commissars. 

The  current  line,  as  disclosed  by  recent  Communist  directives,  may 
be  summarized  as  follows : 

(a)  Smear  any  hearing  by  investigating  agencies  as  invasions  of  the 
Bill  of  Rights,  privacy,  free  association,  and  free  speech. 

(b)  Challenge  conduct  and  procedure  of  all  hearings  and  investiga- 
tions as  illegal,  and  as  a  suppression  of  free  speech  in  "an  atmosphere  of 
intimidation. ' ' 

(c)  Challenge  the  right  of  Congressional  or  legislative  bodies  to 
ask  questions  of  anyone  concerning  their  "political''  affiliations.  (This 
directive  includes  the  process  of  always  amalgamating  "political"  with 
"religious",  in  order  to  insinuate  that  "religious"  persecution  is  con- 
templated.) 

(d)  Attack  all  evidence  against  Communists  as  hearsay. 

(e)  Demand  that   Communist   attorneys  be   permitted  to   cross- 
examine  witnesses  and  that  the  rules  of  evidence  be  strictly  applied  in 
legislative  hearings. 

(f)  Make  every  effort  to  create  the  impression  that  Communist 
witnesses  are  actually  accused  of  crimes  and  that  they  are  on  trial  and 
are  being  deprived  of  all  their  rights  without  due  process  of  law. 

(g)  Charge  that  investigations  of  Communism  are  "witch  hunts" 
and  a  waste  of  the  taxpayers  money.  All  investigations  of  Communism 
are  to  be  charged  as  directed  against  labor  and  racial  minorities. 

(h)  Fill  the  investigating  agency's  transcripts  with  protests  and 
charges ;  claim  intimidation,  and,  on  every  occasion,  liken  the  investigat- 
ing agency 's  methods  to  Hitlerism. 

Among  typical  Communist  front  organizations  in  Legal  Defense  and 
Civil  Rights  in  this  subclassification  are:  Bridges  Defense  Committee; 
King,  Connor,  Ramsey  Defense  Committee;  Greater  New  York  Emer- 
gency Committee  Conference  on  Inalienable  Rights ;  International  Labor 
Defense ;  Civil  Rights  Congress ;  Mobilization  for  Democracy ;  National 
Committee  for  the  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners ;  Civil  Rights  Federa- 
tion; Committee  for  the  First  Amendment;  American  Committee  of 
Liberals  for  the  Freedom  of  Mooney  and  Billings;  Scottsboro  Defense 
Committee;  National  Conference  on  Civil  Liberties;  National  Negro 
Congress;  American  Committee  for  Democracy  and  Intellectual  Free- 
dom; National  Committee  for  People's  Rights,  and  the  Freedom  From 
Fear  Committee. 

III.  Political  and  Legislative 

Communists  have  no  more  use  for  parliamentary  government  than 
they  have  for  capitalism.  They  seek  to  destroy  both.  The  one  basic  goal  of 
Communism  is  to  eliminate  capitalism  and  its  parliamentary  government, 
and  replace  them  with  a  brutal,  totalitarian  police  state  under  the  dic- 
tatorship of  the  proletariat. 


62  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Wherever  Red  Fascism  has  snuffed  out  liberty  and  freedom,  the  first 
things  to  go  were  civil  rights,  capitalism  and  parliamentary  government. 
Just  as  the  Communists  in  America  sneeringly  and  cynically  take 
advantage  of  our  freedoms  and  liberties,  so  do  they  pervert  and  corrupt 
our  political  and  legislative  process  wherever  possible. 

The  history  of  Communist  front  organizations  in  politics  discloses 
a  record  of  fine  causes  corrupted,  perverted,  destroyed  or  damaged  by  the 
Communist  Party 's  fanatical  insistence  on  bending  * '  daily  struggle ' '  to 
advance  the  program  of  '  *  eventual  overthrow  of  capitalism. ' ' 

The  committee  has  discovered  and  reported  repeatedly,  that  the 
Communists  work  incessantly  to  pervert  and  destroy  every  institution 
that  does  not  fit  into  their  pattern  of  revolutionary  conspiracy.  Nowhere 
has  this  Communist  strategy  been  pursued  more  consistently  and  relent- 
lessly than  in  the  fields  of  politics  and  legislation. 

The  most  recent  consolidation  of  this  Communist  program  of  legis- 
lative and  political  activity  through  front  organizations,  has  been  the 
recent  coalition  of  a  series  of  Communist  front  organizations  under  the 
banner  of  the  Third  Party  Movement  to  elect  Henry  Wallace  President 
of  the  United  States. 

In  California,  the  basic  Communist  front  organizations  in  this  coali- 
tion are  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  Independent  Progressive 
Party,  California  Legislative  Conference,  Communist-Controlled  Trade 
Unions  in  the  C.  I.  0.,  the  "Wallace  Democrats"  Caucus  in  the  Demo- 
cratic Party,  Progressive  A.  F.  of  L.,  and  a  student  movement  for  Wallace, 
sponsored  by  American  Youth  for  Democracy. 

Behind  a  facade  of  specious  promises  of  "peace,  progress  and  pros- 
perity, ' '  the  Third  Party  movement  has  proceeded  with  mechanical  pre- 
cision, following  every  twist  and  turn  of  the  Communist  Party  line  on 
foreign  affairs  and  domestic  issues.  It  has  conducted  its  activities  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  stamp  itself  as  an  American  tool  of  the  international  Com- 
munist conspiracy.  Its  policies,  tactics  and  appeals  fit  the  specifications  for 
every  type  of  Communist  front  organization  described  and  classified  in 
the  entire  report  of  this  committee,  and  it  follows  the  party  "line" 
meticulously. 

The  Third  Party  movement  to  elect  Henry  Wallace  is  the  creature  of 
the  Communist  Party.  Its  policies,  programs,  organization,  structure, 
public  relations,  personnel  and  directing  leadership  all  have  followed  and 
now  follow  the  Communist  Party  pattern  with  unbroken  monotony.  Its 
key  personnel  are  known  Communists,  fellow-travelers  and  veteran 
apologists  for  Soviet  Russia  and  American  Communism. 

Hugh  Bryson,  state  chairman  of  the  Independent  Progressive  Party 
in  California  is  a  Communist  and  a  veteran  of  Communist  conspiratorial 
activity  in  the  Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards  Union,  C.  I.  0. 

Among  I.  P.  P.  and  Wallace  leaders  in  California,  are  Robert  W. 
Kenny,  Harry  Bridges,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  James  Burford,  James 
Daughterty,  vice-chairman ;  A.  B.  Goolsby,  Treasurer ;  Elinor  Kahn,  state 
director ;  Harper  W.  Poulson,  Southern  California  regional  director ;  Mrs. 
Ruth  Slade,  Southern  California  campaign  manager ;  Mrs.  Tiba  Willner, 
Southern  California  finance  director ;  on  Southern  California  trade-union 
sponsor  list  are  Howard  de  Silva,  Charles  Gladstone,  William  Elconin, 
Edward  L.  Barnes,  Maurice  Howard,  Bernard  Lusher,  C.  C.  Carlson, 
Antonio  Lucio,  Lloyd  Seeliger,  Joe  Heilbrun,  John  Huhn,  Katie  Brooks, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  63 

A.  J.  Richardson,  John  Allard,  Frank  Green  and  Joseph  0 'Conner. 
Among  the  alleged  Democrats  are  Victor  A.  Shapiro,  and  Judge  Stanley 
Moffatt. 

Among  the  Communist  front  organizations  in  the  fields  of  politics 
and  legislation  are :  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  Independent  Citi- 
zens Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions,  Hollywood  Demo- 
cratic Committee,  Motion  Picture  Democratic  Committee,  California  Leg- 
islative Conference,  Progressive  A.  F.  of  L.,  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, National  Congress  for  Unemployment  and  Social  Insurance,  and 
National  Right-to-Work  Congress. 

(4)   Communist  Fronts  for  Foreign  Policy 

The  only  interest  the  Communist  Party  has  in  foreign  policy  is  to 
serve  the  interests  of  Soviet  Russia.  The  Communist  Party  of  the  United 
States  frequently  has  tied  itself  into  knots  in  attempting  to  follow  the 
"sharp  turns"  and  "pretzel  twists"  of  world  Communism  diplomacy. 

Like  all  major  Communist  policies,  this  one  also  has  a  huge  bibliog- 
raphy of  strategic  and  tactical  literature,  all  centered  around  a  so-called 
"theory  of  capitalist  encirclement."  Simplified  to  its  bare  bones,  this 
theory  contends  that  Communist  states  can  never  tolerate  being  encircled 
by  capitalist  states,  so  therefore,  it  is  an  obvious  fact  to  all  Marxists  that 
all  non-Communist  capitalist  governments  be  destroyed  and  replaced  with 
dictatorships  of  the  proletariat. 

The  committee  has  found  that  the  theme  song  of  the  American  Com- 
munist Party  on  foreign  policy  is  the  protection  of  the  Communist  father- 
land, Soviet  Russia. 

There  never  has  been  an  instance  in  the  history  of  the  U.  S.  Com- 
munist Party;  of  its  front  groups,  of  its  conspicuous  fellow-travelers, 
when  the  party,  its  front  organizations,  or  its  stooges  have  critized  any 
phase  of  Soviet  foreign  policy.  The  interests  of  the  United  States,  when- 
ever its  foreign  policy  came  in  conflict  with  that  of  Soviet  Russia,  is 
promptly  and  roundly  denounced. 

There  are  three  major  subclassifications  of  Communist  fronts  in  the 
field  of  foreign  policy.  These  are : 

I.  Fronts  for  Support  and  Praise  of  the  Soviet  Union ; 
II.  Fronts  for  the  Support  and  Praise  of  Communist-dominated 

Nations  and  of  Communist  Parties  in  Other  Nations ;  and 
III.  Fronts  on  War,  Peace  and  Foreign  Relations. 

It  is  vitally  important  to  the  Communist  Party  that  it  maintain  con- 
stant activity  in  the  propaganda  field  with  fronts  in  these  three  subclassi- 
fications. One  of  the  duties  of  fellow-travelers  is  that  they  be  ever  ready 
to  serve  on  such  fronts,  and  whip  up  propaganda  activity  in  support  of 
the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia,  no  matter  what  stigma  accrues  from 
such  activities. 

Thus,  when  the  Communist  Party  ordered  an  all-out  support  of  *  *  The 
Yanks  Are  Not  Coming"  program,  during  the  period  of  the  Hitler-Stalin 
pact,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Communist  secretary  of  the  Los  Angeles  C.  I.  0. 
Council,  dutifully  led  demonstrations  on  the  steps  of  the  Los  Angeles 
City  Hall. 


64  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Connelly  also  led  the  Communist  sponsored  strike  at  North  Amer- 
ican Aviation,  a  strike  which  was  broken  up  by  United  States  troops  under 
orders  of  President  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt,  who  condemned  the  strike 
as  Communist-inspired  treachery. 

Connelly  was  an  important  "window-dressing,"  but  when  Com- 
munist Party  policy  dictated  action  that  must  necessarily  prove  unpopu- 
lar with  many  Americans,  Connelly  obeyed.  It  is  a  sad  commentary  on 
the  memory  of  many  responsible  community  leaders  that  Connelly,  with 
the  aid  of  clever  publicity  from  leftwing  propagandists,  managed  to 
cover  up  his  pro-Communist  activity  against  America  when  Stalin  and 
Hitler  were  partners.  He  posed  as  a  responsible  and  patriotic  civic  leader 
after  the  U.  S.  Communists  turned  to  all-out  patriotism  when  Hitler 
invaded  Russia. 

Connelly  is  a  conspicuous  and  typical  example  of  hundreds  of  native- 
born  Communists  who  have  stamped  themselves  as  subservient  tools  of 
the  criminal  Communist  conspiracy. 

It  is  significant,  although  Connelly  was  the  secretary  of  one  of  the 
two  big  C.  I.  0.  councils  in  California,  that  it  was  necessary  for  him  to  fol- 
low the  party  line  in  opposing  fundamental  patriotic  policies.  Americans 
are  prone  to  regard  Communist  functionaries  and  key  fellow-travelers 
in  the  light  of  the  positions  they  hold.  This  is  wholly  a  wrong  viewpoint. 
The  fact  is,  that  f uctionaries  and  key  fellow-travelers  are  considered  by 
Communist  Commissars  as  infantry  shock  troops  in  a  mass  battle.  When 
one  falls  through  enemy  fire,  another  is  expected  to  step  forward  to  take 
his  place.  Under  Communist  policy,  if  Connelly  and  the  Communist 
propagandists  had  not  succeeded  in  covering  up  his  brazen,  unpatriotic 
display,  Philip  M.  Connelly  would  have  been  liquidated  from  his  impor- 
tant post  as  C.  I.  0.  secretary  in  Los  Angeles.  He  would  have  been  trans- 
ferred to  another  assignment,  and  the  Communist  caucus  would  have  put 
up  another  candidate  for  his  job. 

One  of  the  basic  tests  of  the  dyed-in-the-wool  fellow-traveler  is  the 
alacrity  in  which  he  follows  the  "sharp  turns"  of  Communist  Party  line 
strategy  in  connection  with  foreign  policy.  Connelly  is  merely  an  example 
of  hundreds  whose  names  trail  across  the  letterheads  of  hundreds  of  front 
organizations  that  come  and  go  as  Kremlin  strategy  dictates. 

The  committee  refers  interested  readers  to  the  brief  analysis  of  the 
"sharp  turns"  of  Comintern  thinking  cited  in  the  Committee's  1943 
Report,  pages  39-50;  the  Committee's  1945  Report,  page  90;  and  to  the 
Committee 's  1947  Report,  pages  17-34. 

The  committee  recommends  that  all  citizens  of  California  give  par- 
ticular scrutiny  to  the  backgrounds,  associations  and  motives  of  indi- 
viduals and  organizations  who  seek  to  propagandize  the  people  in  behalf 
of  foreign  policy  issues.  The  committee  particularly  stresses  the  fact  that 
one  of  the  basic  functions  of  the  U.  S.  Communist  Party  is  to  serve  the 
interests  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia.  It  should  be  held  in  mind 
that  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  today  is  squarely  opposed  to  the 
policies  and  aspirations  of  the  United  States  and  all  freedom-loving 
countries. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  65 

I.  Fronts  for  Support  and  Praise  of  the  Soviet  Union 

When  the  Communist  Party  was  founded  in  Chicago,  Illinois,  Sep- 
tember 1-7, 1919,  it  declared  in  its  First  Manifesto,  adopted  by  the  organ- 
izing convention,  that : 

"A  giant  struggle  is  convulsing  the  world  *  *  *  between  the 
capitalist  nations  of  the  world  and  the  international  proletariat, 
inspired  by  Soviet  Russia.  *  *  *  The  Communist  Party  is  a  party 
of  the  working  class.  The  Communist  Party  proposes  to  end  capital- 
ism and  organize  a  workers'  industrial  republic.  The  Communist 
Party  is  a  party  realizing  the  limitations  of  all  existing  workers' 
organizations,  and  proposes  to  develop  the  revolutionary  movement 
necessary  to  free  the  workers  from  the  oppression  of  Capitalism. 
*  *  *  The  Communist  Party  insists  that  the  problems  of  the  Amer- 
ican worker  are  identical  to  the  problems  of  the  workers  of  the 
world.  *  *  *  The  Communist  Party  is  the  conscious  expression  of 
the  class  struggle  of  the  workers  against  capitalism.  Its  aim  is  to 
direct  this  struggle  to  the  conquest  of  political  power,  the  overthrow 
of  capitalism  and  the  destruction  of  the  bourgeois  state.  *  *  *  The 
Communist  Party  directs  the  workers'  struggle  against  capitalism, 
developing  fuller  forms  and  purposes  in  this  struggle,  culminating  in 
the  mass  action  of  the  revolution.  *  *  * 

t(  *  *  *  rp^  communist  International,  issuing  directly  out  of 
the  proletarian  revolution  in  action,  is  the  organ  of  the  International 
revolutionary  proletariat.  *  *  *  The  Communist  International  rep- 
resents a  Socialism  in  complete  accord  with  the  revolutionary  char- 
acter of  the  class  struggle.  It  unites  all  the  conscious  revolutionary 
forces.  It  wages  war  equally  against  Imperialism  and  moderate 
Socialism  *  *  *  the  workers  must  prepare  for  the  proletarian  revo- 
lution and  the  Communist  reconstruction  of  society.  *  *  *  The  Com- 
munist International  calls.  Workers  of  the  world,  unite ! ' ' 

The  Communist  Party  was  launched  with  praise  and  support  of 
Soviet  Russia,  and  a  firm  pledge  of  allegiance  to  the  Communist  Inter- 
national. It  made  a  bold  promise  of  violent  revolutionary  overthrow  of 
the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

Since  that  plain  statement  of  purpose  was  made,  the  U.  S.  Com- 
munist Party  has  set  up  hundreds  of  fronts  to  honor  and  support  Soviet 
Russia.  It  mobilizes  every  possible  activity  in  plain  defiance  of  the  inter- 
ests of  the  United  States  in  its  consistent  support  of  the  foreign  policy  of 
Soviet  Russia. 

Among  the  more  conspicuous  fronts  for  this  purpose  are :  American 
Council  on  Soviet  Relations,  American  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union, 
Friends  of  Soviet  Russia,  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,  Congress  of  Amer- 
ican-Soviet Friendship,  Golden  Book  of  American  Friendship  With  the 
Soviet  Union,  National  Council  of  American- Soviet  Friendship,  Open 
Letter  for  Closer  Cooperation  With  the  Soviet  Union,  Open  Letter  to 
American  Liberals,  Russian- American  Industrial  Corp.,  Russian  Famine 
Relief  Committee,  Soviet  Russia  Today,  Statement  by  American  Pro- 
gressives on  the  Moscow  Trials,  and  the  American-Russian  Institute. 


6— L-7088-D 


66  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

II.  Fronts  for  Support  and  Praise  of  Communist  Dominated  Nations  and 
Communist  Parties  in  Other  Lands 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  in  this  report,  and  in  its  1943,  1945, 
and  1947  reports,  that  the  Communist  blueprint  for  world  conquest 
includes  in  its  detailed  technical  analysis  and  teachings,  the  basic  theme 
of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism  theory  of  ' '  capitalist  encirclement. ' ' 

Under  this  theory,  the  Soviet  fatherland,  Russia,  as  custodian  of  the 
flame  of  international  revolution,  will  never  be  safe  as  long  as  it  is 
" encircled"  by  capitalist  countries.  Therefore,  it  is  necessary  that  Com- 
munists everywhere  protect  Russia  from  the  "encircling"  capitalist 
states  by  revolutionary  activity  in  every  country  in  the  world. 

Second  only  to  Soviet  Russia  itself,  as  objects  of  honor,  praise  and 
support,  are  the  nations  in  which  Communist  Party  revolutionists  have 
schemed  and  tricked  their  way  to  power.  These  nations  are  hailed  by 
Communists  as  "the  new  democracies"  and  their  dictators,  Tito,  Dimit- 
roff,  Gottwald,  and  other  bloodstained  Red  Quislings,  are  high  on  the  list 
of  those  for  whom  only  praise  is  reserved  in  the  Communist  press. 

There  is  no  Communist-dominated  country  behind  the  "Iron  Cur- 
tain ' '  for  which  there  is  not  an  American  Communist  front  to  agitate  and 
propagandize  in  its  behalf. 

Next  in  importance  are  the  Communist  Parties  and  their  front  groups 
in  nations  not  yet  dominated  by  the  Communist  dictatorship;  whose 
"workers  struggles"  are  hailed  regularly  in  the  Communist  press  and 
propaganda  services ;  and  for  whom  front  groups  continually  raise  huge 
sums  of  money  in  this  country. 

Among  the  more  conspicuous  fronts  in  this  sub-classification  are: 
The  American  Committee  for  Free  Yugoslavia,  American  Friends  of  the 
Chinese  People,  Conference  on  Pan-American  Democracy,  Council  on 
African  Affairs,  Council  for  Pan-American  Democracy,  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade,  American  Friends  of  Spanish  Democracy,  Friends  of  the  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  Brigade,  and  scores  of  other  fronts  in  connection  with  the 
Spanish  civil  war;  American  Croatian  Congress,  American  Slav  Con- 
gress, Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  Slovene  National  Congress, 
United  Committee  of  South  Slavic  Americans,  etc. 

III.  Fronts  on  War,  Peace  and  Foreign  Relations 

All  the  Communist  fronts  described  in  the  two  preceding  sub- 
classifications,  and  hundreds  of  more  permanent  and  special  fronts,  have 
been  utilized  by  the  Communist  Party  to  promote  agitation,  propaganda, 
political  activity  and  demonstrations  on  general  questions  of  war,  peace 
and  foreign  policy,  all  of  which  are  solely  the  business  of  the  American 
people,  but  toward  which  the  Communists  with  unvarying  consistency, 
apply  the  single  yardstick:  "How  will  it  serve  the  interests  of  Soviet 
Russia?" 

The  committee  has  found  repeatedly,  and  it  again  reiterates  that  the 
attempt  of  the  Communist  Party  of  America  to  appear  as  a  legally  con- 
stituted domestic  political  party,  is  purely  a  deceptive  fiction. 

The  committee  has  urged,  and  it  urges  again,  that  immediate  steps 
be  taken  to  strengthen  the  statutes  of  California,  wherever  necessary,  to 
the  end  that  this  fiction  of  legality  and  respectability  of  a  foreign-con- 
trolled subversive  organization  in  the  State  of  California  be  ended  for- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  67 

ever.  The  committee  is  now  preparing  legislative  recommendations  for 

the  consideration  of  the  Legislature  in  its  1949  Session. 

The  committee  reiterates  its  findings  that  the  Communist  Party  is 

the  agent  of  a  foreign  power,  specifically  Soviet  Russia.  The  committee 

cites  particularly  the  following : 

All  Communists  believe  themselves  to  be  in  a  state  of  perpetual 
warfare  with  all  capitalist  governments.  The  over-all  strategy  of  the 
Communist  Party  is  designed  to  bring  about  the  destruction  of  all 
democratic  governments.  The  ultimate  objective  is  the  establishment 
of  the  so-called  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat  * 

*  *  *  All  Communists  firmly  believe  that  the  Soviet  Union  is 
the  Red  Fatherland  of  the  proletariat  everywhere,  and,  as  such,  it 
must  be  protected  in  its  development  at  any  cost,  because  it  is  the 
arsenal  for  world  conquest.  Meanwhile,  Communists  in  all  countries 
work  for  revolution,  taking  Stalin  at  his  word,  when  he  said  that '  *  in 
the  event  of  necessity  (Soviet  Russia)  would  come  out  even  with 
armed  forces  against  the  exploiting  classes  in  their  states."  Thus, 
every  Communist  in  the  United  States  is  a  potential  traitor,  saboteur 
and  espionage  agent  of  Soviet  Russia  *  *  * 

*  *  *  Acts  of  sabotage  and  violence,  terror  and  assassination 
may  be  expected,  if  diplomatic  relations  between  the  United  States 
and  Soviet  Russia  become  strained  *  *  *  The  American  people 
must  be  awakened  to  the  fact  that  every  member  of  the  American 
Communist  Party  is  a  potential  espionage  and  sabotage  agent  for 
the  Soviet  government.  Our  people  must  realize,  now  more  than  ever 
before,  that  it  is  the  admitted  and  avowed  purpose  of  Moscow  to 
create  and  foster  a  Communist  revolution  in  every  capitalist  democ- 
racy in  the  world  *  *  * 

Among  the  more  conspicuous  Communist  fronts  that  have  defied 
brazenly  the  interests  of  the  United  States  and  other  freedom-loving 
nations  whenever  they  have  been  in  conflict  with  the  interests  of  Soviet 
Russia  and  world  Communism  are:  All  American  Anti  Imperialist 
League,  American  Committee  for  Struggle  Against  War,  American 
Congress  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  American  League  for  Peace  and 
Democracy,  American  Peace  Crusade,  American  Peace  Mobilization, 
Committee  to  Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out  of  War,  Committee  for 
Peace  Through  World  Cooperation,  Emergency  Peace  Mobilization, 
Student  Congress  Against  War,  World  Congress  Against  War,  "  Yanks 
Are  Not  Coming"  Committee,  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League,  etc. 

(5)    Fronts  for  Appeals  to  Basic  Groups 

The  Communist  Party  never  attacks  a  problem  from  one  vantage 
point  alone.  Since  front  organizations  are  false-faces  for  Communism, 
it  is  natural  that  the  Communist  Party  attempts  to  create  an  air  of  spon- 
taneity for  its  programs.  This  usually  is  accomplished  by  having  several 
alleged  humanitarian  and  liberal  front  groups  join  in  a  "coalition"  for 
the  Communist  purpose. 

The  practical  application  of  this  technique  is  through  Communist 
Party  infiltration  into  organizations,  in  addition  to  those  organized  by  the 
Communists  for  the  purpose. 


68  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  typical  instance  of  this  strategic  and  tactical  manipulation  of 
fronts  may  be  found  in  the  current  major  Communist  "party  line"  pro- 
gram to  "fight  thought  control  and  defend  civil  rights." 

The  actual  truth  is  that  a  large  number  of  Communists  have  been 
arrested,  indicted,  jailed  and  prosecuted  for  violations  of  law.  Charges 
against  the  Communists  include  passport  and  immigration  fraud,  false 
registration,  perjury,  contempt,  and  advocating  the  overthrow  of  the 
United  States  Government  by  force  and  violence. 

The  Communists  were  forced  to  devise  a  strategy  to  meet  this  situa- 
tion. The  strategy,  naturally,  was  carried  into  effect  through  front  groups, 
and  every  appeal  was  made  to  lure  and  trick  all  possible  support  behind 
Communist  functionaries. 

The  committee  has  compiled  and  examined  a  large  file  of  propaganda 
material  on  the  subject  of  the  Communist  sponsored  campaign  against 
alleged  ' '  thought  control. ' ' 

This  material  has  been  checked  and  compared  with  the  resolutions, 
press  releases  and  statements,  communications  and  advertising  of  the 
various  Communist  front  groups  on  the  same  subjects. 

The  committee  has  been  impressed  with  the  pattern  of  Communist 
Party  policy  running  through  these  two  sets  of  propaganda  material, 
one  from  official  Communist  sources,  the  other  from  Communist  front 
groups. 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  that  it  is  a  standard  practice  of  the 
Communist  Party,  in  every  instance  where  a  Communist  functionary  is 
arrested,  indicted  or  prosecuted,  to  contend  that  the  law  enforcement 
against  the  Communist  is  not  for  the  purpose  of  enforcing  the  law,  but 
solely  for  purposes  of  intimidation,  persecution  of  labor  and  minorities, 
and  for  "thought  control." 

This  is  the  same  position  that  is  taken  invariably  by  Communists  on 
the  witness  stand  at  legislative  investigations  into  Communist  activity. 

Communists  under  investigation  have  repeatedly  and  brazenly  defied 
Congress,  the  California  State  Legislature,  courts,  and  police  authorities. 
They  openly  practice  and  advocate  defiance  and  disrespect  for  parlia- 
mentary bodies,  for  police  and  government  agencies,  and  for  the  courts, 
as  a  basic  tenet  of  their  avowed  program  of  work  through  "daily 
struggle. ' ' 

The  committee  points  out  that  American  Communists  openly  advo- 
cate the  total  destruction  of  our  national  heritage  of  liberty  and  freedom, 
and  brazenly  take  advantage  of  civil  rights  in  order  to  hamper  legislative 
and  police  processes  essential  to  the  protection  of  our  State  and  Nation. 

The  committee  reports  that  the  Communist  technique  of  defiance  of 
Congress,  the  Legislature,  the  courts  and  the  police  agencies  of  our 
Nation  is  part  and  parcel  of  the  revolutionary  conspiracy  to  destroy 
our  liberties  and  freedoms  by  an  organization  that  is  a  servant  of  a 
foreign  power. 

Our  citizens  must  be  provided  with  information  based  on  authori- 
tative investigation  and  public  disclosure  of  individuals  and  organiza- 
tions that  conspire  to  destroy  our  freedom  and  liberties. 

While  providing  every  possible  safeguard  to  insure  our  complete 
right  and  authority  to  inquire  into  the  conspiracies  of  traitors,  we  must 
likewise  safeguard  against  the  destruction  or  nullification  of  our  liberties 
and  freedoms. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  69 

The  American  public  is  now  thoroughly  familiar  with  what  has 
heretofore  been  labeled  the  "$64  Question,"  "Are  you  now,  or  have  you 
ever  been,  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  ? ' ' 

The  committee  has  heard  the  testimony  of  many  Communists  and 
fellow-travelers,  and  it  has  examined  the  transcripts  of  numerous  investi- 
gations and  hearings  by  congressional  and  legislative  bodies.  The  Com- 
mittee has  discovered  that  no  Communist,  except  those  who  are  publicly 
proclaimed  as  such,  ever  give  a  straightforward  answer  to  this  question. 

The  attempt  of  Communists  and  fellow-travelers  to  evade  answering 
this  question  presents  a  monotonous  pattern  of  propaganda-statements. 

The  testimony  of  suspected  Communists,  their  prepared  statements, 
their  interviews  in  the  Communist  press,  and  the  propaganda  rallies, 
advertisements  and  literature  issued  in  their  behalf,  are  a  revelation  of 
the  interests  and  preoccupations  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Invariably,  the  defense  tactics  by,  and  in  behalf  of,  suspected  Com- 
munists presents  a  lengthy  harangue ;  they  contend  that  they  are  being 
persecuted  because  they  are  friends  and  leaders  of  organized  labor,  of 
minority  groups,  of  the  underprivileged  and  the  impoverished,  the 
veterans,  the  unemployed,  the  victims  of  capitalist  oppression,  and  vari- 
ous other  basic  groupings  of  the  citizenry  whom  the  Communists  consider 
likely  targets  for  agitational  work. 

The  committee  has  conducted  a  thorough  investigation  and  analysis 
of  those  organizations. 

Analysis  of  the  claims  of  the  Communists  (and  the  prompt  echoes  of 
front  organizations)  in  defense  of  arrested,  indicted  and  convicted  Com- 
munists, reveals  that  the  following  general  subclassifications  may  be 
listed  as  Basic  Groups.  These  groups  are,  as  the  committee  has  pointed 
out,  in  addition  to  the  other  four  major  classifications  of  front  groups 
described  in  preceding  sections  of  this  report:  (1)  The  Indispensable 
Organizations  for  Revolution;  (2)  Fronts  for  Culture  and  Science;  (3) 
Fronts  for  Domestic  Affairs ;  and  (4)  Fronts  for  Foreign  Affairs. 

These  are  the  subclassifications  in  the  Basic  Appeals  Group : 

I.  Fronts  in,  and  for,  Organized  Labor. 
II.  Fronts  for  Charity,  Relief  and  the  Unemployed. 

III.  Racial,  Refugee  and  Alien. 

IV.  Veterans  and  Military. 
V.  Farmers. 

VI.  Consumers. 

Analysis  qf  programs  and  policies  of  revolutionary  science  pro- 
claimed in  Communist  official  statements,  and  textbooks,  reveals  that 
creation  of  front  groups  in  these  basic  appeals  groups,  together  with 
Communist  organized  fronts,  are  considered  indispensable  to  preparation 
for  a  successful  revolution. 

I.   Fronts  in,  and  for,  Organized  Labor 

The  backbone  of  the  Communist  revolutionary  conspiracy  is  the  crea- 
tion of  revolutionary  industrial  trade-unions. 

International  Communism  never  has  made  a  secret  about  its  inten- 
tion to  use  trade-unions  as  the  spring-board  for  its  revolutionary  plotting. 
Alert  and  patriotic  United  States  trade-union  leaders  have  known  this 


70  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

fact  from  the  beginning.  The  most  aggressive,  well-informed  and  prac- 
tical enemies  of  Communism  will  be  found  among  such  trade-union 
leaders. 

America  is  fortunate  that  such  a  reservoir  of  sanity  and  vigilance 
exists  at  the  very  spot  Communists  consider  to  be  the  Nation's  weakest 
point.  The  committee  commends  the  leaders  and  members  of  organized 
labor  who  oppose  Communism  and  its  bloody  tyranny  over  workers.  The 
committee  urges  every  responsible  leader  of  business,  church,  fraternal, 
veteran,  and  patriotic  organizations,  that  he  acquaint  himself  with  the 
problems  and  philosophies  of  responsible  trade-union  leadership  in  deal- 
ing with  the  menace  of  Communism. 

The  committee  cites  the  statement  of  policy  toward  organized  labor, 
from  the  First  Manifesto  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States, 
adopted  at  the  Communist  Party's  organizing  convention,  September 
1-7,  1919,  in  Chicago,  Illinois : 

The  Communist  Party  is  the  conscious  expression  of  the  class 
struggle  of  the  workers  against  capitalism.  Its  aim  is  to  direct  this 
struggle  to  the  conquest  of  political  power,  the  overthrow  of  capi- 
talism and  the  destruction  of  the  bourgeois  state  *  *  *  It  brings  to 
the  workers  a  consciousness  of  their  oppression,  of  the  impossibility 
of  improving  their  conditions  under  capitalism  *  *  *. 

The  Communist  Party  shall  make  the  great  industrial  struggles 
of  the  working  class  its  major  campaign,  in  order  to  develop  an 
understanding  of  the  strike  in  relation  to  the  overthrow  of  capi- 
talism. 

(a)  The  Communist  Party  shall  participate  in  mass  strikes,  not 
only  to  achieve  the  immediate  purposes  of  the  strike,  but  to  develop 
the  revolutionary  implications  of  the  mass  strike. 

*  *  *  The  Communist  Party  must  engage  actively  in  the  struggle 
to  revolutionize  the  trade  unions.  As  against  the  unionism  of  the 
American  Federation  of  Labor,  the  Communist  Party  propagandizes 
industrial  unionism  and  industrial  union  organization,  emphasizing 
their  revolutionary  implications.  Industrial  unionism  is  not  simply 
a  means  for  the  everyday  struggle  against  capitalism ;  its  ultimate 
purpose  is  revolutionary,  implying  the  necessity  of  ending  the 
capitalist,  parliamentary  state.  Industrial  unionism  is  a  factor  in 
the  final  mass  action  for  the  conquest  of  power  *  *  *  The  Communist 
Party  recognized  that  the  A.  F.  of  L.  is  reactionary  and  a  bulwark  of 
capitalism  *  *  *  It  shall  be  the  major  task  of  the  Communist  Party  to 
agitate  for  the  construction  of  a  general  industrial  union  organiza- 
tion, embracing  the  I.  W.  W.,  W.  I.  I.  U.,  independent  and  secession 
unions,  militant  unions  of  the  A.  F.  of  L.,  and  the  unorganized 
workers  on  the  basis  of  the  revolutionary  class  struggle  *  *  *  The 
United  States  is  developing  an  aggressive  militarism.  The  Commun- 
ist Party  will  wage  the  struggle  against  militarism  as  a  phase  of  the 
class  struggle  to  hasten  the  downfall  of  Capitalism. 

This  is  the  blueprint  for  the  use  of  trade-unions  as  instruments  for 
violent  revolution  laid  down  by  the  organizing  meeting  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  the  United  States.  Never  since  that  time  in  1919  when  the 
Communists  organized  to  betray  their  own  country,  has  Communist  policy 
deviated  from  this  fundamental  policy. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  71 

The  incessant  struggle  and  conflict  within  American  trade-unions, 
between  Communist  conspirators  and  honest  and  patriotic  members  of 
organized  labor  is  explained  in  light  of  the  foregoing  knowing,  and 
resenting,  the  fact  that  the  Communists  seek  to  use  their  unions  to  per- 
vert them  to  the  cause  of  revolution,  the  overwhelming  majority  of 
American  union  men  and  women  are  the  targets  of  abuse,  character 
assassination,  slander  and  physical  violence,  whenever  they  oppose  the 
Communist  plotters  in  their  midst. 

The  committee  has  found  that  one  of  the  major  battlegrounds  in 
the  struggle  against  Communism  will  be  in  the  trade-unions  of  the  world. 

This  committee  has  no  power  or  authority  to  investigate  or  report  on 
relations  between  management  and  labor  except  where  the  question  of 
Communist  activity  is  raised. 

The  committee  warns  that  free  American  trade-unions  will  not  have 
freedom  from  Communist  disruption  until  Communism  is  completely 
defeated.  All  workers  everywhere  are  entitled  to  enjoy  the  freedoms  and 
opportunities  that  the  American  way  of  life  provides  more  abundantly 
than  any  other  political  system  known  to  history. 

The  committee  commends  patriotic  and  alert  American  trade-union- 
ists who  oppose  Communism  despite  personal  abuse,  slander,  vituperation 
and  threats  on  their  lives  and  persons.  The  committee  urges  all  respon- 
sible citizens  to  assist  such  patriotic  trade-union  leaders  and  members 
in  their  determination  to  protect  their  organization  from  Communist 
infiltration  and  destruction. 

The  committee  has  been  impressed  in  its  many  investigations  and 
studies  with  the  unvarying  persistence  of  a  distinct  pattern  of  Com- 
munist strategical  and  tactical  attitudes  toward  trade-unions  in  the 
United  States,  and  particularly  in  California.  This  pattern  is  one  that  the 
committee  has  noticed  in  many  fields,  but  it  is  most  pronounced  with 
regard  to  trade-unions.  It  is  a  simple  and  brutal  policy.  The  Communist 
Party  regards  all  union  organizations  as  falling  into  two  simple  classifica- 
tions :  Either  an  instrument  to  be  controlled,  dominated  and  used  to  serve 
the  interests  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia  and  the  preparation  for 
violent  revolution  at  home ;  or  an  enemy,  to  be  disrupted,  attacked  and 
destroyed. 

A  substantial  number  of  individuals  in  the  trade-union  movement 
are  known  Communists,  or  fellow-travelers,  who  consistently  follow  the 
pattern  of  Communist  activity  outlined  in  this  report  in  their  own  trade- 
unions  and  in  numerous  front  groups. 

Pursuing  their  stated  purpose  of  infiltrating  union  organizations  in 
order  to  twist  and  pervert  them  to  the  interests  of  the  Communist  con- 
spiracy, the  Communists  have  infiltrated  and  now  control  and  dominate 
a  number  of  important  trade-unions  in  the  United  States,  and  particu- 
larly in  California. 

The  committee  refers  to  its  documented  analysis  of  Communist 
technique  in  penetrating  and  corrupting  trade-unions  in  its  1943,  1945 
and  1947  reports. 


72  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

II.  Fronts  for  Charity,  Relief  and  Unemployed 

Of  great  importance  to  the  Communist  program  for  confusion,  dis- 
cord, and  disunity,  are  persons  in  need  of  charity  and  relief  assistance. 
In  times  of  economic  upset,  a  large  mass  of  unemployed,  aged,  sick  and 
handicapped,  are  Counted  by  Communist  conspirators  as  second  in 
importance  only  to  Communized  trade-unions.  For  strategical  and  tactical 
demonstrations,  strikes  and  protests  designed  for  chaos  and  the  break- 
down of  law  and  order,  the  Communists  consider  these  groups  as  excellent 
vehicles. 

The  committee  calls  attention  to  the  analysis  of  this  Communist  pre- 
occupation with  the  creation  of  front  groups  to  appeal  to  the  unemployed 
and  underprivileged  and  handicapped,  in  its  1943, 1945  and  1947  reports, 
and,  also,  to  the  1940  Report  of  the  Yorty  Special  Committee  of  the  Cali- 
fornia Legislature,  which  investigated  Communist  activity  among  the 
unemployed  and  in  the  California  State  Relief  Administration. 

One  of  the  principle  activities  of  the  American  Communist  Party  at 
this  time,  although  little  publicized,  is  the  infiltration  of  agencies,  organi- 
zations and  community  groups  dealing  with  charity,  relief  and  unem- 
ployed problems.  The  Communists  expect  a  depression  and  anticipate 
economic  collapse  in  the  United  States  and  in  other  capitalistic,  parlia- 
mentary governments,  and  are  preparing  for  it. 

Particular  targets  for  Communist  penetration  are  public  or  semi- 
public  agencies  dealing  with  charity  and  relief  problems.  These  include 
public  social  work  agencies  and  social  workers '  organizations,  community 
chest,  and  welfare  federations,  and  racial,  religious,  and  neighborhood 
welfare  and  relief  agencies.  Another  major  target  for  penetration  is  the 
public  and  private  agencies  for  relief;  service  to  veterans  and  their 
families,  and  committees  or  community  groups  who  seek  to  solve  housing 
shortages,  child  care  problems  of  working  parents,  and  similar  organi- 
zations. 

Two  basic,  and  completely  Communist  controlled,  fronts  in  this  field 
are  the  United  Public  Workers— C.I.O.,  and  the  United  Office  and  Pro- 
fessional Workers — C.I.O.  These  two  Communist  fronts  in  the  trade- 
union  field  work  closely  with  the  Communist  agents  in  C.I.O.  councils 
and  political  organizations  to  penetrate  and  infiltrate  into  welfare  organ- 
izations and  committees. 

Communists  carry  on  a  scientifically  planned  and  systematic  pro- 
gram of  agitation  to  depict  the  Communist  Party  and  its  front  groups  as 
the  only  friends  of  the  underprivileged,  and  always  claim  credit  for 
advances  and  benefits  obtained  for  underprivileged  individuals.  The 
entire  Communist  propaganda  machine  is  used  to  discredit  capitalistic 
institutions  as  "oppressors"  and  " persecutors "  of  the  "toiling  masses." 

The  fact  is  that  America  far  surpasses  every  nation  in  the  world  in 
the  over-all  qualitative  and  quantitative  contributions  by  the  community 
to  the  aid  and  assistance  of  unemployed,  handicapped  and  underprivi- 
leged citizens.  California  has  established  a  record  as  one  of  the  most 
progressive  and  liberal  states  in  the  Union,  in  its  treatment  of  the  needy. 
Per  capita  expenditures  by  public  agencies  from  the  tax-dollar,  and  the 
donations  and  distribution  of  aid  through  such  semipublic  cooperative 
organizations  as  the  Community  Chest  and  the  Red  Cross,  consistently 
are  supported  beyond  established  quotas  by  all  segments  of  the  popu- 
lation. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  73 

This  public  and  private  charity  has  been  accomplished  without  any 
help  whatever  from  Communists  and  Communist  front  organizations. 
The  Communists,  in  fact,  seek  to  obtain  under  false  pretenses,  huge  sums 
of  money  from  charitable  groups  to  be  diverted  to  the  Communist  pro- 
gram of  revolutionary  conspiracy. 

The  committee  cautions  all  citizens  of  California  to  beware  of  Com- 
munists and  fellow-travelers  in  public  or  private  charity  and  assistance 
work;  and  to  investigate  thoroughly  before  making  donations,  lending 
their  names  and  prestige,  or  in  otherwise  contributing  to  Communist 
front  groups  set  up  in  the  field  of  charity  and  assistance  work. 

Among  the  more  conspicuous  fronts  for  Communist  activity  in  the 
field  of  relief,  assistance  and  welfare  work,  and  dealing  with  problems 
of  the  unemployed  and  underprivileged  are  Daughters  of  the  American 
Depression,  International  Workers  Order,  Interprofessional  Association 
for  Social  Insurance,  Joint  Committee  of  Trade  Unions  on  Social  Work, 
Methodist  Federation  for  Social  Service,  National  Joint  Action  Commit- 
tee for  Genuine  Social  Insurance,  National  Congress  for  Unemployment 
and  Social  Insurance,  Southern  Conference  for  Human  Welfare,  Workers 
Alliance  of  America,  United  Public  Workers  (CIO),  United  Office  and 
Professional  Workers  (CIO) ,  United  Aid  for  Peoples  of  African  Descent, 
etc.,  and  innumerable  organizations  promoted  by  Communists  to  raise 
funds  for  international  Communism  under  the  guise  of  helping  victims 
of  war  and  economic  confusion  in  foreign  countries. 

111.  Fronts  for  Racial,  Refugee  and  Alien  Groups 

Since  the  Communist  Party  is  committed  to  serve  the  foreign  policy 
of  Soviet  Russia  and  to  prepare  the  way  for  revolution  by  violence  in 
this  country,  it  is  natural  that  Communist  teachings  on  tactics  and 
strategy  should  parallel  closely  the  unholy  doctrine  of  * '  divide  and  con- 
quer" practiced  by  the  Nazis,  Bundists,  and  other  enemies  of  mankind. 

Nothing  more  plainly  reveals  the  fraud  and  dishonesty  of  the  Com- 
munists than  the  sinister  stirring  of  antagonisms  of  one  racial  group 
against  another  in  the  same  manner  as  they  seek  to  play  one  economic 
group  against  another. 

Communists  frequently  will  be  found  playing  on 'the  tensions  and 
conflicts  on  both  sides  of  a  national  or  racial  issue.  No  more  brazen 
instance  of  Communist  duplicity  need  be  cited  than  the  activity  of  the 
Communist  Party  and  the  Communist  International  in  the  Palestine  and 
Jewish- Arab  dispute.  Communist  Parties  actually  exist  on  both  the  Jew- 
ish and  Arab  sides  of  the  conflict;  and  their  only  contribution  to  the 
situation  has  been  the  intensification  of  tensions  for  hate  and  dissension 
on  both  sides.  This  technique,  of  course,  serves  the  interests  of  Soviet 
Russia  and  promotes  eventual  world  revolution. 

The  American  Communist  Party  has  compiled  a  long  record  of  the 
creation  and  penetration  of  organizations,  dealing  with  racial,  refugee 
and  alien  problems,  to  the  detriment  of  racial,  refugee  and  alien  interests. 

A  consistent  target  for  Communist  intrigue  has  been  the  large  Negro 
population  of  the  United  States.  The  Communist  promise  to  Negroes, 
that  under  the  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat,  American  Negroes  will  be 
given  an  autonomous  Soviet  Republic  in  the  so-called  " Black  Belt"  of 
540  counties  in  the  southern  states,  is  designed  to  bait  American  Negroes 


74  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

to  join  the  Communist  movement  for  the  overthrow  of  the  United  States 
Government. 

The  committee  has  in  its  possession  many  official  Communist  docu- 
ments and  publications  devoted  to  this  project.  The  plan  to  trick  and 
delude  American  Negroes  into  following  the  treacherous  program  of 
Communism  has  been  carefully  worked  out. 

Another  ethnic  group  whose  problems  have  been  capitalized  on 
cynically  the  world  over  by  the  Communist  International  is  the  Jewish 
race.  The  committee  has  in  its  files  voluminous  evidence  and  testimony 
that  proves  conclusively  that  American  Jews  are  defrauded  of  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  dollars  yearly  by  Communists  who  create  and  promote 
front  organizations  allegedly  for  the  purpose  of  combating  anti- 
semitism. 

The  record  of  strategic  trickery  engaged  in  by  the  Communists  to 
capitalize  on  the  sorrows  and  oppressions  of  the  Jews  of  this  world  is  a 
contemptible  abandonment  of  all  concepts  of  decency  and  humanity,  and 
brands  world  Communism  before  all  honest  men  as  vile  and  depraved. 

The  vicious  tactics  of  the  Communists  toward  Negroes  and  Jews 
has  a  parallel  for  every  other  racial  and  minority  group  in  America 
today.  It  is  a  monotonous  and  tragic  logbook  of  the  promotion  of  discord, 
strife,  disunity  and  conflict,  for  the  benefit  of  a  foreign  power,  and  for 
the  sole  purpose  of  laying  the  groundwork  for  violence  and  chaos  to 
breed  revolution  at  home. 

This  committee  repeatedly  has  exposed  and  condemned  the  pro- 
moters and  inciters  of  racial,  religious  and  class  strife  and  intolerance. 
The  committee  refers  to  its  reports  for  1943,  1945  and  1947  for  the  com- 
mittee's denunciation  of  all  un-American  activity  of  this  type. 

The  committee  has  reported  that  "the  same  psychological  sense  of 
frustration  and  guilt  found  in  every  Communist,  spurs  the  ignorant  non- 
Communist  to  seek  a  scapegoat  *  *  *  Character  assassinations,  in  search 
of  evidence  for  vicious  smear  material,  have  little  compunction  in 
resorting  to  inventions.  Generations  of  character  assassins  have  built 
a  vicious  series  of  libels  against  the  Jews ;  sinister  men  in  contemporary 
life  have  not  hesitated  to  supply  libels  allegedly  from  another  age  to 
bolster  vicious  attacks  upon  the  Jewish  people." 
In  its  1947  Report,  this  committee  said : 

Gerald  L.  K.  Smith  and  his  type  of  rabble-inciting  crusader  do 
more  good  for  the  Communist  cause  in  one  week  than  the  Commu- 
nists would  be  able  to  accomplish  in  a  year  *  *  *  The  average 
patriotic  American  Jew  is  offended  and  insulted  in  the  attack  upon 
the  Jewish  citizen,  even  though  the  attack  may  be  generally  directed 
against  Communism.  It  is  the  techniqup  of  a  Hitler  in  mobilizing 
uninformed  masses  to  a  Nazi  standard.  The  social  aspects  of  such 
rabble-rousing  are  appalling. 

This  committee  has  repeatedly  exposed  and  condemned  Gerald  L.  K. 
Smith,  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  the  German-American  Bund  and  other 
vicious  inciters  of  racial  intolerance.  The  committee  concluded  an  expose 
of  libelous  smear  attacks  on  the  Jewish  race  by  this  statement  in  its 
1947  report : 

The  committee  has  heretofore  stated,  and  again  reiterates,  that 

anti-Semitism  is  fully  as  un-American  as  any  other  subversive  ISM 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  75 

examined.  The  Ku  Klux  Klan  and  similar  organizations,  including 
that  of  Gerald  L.  K.  Smith,  are  unequivocally  condemned  in  their 
attacks  upon  the  Jews,  whether  that  attack  be  direct  or  by  way  of 
innuendo.  A  Communist  is  an  atheist,  and  therefore  is  neither  Jew 
nor  Christian.  Regardless  of  his  ethnic  category,  he  is  an  enemy 
of  the  United  States  and  of  every  citizen  in  it,  Jew  and  Christian 
alike  *  *  *." 

*  *  *  The  members  of  the  committee  are  convinced,  that  in  the 
struggle  against  Communism,  patriotic  Americans,  black  and  white, 
Jew  and  Christian,  will  again  fight  successfully  shoulder  to  shoulder 
against  the  common  enemy. 

The  committee  again  reminds  leaders  and  members  of  racial, 
minority,  and  ethnic  groups,  that  the  surest  way  to  hamper,  disrupt, 
confuse  and  defeat  the  program  and  aspiration  for  which  they  have 
created  organizations,  is  to  permit  the  infiltration  of  Communists,  to 
tolerate  collaboration  with  Communists,  or  to  lend  themselves  to  coali- 
tions and  joint  programs  with  Communist  front  groups. 

Among  the  more  conspicuous  Communist  front  groups  in  the  Racial, 
Refugee  and  Alien  subclassification  are :  All  Harlem  Youth  Conference, 
American  Committee  for  Protection  of  the  Foreign  Born,  American  Com- 
mittee to  Save  Refugees,  American  Croatian  Congress,  American  Slav 
Congress,  International  Committee  on  African  Affairs,  Civil  Rights 
Congress,  Mobilization  for  Democracy,  Jewish  Peoples  Committee,  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  National  Negro  Congress,.  National 
Negro  Women 's  Council,  Negro  Cultural  Committee,  Negro  Labor  Vic- 
tory Committee,  Non-Sectarian  Committee  for  Political  Refugees,  Slovene 
National  Congress,  United  Aid  for  Peoples  of  African  Descent,  United 
Committee  of  South  Slavic  Americans,  etc. 

IV.   Fronts  for  Veterans  and  Military 

One  of  the  consistent  strategic  and  tactical  theories  of  world  Com- 
munism, as  taught  by  the  Communist  International  in  Marxism-Lenin- 
ism-Stalinism,  is,  that  three  indispensable  ingredients  are  necessary 
before  the  Communist  revolution. 

These  basic  ingredients  are:  (1)  A  militant,  class-conscious  prole- 
tariat of  workers,  unemployed  and  underprivileged;  (2)  an  impov- 
erished and  militant  peasantry  (small  farmers  and  farm  workers),  and; 
(3)  soldiers  and  sailors  who  hate  and  distrust  their  government,  their 
officers  and  their  system,  who  will  either  join  the  revolt  or  refuse  to  fire 
on  Communist  inspired  revolutionary  mobs. 

It  is  obvious,  therefore,  that  Communists  have  conducted  front 
activity  to  influence  veterans,  soldiers,  sailors,  police,  and  similar  public 
servants,  whose  work  has  any  bearing  on  national  security. 

The  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States  has  devoted  much 
analysis,  propaganda,  agitational  and  educational  work  in  attempting  to 
win  over  veterans  and  military  men  to  their  program.  Much  of  this 
activity,  however,  has  been  cloaked  in  greater  secrecy  and  conspira- 
torial mystery  than  other  Communist  front  work.  Most  of  this  work  is 
"underground."  They  are  busy,  however,  in  veteran  housing,  veterans' 
bonuses,  and  other  political  and  economic  issues. 


76  UN-AMERigAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

V.  Fronts  for  Farmers 

The  committee  has  pointed  out  in  the  preceding  subclassification, 
that  agitation  among  the  "peasantry"  (small  farmers  and  farm  work- 
ers) is  taught  as  a  basic  tenet  of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism.  The  pur- 
pose is  to  propagandize  the  small  farmers  and  farm  workers  into  a  frame 
of  mind  where  they  will  support  the  industrial  revolt  as  one  of  the  indis- 
pensable basic  ingredients  for  the  revolutionary  mass  movement. 

The  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  follows  the  strategic  and 
tactical  admonitions  of  the  Kremlin  teachers,  and  it  has  accumulated  a 
long  history  of  agitation,  disruption  and  propaganda  work  in  American 
agriculture. 

The  committee  refers  to  its  report  on  the  Communist  Party  program 
of  agitating  and  propagandizing  for  "revolutionary  industrial  union- 
ism ' '  as  cited  in  a  preceding  section  of  this  report. 

The  records  of  this  committee  and  of  congressional  investigating 
committees'  are  filled  with  voluminous  files  of  documentary  material  and 
detailed  sworn  testimony  that  pictures  the  factual  record  of  Communist 
activity  in  California  agriculture. 

One  of  the  most  completely  Communist  dominated  trade-unions  in 
the  Nation  is  the  Food,  Tobacco,  and  Agricultural  Workers — C.I.O., 
successor  to  the  United  Cannery,  Agricultural,  Packing,  and  Allied 
Workers  of  America — C.I.O.  This  Communist  union  has  compiled  one  of 
the  most  conspicuous  records  of  Communist  activity  in  America. 

Another  major  reason  for  Communist  Party  interest  in  California 
agriculture  is  its  basic  importance  to  national  security.  California  is  a 
shipping  and  packing  center  for  the  world,  as  well  as  one  of  the  most 
productive  agricultural  political  subdivisions  in  the  world.  Food  is  one 
of  the  major  weapons  in  ideological  conflicts  both  in  peace  and  war. 

The  Communist  Party  is  dedicated  to  serving  the  interests  of  Soviet 
Kussia,  and  to  preparing  the  way  for  eventual  violent  revolution  at  home. 
One  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  Communist  strategy  in  serving 
these  objectives,  is  to  create  centers  of  agitation  and  disruption  in  indus- 
try, production  centers  and  communities  where  large  groups  of  workers 
are  involved  in  transportation,  communication,  and  processing  of  basic 
commodities  or  raw  materials,  so  that  these  projects  can  be  readily  dis- 
located, isolated  or  paralyzed  when  Communist  strategy  or  Soviet  foreign 
policy  dictates. 

The  committee  warns  the  people  of  California  that  the  future  of  the 
Nation  and  the  national  security  demand  the  fullest  and  f reeest  exposure 
of  this  Communist  program  for  sabotage  of  vital  national  security  assets, 
of  which  California  has  such  an  abundance. 

VI.  Fronts  for  Consumers 

The  Communist  Party  carries  on  continuous  agitation  against  capi- 
talism and  parliamentary  government.  The  preceding  sections  of  this 
report  have  presented  the  tactical  and  strategical  methods  taught  by 
Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. 

Communist  philosophy  directs  that  capitalism  be  discredited,  and 
that  people  be  convinced  that  parliamentary  governments  are  unable  to 
solve  the  problems  that  are  alleged  to  arise  from  the  so-called  "contra- 
dictions of  capitalism. ' ' 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  77 

This  means  plainly  and  simply  that  Communists  must  agitate  and 
propagandize  constantly  to  impress  the  masses  that  the  problems  aris- 
ing in  a  free  economy  are  due  to  "the  inherent  contradictions  of  capi- 
talism" and  that  they  can  never  be  solved  until  capitalism  and  parlia- 
mentary government  are  tossed  out  the  window  (together  with  our 
freedoms  and  liberties),  and  the  people  surrender  their  judgments  and 
decisions  in  the  economic  sphere  to  the  commissars  of  the  proletarian 
dictatorship. 

All  Communist  fronts  under  the  preceding  subsection  on  youth  and 
education  and  in  the  preceding  subsection  on  political  and  legislative 
serve  with  the  Communist  fronts  for  Consumers. 

The  basic  strategy  of  Communist  agitation  in  this  field  is  to  con- 
vince every  American  that  capitalism  has  failed;  that  parliamentary 
government  is  incapable  of  picking  up  the  pieces;  and  that  the  only 
recourse  is  the  violent  revolution  to  oust  the  ' '  oppressor ' '  class.  This  can 
only  be  done  by  violence  as  the  capitalists  will  never  surrender  to  the 
1 1  new  democracy ' '  of  Communism  peacefully. 

The  Communist  answer  to  high  prices,  low  prices,  unemployment, 
manpower  shortages,  and  other  symptoms  of  a  free  economy  is  to  propose 
the  total  expropriation  of  all  property  and  the  establishment  of  a  dicta- 
torship by  a  minority  of  the  population.  They  ask  that  those  who,  through 
incompetence,  neuroses,  inability  to  adjust  themselves  to  their  environ- 
ment; those  who  have  been  complete  failures,  be  entrusted  with  the 
problems  of  economy  and  government. 

The  committee  warns  that  Communism  feeds  on  dissension,  discord 
and  disunity.  Nowhere  is  patriotic  tolerance  and  cooperation  more  impor- 
tant than  in  the  work  of  solving  the  manifold  problems  of  a  free  economy 
in  an  industrial  civilization. 

The  world  Communist  conspiracy  proposes  to  liquidate  every  free- 
dom and  liberty,  for  which  mankind  has  struggled  for  several  thousands 
of  years,  and  to  replace  them  for  the  dubious  promise  of  economic  secur- 
ity— a  promise  that  no  totalitarian  state  has  been  able  to  fulfill. 

The  committee  calls  upon  the  members  of  the  Legislature  and  the 
citizens  of  California  to  awaken  to  the  insidious  pattern  of  disruption, 
confusion  and  discord  that  is  the  daily  work  of  the  Communist  Party. 
The  committee  urges  that  every  citizen  join  in  a  crusade  to  inform,  edu- 
cate and  propagandize  for  the  benefits  of  the  American  system  and  to 
prevent  Communist  conspirators  from  insinuating  their  unholy  doctrine 
of  hate,  class-struggle  and  statism  into  the  natural  free  disagreements 
and  contentions  that  provide  the  checks  and  balances  in  the  American 
system. 

The  committee  again  warns  the  people  of  California  that  the  safest 
and  surest  way  to  prevent  Communist  disruption  is  to  proceed  with  pro- 
grams and  policies  through  the  bona  fide,  basic  and  permanent  organiza- 
tions to  which  they  belong,  of  which  there  are  many ;  and  to  regard  with 
caution  the  promotion  of  fly-by-night ' l  letterhead  organizations ' '  staffed 
with  known  Communists  and  fellow-travelers,  created  by  the  Com- 
munists incessantly  to  serve  their  conspiratorial,  criminal  program  for 
revolution. 

Among  conspicuous  fronts  for  Communist  agitation  to  consumers 
are :  Consumers  National  Federation,  League  of  Women  Shoppers,  Con- 
gress of  American  Women,  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  etc. 


78  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

WHAT  IS  A  STALINIST? 

If  there  is  any  question  that  perplexes  the  American  people  in 
attempting  to  understand  the  variations  and  degrees  of  Communist 
affiliation  and  activity,  the  most  confusing  is  the  simple  question :  * '  What 
Is  a  Communist  ? ' '  There  are  many  similar  confusing  questions. 

This  problem  of  adequate  terminology  and  nomenclature  is  one 
that  the  Communists  consistently  play  upon  to  confuse  and  confound 
Americans.  The  Committee  believes  that  it  is  a  problem  that  can  be  solved 
by  common  sense  and  by  unified  and  widespread  publicity  as  to  who  is 
who  and  what  is  what  in  the  murky  depths  of  Communist  revolutionary 
intrigue. 

The  first  thing  that  Americans  must  do  is  to  abandon  all  dictionary 
definitions  and  loose  terminology,  most  of  which  is  based  on  academic 
and  philological  interpretations  of  words  as  they  have  developed 
historically. 

Communism,  as  it  manifests  itself  in  the  world  today,  is  far  removed 
from  dictionary  definition. 

The  committee  recommends  that  all  lexicographers,  teachers,  jour- 
nalists and  other  molders  of  public  opinion  devote  serious  thought  and 
study  to  the  correction  of  the  totally  inadequate  concept  of  Communism 
that  now  prevails  in  our  textbooks,  reference  books  and  in  much  current 
writing  and  reporting. 

The  correct  technical,  ideological  name  for  those  who  follow  the  pro- 
gram and  policies  of  the  Comintern  is  Stalinists.  The  programs  and 
policies  of  Stalin  are  consistently  lumped  together  by  Communist 
thinkers  and  analysts  as  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. 

The  advocates  of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism  are  the  largest  and 
most  powerful  of  all  the  various  socialist  and  revolutionary  movements 
now  in  existence ;  and  they  far  outnumber  all  others.  These  people,  who 
have  launched  a  program  of  world  conquest  in  the  name  of  ' '  progress ' ' 
and  under  the  banner  of  "the  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat,"  follow 
a  system  of  revolutionary  plotting  and  of  totalitarian  government  which 
they  describe  in  their  writings  and  textbooks  as  Marxism-Leninism- 
Stalinism.  Sometimes  it  is  called  Marxism-Leninism.  Other  times  it  is 
called  Leninism-Stalinism.  Sometimes  it  is  called  simply,  Stalinism. 

All  Stalinists  work,  theorize  and  act  in  accordance  with  the  ideologi- 
cal concepts  of  Karl  Marx,  as  developed  in  the  Bolshevik  revolution  in 
Russia  by  V.  I.  Lenin,  and  as  interpreted  and  dictated  to  spread  totali- 
tarian terror  today  by  Joseph  Stalin. 

Communists,  like  all  totalitarians,  make  a  fetish  of  the  "leadership 
principle ' '  in  decking  out  their  programs  and  policies  with  showmanship 
and  political  appeal.  It  was  so  with  Mussolini  under  Fascism.  It  was  so 
with  Hitler  under  Nazism.  It  was  so  with  Hirohito  in  Imperial  Japan. 
And  it  is  so  under  Communism  with  Joseph  Stalin. 

Totalitarian  ideologies  emphasize  the  importance  of  the  leader,  the 
fuehrer,  the  chief,  the  dictator.  It  is  imperative  that  the  program  and 
policies  be  carried  out  by  a  live  leader ;  hence,  despite  Marxist-Leninist 
idolatry  of  the  dead  authorities  of  Communism — Marx  and  Lenin — when 
nations  are  swept  behind  the  Iron  Curtain,  it  is  the  picture  of  Stalin  that 
is  put  up  in  all  the  classrooms. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  79 

Today,  to  most  Communists  in  the  world,  their  particular  brand  of 
socialism  and  revolution  is  known  generally  as  Stalinism.  Stalinism  is 
the  current  practical  application  in  world  affairs  of  Marxism-Leninism. 

The  committee  finds  that  Stalinism  is  the  most  apt  and  appropriate 
descriptive  label  for  the  theories  of  violent  revolution,  and  the  concept 
of  totalitarian  government. 

The  committee  finds  that  American  Communism,  as  practiced, 
taught  and  advocated  by  the  Communist  Party  of  the  U.  S.  A.,  and  by 
the  Communist  Party  of  California,  is  Stalinsim  and  that  its  twin  pur- 
poses and  objectives  are  to  serve  the  interests  of  Soviet  Russia,  and  to 
prepare  the  way  for  the  violent  revolutionary  overthrow  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States. 

Any  person  who  supports  the  program  of  the  Communist  Party  in 
any  nation  as  part  of  the  program  of  world  revolution  laid  down  by  the 
Comintern  in  Moscow  is  a  Stalinist.  Any  person  who  consistently  works 
to  serve  the  interests  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia,  and  who  pro- 
motes discord,  disunity,  dissension  and  class  strife,  for  the  purpose  of 
preparing  the  way  for  revolution,  is  a  Stalinist. 

In  spite  of  millions  of  words  written  about  Communism,  it  is  as 
simple  as  that;  and  in  its  practical  application  today  as  formal  world 
Communism,  it  is  Stalinism. 

The  committee  has  discovered,  as  have  many  other  responsible  gov- 
ernmental and  police  agencies,  that  persons  who  advocate,  support  or 
work  for  Stalinism  have  committed  themselves  to  a  course  of  conduct 
that  consistently  comes  in  conflict  with  the  aspirations,  beliefs  and  ethical 
concepts  of  normal  human  beings.  Stalinism,  like  Fascism,  Nazism  and 
other  totalitarian  concepts  of  human  living  and  government,  is  unequiv- 
ocally and  irrevocably  in  complete  and  total  conflict  with  the  conceptions 
of  human  living  and  government  embodied  in  the  American  Constitution 
and  the  way  of  life  by  the  founding  fathers  of  this  Nation. 

The  conflict  between  Americanism  and  Stalinism  is  irreconcilable 
and  cannot  be  compromised.  This  conflict  has  been  demonstrated  by  many 
specific  instances  in  the  past  and  it  will  continue  in  the  future.  Consistent 
subservience  to  the  pattern  of  conduct  laid  down  by  world  Communism, 
stamps  a  person  or  organization  indisputably  as  either  a  Stalinist  or 
non-Stalinist.  It  is  a  conflict  so  sharp  and  clean  that  there  will  never  be  a 
middle  ground. 

It  is  impossible  for  an  organization  or  an  individual  to  exist,  except 
in  a  total  vacuum,  without  coming  in  contact  with  the  ideas,  issues,  poli- 
cies and  programs  that  test  its  or  his  attitude  toward  Stalinism.  Further- 
more, Stalinism  is  so  foreign  to  the  ideas  and  concepts  of  Americanism, 
no  matter  how  sharply  Americans  may  differ  on  ideas,  issues,  policies 
and  programs,  that  only  a  devoted  follower  or  a  complete  fool  can  pursue 
a  pattern  of  consistently  supporting  the  Stalinist  position  on  a  wide 
range  of  foreign  policy  and  domestic  issues,  in  view  of  the  openly  avowed 
objectives  of  Stalinism. 

There  are  two  basic  objections  to  the  indiscriminate  labeling  of  all 
Marxists  and  leftists  as  Communists.  One  is  that  many  Marxists  and 
leftists,  including  those  who  are  Stalinists,  actually,  in  a  technical  and 
legal  sense,  may  not  be  Communists.  The  other  is  that  indiscriminate 
application  of  the  Communist  label  plays  into  the  hands  of  Communist 
propagandists  for  Stalinism. 


80  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

It  is  an  indisputable  fact  that  the  conflict  on  broad  ideological  issues 
in  American  organizations  and  institutions  is  between  two  sharply 
divided  groups — those  who  believe  in  and  support  Americanism,  against 
those  who  believe  in  and  support  Stalinism.  Some  Stalinists  are  Com- 
munists, but  all  Stalinists  are  un-American ! 

THE  STIGMA  OF  STALINISM 

Actual  Communists  frequently  are  not  easily  identified  as  such 
because  of  the  secret  and  conspiratorial  nature  of  the  Communist  Party. 
Identification  of  an  individual  as  a  Communist  should  not  depend  solely 
upon  legal  proof  of  membership  in  the  Communist  Party.  Identification 
of  an  individual  or  an  organization  as  Stalinist  can  be  made  on  the  basis 
of  his  or  its  public  activities.  It  is  impossible  to  be  a  Stalinist  without 
stamping  oneself  as  a  Stalinist. 

The  one  thing  that  marks  off  a  Stalinist  and  sets  him  aside  from  his 
fellowmen  is  consistent,  undeviating  devotion  to  the  so-called  "  party 
line ' '  of  the  Communist  Party,  and  adherence  to  the  self -prof  essed  ideas 
and  objectives  of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. 

The  current  report  of  this  committee  establishes  clearly  and  factually 
that  U.  S.  Communists,  as  part  of  the  program  of  world  Communism, 
continuously  and  consistently  operate  behind  the  facade  of  front  organ- 
izations, and  that  these  front  organizations  espouse  causes  and  programs 
and  policies  that  are  part  and  parcel  of  the  Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist 
"party  line." 

A  Stalinist  stamps  himself  as  such  by  his  own  acts  in  lending  his 
name  as  a  speaker,  sponsor,  donor,  chairman,  executive  board  member, 
fund-raiser,  writer,  and  official  of  organizations  that  follow  the  Stalinist 
pattern. 

Stalinists  will  be  found  in  the  membership  of  defense  committees, 
victory  committees,  celebration  committees,  and  other  committees,  for  the 
honoring  and  support  of  known  Communists  and  the  Soviet  Union  and 
its  Communist  satellites. 

Stalinists  also  will  be  found  signing  their  names  to  resolutions,  pro- 
tests, denunciations,  publicity  releases  and  quotations  to  the  Communist 
press,  general  press  statements,  meeting  calls  and  manifestoes,  all  in 
defense  and  support  of  known  Communists,  and  for  the  honoring  or  sup- 
port of  the  Soviet  Union. 

When  Stalinists  set  up  an  organization,  union,  committee,  rally  or 
other  Communist  activity,  they  invariably  welcome  Communists  into 
membership ;  and  the  individual  who  proposes  in  any  such  movement  to 
ban  Communists,  immediately  is  denounced  by  Stalinists  as  a  "red- 
baiter  ' '  and  a  promoter  of  ' '  splitting  tactics ' '  and  ' '  disunity. ' ' 

Stalinists  always  attack  critics  of  Soviet  Russia,  or  of  world  Com- 
munism as  "imperialist  war-mongers,  who  want  to  separate  the  American 
people  from  friendship  with  their  great  wartime  ally."  Stalinists  never 
criticize  Soviet  Russia,  but  they  find  everything  wrong  in  the  United 
States. 

Communists  will  be  found  at  the  center  of  every  organization  of  a 
Stalinist  character,  and  usually  in  the  key  positions,  controlling  access 
to  membership  lists,  calling  of  meetings,  issuing  of  statements  and  han- 
dling of  funds. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  81 

THE  FOUR  TYPES  OF  STALINISTS 

There  are  four  principal  types  of  Stalinists  in  the  United  States  and 
they  are  typical  of  the  divisions  of  Stalinists  everywhere.  All  four  of 
these  types  are  sharply  distinguished  from  ordinary  citizens  in  their 
conduct.  No  matter  how  clever  they  may  be,  when  forced  to  ultimate  deci- 
sions they  invariably  stamp  themselves  for  what  they  are. 

These  are  the  four  basic  types  of  Stalinists : 

(1)  Communists 

Communists  are  members  of  the  Communist  Party,  whether  open 
or  hidden.  Customary  Communist  strategy  in  a  nation  not  yet  taken  over 
by  the  totalitarian  system,  is  to  have  "above-ground,"  only  approxi- 
mately 10  percent  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Such  Communists  openly  avow  their  party  membership.  The  bal- 
ance of  the  party  membership  keeps  its  party  membership  secret,  but  in 
most  cases  makes  no  bones  about  its  Stalinist  beliefs  and  sympathies. 

Some  important  Communists  in  key  positions  are  allowed  to  have 
special  secret  memberships.  In  many  instances,  these  secret  Communists 
meet  together  in  what  are  known  as  "closed  cells,"  small  groupings  of 
top  secret  Communist  Party  members.  Most  top  secret  Communists  avoid 
flaunting  their  Stalinism. 

Many  important  Communists  in  public  life  are  permitted  to  func- 
tion without  formal  party  membership  of  any  kind  for  their  own  pro- 
tection from  investigations  by  police  and  other  governmental  agencies. 

(2)  Fellow-Travelers 

Fellow-travelers  fall  into  two  main  groupings :  First,  those,  such  as 
in  the  instance  described  above,  who  actually  are  Communists,  but  never 
are  registered  in  any  part  of  the  party  machinery;  and,  Second,  those 
who  never  join  the  party  at  all,  because  Communists  welcome  them  as 
allies,  although,  for  various  reasons  they  do  not  risk  incriminating 
documentary  evidence. 

The  latter  type  of  fellow-traveler  is  a  full-fledged  Stalinist,  but  for 
reasons  of  his  own,  or  for  party  reasons,  either  is  unwilling  to  become  a 
member  formally,  or  is  not  accepted  into  the  executive-administrative 
centers  of  the  party.  Many  of  this  latter  type  of  fellow-traveler  will  be 
found  in  positions  of  prominence,  political,  church  and  business  affairs. 

So-called  "intellectual  Communists"  generally  are  in  this  latter 
type  of  fellow-traveler  classification.  Frequently,  when  they  are  of  higher 
calibre  in  ability  and  prestige,  they  are  not  welcome  as  party  members 
because  of  their  unwillingness  or  inability  to  accept  Communist  Party 
discipline. 

Americans  must  understand  that  the  conspiratorial  Communist 
Party,  which  openly  teaches  treachery,  fraud,  misrepresentation, 
duplicity  and  sedition  as  things  to  be  proud  of  and  indispensable  to 
practical  revolutionary  organization,  does  not  welcome  men  and  women 
of  deep  integrity,  character  and  ability. 

Communists,  who  are  committed  to  an  inflexible  and  single-minded 
devotion  to  the  one  subject  of  the  world  proletarian  revolution,  do  not 
welcome  strong  individualists  into  their  leadership ;  although  they  are 
perfectly  willing  to  use  or  to  treat  with  compelling  personalities  if  they 
think  it  serves  the  interests  of  the  long  range  Comintern  program. 

7— L-7088-D 


82  UN-AMEEICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

(3)  Opportunists 

A  third  and  very  important  type  of  Stalinist,  even  though  transient 
in  the  Stalinist  orbit,  is  the  Opportunist  Stalinist.  Many  trade  union 
leaders  and  political  figures  will  be  found  in  this  category. 

Most  of  these  individuals  do  not  believe  in  Marxism-Leninism- 
Stalinism.  They  join  with  Communists,  work  with  and  for  Communists, 
and  fit  their  conduct  into  the  pattern  of  Stalinist  activity  as  laid  down 
by  the  Communist  Party,  solely  for  real  or  fancied  reasons  of  personal 
gain  and  temporary  advantage. 

Among  this  class  of  Stalinist  will  be  found  the  nonCommunist 
so-called  "pie-cards"  in  Communist  controlled  or  dominated  unions. 
These  "pie-cards"  are  paid  officials,  who  serve  the  interests  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  for  a  well-paying  easy  job.  Another  familiar  type  is  the 
politician  who  accepts  the  intellectual  valet  service  that  Communists 
so  well  provide  for  prominent  persons  who  come  under  their  influence. 
Skillful  and  expert  professional  Communist  writers,  publicists  and 
journalists  give  such  political  figures  full  treatment. 

Opportunists  of  this  type  generally  start  out  by  believing  that  they 
can  "play  with  the  Communists  and  use  them."  They  usually  discover 
that  a  tired  Communist  can  match  the  most  lively  dishonest  politician  any 
day,  in  trickery,  fraud  and  sharp  practices  of  all  kinds. 

During  the  period  of  collaboration  with  Communists,  Stalinist 
Opportunists  of  this  type,  wittingly  or  unwittingly,  follow  the  pattern 
of  Stalinist  activity. 

(4)  Dupes 

The  Communist  program  of  operation  behind  false  fronts,  and 
through  synthetic  coalitions  of  various  Communist-inspired  front 
groups,  results  in  the  creation  of  a  large  number  of  the  fourth  type  of 
Stalinist — the  dupes. 

Stalinist  dupes  are  individuals  who  follow  all  or  part  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  line  in  the  hope  of  accomplishing  some  particular  aspira- 
tion. They  are  too  blind  or  thoughtless  to  perceive  the  Communist 
trickery  in  front  groups  behind  the  mask  of  humanitarianism. 

Stalinist  dupes  follow  the  twists  and  turns  of  the  party  line,  often 
through  stupidity  and  lack  of  the  mental  capacity  necessary  to  analyze 
and  evaluate  the  devices  and  tricks  employed  by  Communists.  They  are 
very  properly  comparable  to  the  victims  of  confidence  men.  Too  fre- 
quently they  have  the  same  ideological,  economic  or  political  "get-rich- 
quick"  instinct  that  make  the  "sucker"  or  "chump"  an  "easy  mark" 
for  the  confidence  swindler. 

Many  Stalinist  dupes  are  sincere  and  well-meaning,  but  are  con- 
fused and  thoughtless.  Typical  are  those  who  will  permit  openly  avowed 
Communists  to  lead  a  fake  humanitarian  program  for  the  benefit  of  some 
victim  of  injustice  or  racial  prejudice  in  America,  and  at  the  same  time 
will  dismiss  as  "capitalist  propaganda"  the  horrible  truth  of  Soviet 
Russia's  slave  labor  camps  in  which  millions  die  every  year. 

Stalinist  dupes  accept  many  of  the  claims  and  pretension  of  the 
Communists ;  that  they  represent"  Twentieth  Century  Democracy. ' '  Such 
Stalinist  dupes  must  be  regarded  as  entirely  separate  from  those  honest, 
sincere  Americans,  who  in  sympathetic  interest  in  some^  particular  prob- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  83 

lem,  may  join  a  Communist  sponsored  front  group,  but  who  soon  recog- 
nizes the  Communist  character  of  the  movement ;  and  who  either  get  out 
promptly  or  else  run  the  Communists  out. 

In  contrast  to  the  reaction  of  ordinary  Americans,  when  they 
encounter  Communists  in  an  organization,  Stalinist  dupes  will  involve 
themselves  in  complicated  logic  to  justify  representation  and  participa- 
tion for  Communists.  They  will  continue,  in  the  face  of  the  facts,  to  lend 
their  names,  funds  and  support  to  organizations  sponsored  by  Com- 
munists. They  apparently  are  incapable  of  understanding  the  basic  truth 
that  no  Communist  ever  joins  a  reform  movement  of  any  kind  except  to 
twist  it  to  the  Stalinist  line,  or  to  wreck  it. 

Honest  reform  and  improvement  of  unsatisfactory  conditions  is  the 
one  thing  Communists  fear  and  despise.  Peace,  progress  and  prosperity 
do  not  provide  fertile  fields  for  planting  the  Communist  poison  of  revo- 
lutionary intrigue. 

Stalinist  dupes  will  be  found  frequently  in  trade  unions,  political 
movements,  racial,  religious  and  minority  groups;  and  among  faddists 
in  the  field  of  economics  and  political  theory. 

INTERCHANGEABILITY  OF  STALINIST  TYPES 

Americans  must  be  alert  to  the  fact  that  Stalinists  frequently  pass 
through  various  stages  of  Stalinist  activity ;  and  many  Stalinists  in  one 
category,  may  try  to  pose  in  another  category  for  strategic  reasons. 

Thus,  actual  Communists  will  pose  as  fellow-travelers  until  exposed, 
or  until  Communist  Party  policy  decides  that  they  must  become  pub- 
licly avowed  Communists.  The  committee's  records  disclose  many  such 
instances. 

Stalinist  opportunists  and  Stalinist  dupes  may  pass  from  one  stage 
to  another.  Frequently  a  dupe  will  become  an  opportunist  when  jobs  and 
publicity  are  dangled  before  his  eyes,  and,  eventually,  if  he  proves 
tractable  enough,  may  be  accepted  in  the  Communist  Party  as  a  member. 

The  committee  finds  that  the  four  general  types  of  Stalinists  herein 
described;  (1)  Communists;  (2)  Fellow-travelers;  (3)  Opportunists; 
and  (4)  Dupes,  may  be  described  properly  as  Stalinists.  The  committee 
finds  that  Stalinists  are  individuals  who  pursue  the  Marxist-Leninist- 
Stalinist  brand  of  revolutionary  theorizing  and  planning,  and  who  advo- 
cate totalitarian  government,  under  a  ' '  dictatorship  of  the  proletariat, ' ' 
as  propagated  and  disseminated  from  Russia  by  the  Comintern  and  the 
Third  International. 

THE  TELL-TALE  MARKS  OF  STALINISM 

The  committee  presents  in  its  current  report  a  comprehensive  and 
definitive  analysis  of  the  various  types  and  classifications  of  Communist 
front  groups. 

This  compilation  describes  and  interprets  Communist  front  groups 
in  two  major  divisions : 

(1)  Organizations  classified  according  to  the  proportion  of  Com- 
munist influence ;  and 

(2)  Organizations  classified  according  to  the  purpose  or  objective 
for  which  they  are  organized  or  infiltrated  by  Communists. 

The  average  American  will  find  that  if  he  or  she  studies  this  orderly 
presentation  of  the  degrees  of  Communist  influences,  and  the  purposes 


84  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

for  which  Communists  seek  to  influence  any  organization,  it  will  bring 
order  out  of  chaos  and  will  enable  him  or  her  to  evaluate  and  judge  the 
nature  and  character  of  any  organization  from  its  methods,  procedures, 
policies  and  public  conduct. 

The  same  criteria  that  may  be  used  to  evaluate  and  judge  the 
Stalinist  character  of  an  organization,  also  may  be  used  successfully  to 
evaluate  and  determine  the  Stalinist  character  of  an  individual. 

STALINISM  IS  A  DISEASE 

Many  responsible  agencies,  legislative  committees,  police  authorities, 
and  expert  students  of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism  have  compiled  lists 
of  activities  and  policies  that  stamp  individuals  and  organizations  as 
Stalinist. 

The  symptoms  of  Stalinist  activity  are  such  that  it  is  possible  to 
interpret  the  Communist  fever  chart  of  an  individual  or  organization, 
just  as  a  physician,  who  has  studied  the  stigma  and  symptoms  of  disease, 
can  chart  the  condition  of  a  patient.  Communism  is  a  disease  of  the 
individual  and  the  political  organism.  The  first  step  a  doctor  takes  to  plan 
a  cure  for  a  disease  is  to  study  the  patient 's  symptoms.  The  same  sensible 
practice  should  be  followed  in  dealing  with  an  individual  or  organization 
suspected  of  Stalinist  troubles. 

The  committee  has  compiled,  after  extensive  research,  a  complete 
listing  of  the  outstanding  symptoms  and  indications  of  Communism  and 
Stalinism  in  an  organization. 

The  points  of  identification  have  been  assembled  into  a  series  of 
questions.  The  factual  answer  to  these  questions  will  provide  a  report  on 
the  Stalinist  character  of  an  organization.  With  slight  modification  they 
also  can  be  used  to  check  the  Stalinist  character  of  an  individual. 

Basic  Tests  of  a  Communist-Stalinist  Organization 

There  are  nine  basic  tests  that  can  be  applied  to  any  organization  to 
determine  its  Communist  or  Stalinist  character. 

These  nine  points  may  be  determined  by  the  answers  to  the  following 
questions : 

(1)  Who  are  the  organization's  sponsors ? 

(2)  Who  are  the  individuals  and  organizations  who  call  for  the 

group 's  formation  ? 

(3)  Who  does  the  printing  and  who  directs  and  writes  the  organ- 

ization 's  publicity  ? 

(4)  What  are  the  organization's  policies? 

( 5 )  What  are  the  organization 's  tactics  ? 

(6)  What  is  the  organization's  attitude  on  foreign  affairs? 

(7)  What  is  its  attitude  on  domestic  affairs  ? 

(8)  What  is  its  attitude  on  national  security? 

(9 )  What  is  its  attitude  on  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism  ? 

(1)  Sponsorship 

(a)  Are  the  sponsors  or  signers  of  meetings,  calls,  conferences, 
conventions,  etc.,  individuals  who  have  records  of  public  sponsorship, 
membership,  public  statements,  donations,  etc.,  in  a  series  of  Stalinist 
organizations  and  causes  ? 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  85 

(b)  Was  the  organization  first  announced  and  consistently  publi- 
cized in  the  Communist  and  left-wing  press  ? 

(c)  Do  known  Communist  organizations  and  Communists  have  a 
prominent  hand  in  promoting  or  initiating  the  organization  ? 

(d)  Is  the  organization  endorsed  by  Communist  dominated  unions? 

(e)  Does  the  organization  attract  well-known  patriotic  anti-Com- 
munist liberals,  or  does  it  denounce  and  reject  them  ? 

(2)  Organization 

(a)  Are  key  positions  in  the  control  of  Communists  ?  (Key  positions 
include  the  chairman,  secretary,  secretary-treasurer,  editor,  publicist, 
attorney,  and  other  paid  or  honorary  staff  positions,  providing  access  to 
membership  lists,  financial  records,  emergency  authority,  and  control  of 
publications  and  public  statements  in  the  name  of  the  organization.) 

(b)  Are  the  constitution  and  by-laws  and  rules  of  procedure  so 
drawn  as  to  permit  a  trained  minority  to  control  or  disrupt  the  organiza- 
tion against  the  wishes  of  the  majority  if  Communist  tactics  so  decide? 

(c)  Does  the  organization's  constitution  or  by-laws  contain  provi- 
sions for  excluding  from  membership  and  participation,  known  Com- 
munists, Fascists,  and  other  subversive  individuals;  or  does  it  welcome 
Communists  into  membership  and  denounce  any  attempt  to  ban  Com- 
munists as  "red -baiting"  and  "splitting  tactics "? 

(d)  Did  the  organization  spring  into  existence  overnight  for  some 
allegedly  worthy  purpose  and  immediately  launch  a  fund-raising  cam- 
paign, using  the  names  of  well-known  Stalinists  on  its  letterhead?  (Does 
it  make  an  accounting  of  its  disposition  of  funds?) 

(e)  Does  the  organization  represent  itself  to  be  nonpartisan,  but 
actually  engage  in  political  activities,  which  follow  the  Communist  Party 
line? 

(f)  Is  the  organization  committed  solely  to  its  announced  purpose, 
or  is  it  set  up  so  that  it  can  join  in  Communist-inspired  "coalitions"  with 
other  organizations  ? 

(g)  Can  a  few  officials  commit  the  organization  to  basic  policies 
radically  different  from  its  announced  purposes  without  securing  the 
formal  approval  of  the  entire  membership  ? 

(h)  Does  a  minority  object  to  substantial  wages  and  expenses  for 
executive  and  staff  work,  and  do  * '  enthusiastic ' '  Stalinists  then  volunteer 
to  carry  out  the  key  duties  of  the  organization  without  wages  or  for  a 
small  pittance  ? 

(i)  Are  meetings  arranged  so  that  the  agenda  is  elastic  with  no 
specific  hour  set  for  adjournment ;  and  does  a  small  minority  consistently 
"talk  the  meeting  to  death. "  (After  many  members  have  left  the  meeting 
at  a  late  hour,  do  certain  individuals  then  introduce  and  adopt  a  series  of 
Stalinist  resolutions  ? ) 

(3)  Printing  and  Publicity 

(a)  Does  the  organization  have  most  of  its  printing  (letterheads, 
announcements,  publications  and  informational  material)  printed  at 
plants  that  specialize  in  Stalinist  literature,  are  owned  or  influenced  by 
the  Communist  Party  ?  (The  union  label  of  every  print  shop  with  a  union 
contract  is  numbered.  A  checkup  on  ownership  and  policy  will  reveal  that 
certain  print  shops  in  each  city  receive  most  of  the  Stalinist  business.) 


86  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

(b)  Is  the  organization's  literature,  tickets,  publications  and  pro- 
motional material  consistently  sold  and  displayed  prominently  in  Com- 
munist bookstores  and  in  Communist  dominated  union  and  organization 
offices  and  meeting  places? 

(c)  Are  Communist  literature,  pamphlets,  newspapers  and  publica- 
tions consistently  displayed,  promoted,  sold  and  recommended  in  the 
organization 's  offices  and  meeting  places  ? 

(d)  Are  the  organization's  activities,  public  statements  and  policies 
consistently  publicized  in  news  columns  and  favorably  commended  edi- 
torially by  The  Daily  Worker,  The  People's  Daily  World,  Political 
Affairs,  In  Fact,  and  other  Communist  newspapers,  magazines  and  proga- 
ganda  media  ? 

(e)  Do  the  organization's  paid  advertisement  and  meeting  notices 
appear  consistently  in  Communist  publications  described  in  (d),  above? 

(f)  Does  the  organization  issue  frequent  public  statements  and 
adopt  resolutions  that  defend,  honor  and  support  known  Communists 
and  Communist  organizations  ? 

(g)  Are  the  printing,  editing  and  public  relations  activities  of  the 
organization  in  the  control  of  individuals  with  Communist  records  and 
leanings?  (Is  the  organization  represented  by  public  relations  and  adver- 
tising firms  that  specialize  in  handling  Communist  organizations  and 
individuals?) 

(4)  Policies 

(a)  Does  the  organization  consistently  feature  speakers  and  guests 
who  are  known  Communists,  fellow-travelers  and  sympathizers  ? 

(b)  Does  the  organization  completely  change  its  policies,  even  to  the 
extent  of  virtually  dissolving  and  emerging  with  a  new  name  and  pro- 
gram, if  the  Communist  Party  line  makes  a  "sharp  turn"  or  major 
reversal  of  policy  ? 

(c)  Does  the  organization  collaborate  with  and  support  the  policies 
of  conspicuous  Communist  organizations? 

(d)  Does  the  organization  collaborate  with,  endorse  and  support 
Communist  schools,  cultural  groups  and  educational  activities? 

(e)  Does  the  organization  consistently  muster  its  leaders  and  mem- 
bers to  seek  to  control  the  policies  of  other  organizations  ? 

(f)  Does  the  organization  welcome  and  seek  affiliation  with  inter- 
national organizations,  movements  and  causes  sponsored  by  the  Soviet 
Union  and  by  the  Third  International? 

(5)  Tactics 

(a)  Does  the  organization  or  its  leadership  advocate  study  of  Marx- 
ism and  Leninism? 

(b)  Does  the  organization  advise  its  members  to  read,  endorse,  sup- 
port and  contribute  to  the  Daily  Worker,  The  People's  Daily  World, 
Political  Affairs,  In  Fact,  and  other  Communist  publications  ? 

(c)  Does  the  organization  consistently  support,  endorse  and  pub- 
licize prominent  Communists,  Stalinists  and  pro-Russian  trade  union 
leaders,  and  at  the  same  time  consistently  denounce  and  condemn  promi- 
nent anti-Russian  and  anti-Communist  liberals  and  trade  union  leaders  ? 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  87 

(d)  Does  the  organization  consistently  denounce  members  who  dis- 
agree with  Stalinist  programs,  policies  and  resolutions  as  "labor  spies," 
* '  professional  disrupters ' '  and  promoters  of  '  *  splitting  tactics ' '  ? 

(e)  Does  the  organization  consistently  proclaim  that  Communists 
must  be  tolerated  ' '  because  they  are  the  only  people  working  100  percent 
for  the  interests  of  labor  and  minority  groups"? 

(f )  Does  the  organization  consistently  insinuate  public  affairs  as  a 
"class  struggle"  between   "capitalist  oppressors"  and  downtrodden 
' '  toiling  masses '  '  ? 

(g)  Does  the  organization  and  its  leadership  seek  to  identify  every 
problem,  complaint,  dispute,  disagreement  and  conflict  with  the  need 
for  making  a  change  in  the  American  system  by  abolishing  capitalism  and 
parliamentary  government,  while  at  the  same  time  paying  lip-service  to 
*  *  Democracy ' '  and  '  *  Constitutional  rights ' '  ? 

(6)  Attitude  on  Foreign  Affairs 

(a)  Does  the  organization  support  the  cause  of  Americanism  or  the 
cause  of  Soviet  Russia  and  Communism  ? 

(b)  Does  the  organization  denounce  American  and  British  foreign 
policy ;  but  always  praise  and  support  Soviet  Russian  foreign  policy  ? 

(c)  Does  the  organization  follow  the  Communist  policy  of  describ- 
ing Soviet-dominated  countries  as  "new  democracies"? 

(d)  Does  the  organization  consistently  denounce  the  United  States 
and  its  foreign  policy  as  imperialistic  and  dominated  by  monopoly  capital 
and  militarists  ? 

(e)  Does  the  organization  denounce  the  United  States  as  leading 
the  World  into  World  War  III,  while  praising  Soviet  Russia  as  a  "  peace- 
loving  nation ' '  ? 

(f)  Does  the  organization  oppose  the  Truman  Doctrine  and  the 
Marshall  Plan? 

(g)  Does  the  organization   attack   anyone  who   criticizes   Soviet 
Russia,  as  a  "  warmonger, ' '  and  as  a  " betrayer  of  the  Roosevelt  policies"  ? 

(h)  Does  the  organization  advocate  appeasement  of  Soviet  Russia 
and  recognition  and  support  of  Communist  regimes  and  revolutionary 
movements  in  other  nations  ? 

(i)  Does  the  organization  consistently  denounce  anti-Communist 
governments  ? 

(7)  Attitude  on  Domestic  Affairs 

(a)  Does  the  organization  condemn  capitalism  and  a  free  economy 
as  outmoded  and  doomed  to  early  extinction  ? 

(b)  Does  the  organization  advocate  revolutionary,  industrial  union- 
ism and  the  use  of  the  general  strike  ? 

(c)  Did  the  organization  follow  this  pattern  in  connection  with 
World  War  II : 

I.  Before  Germany  attacked  Russia  did  it  denounce  preparedness ; 
support  defense  plant  strikes ;  and  denounce  President  Roose- 
velt as  an  "imperialist  warmonger"? 

II.  After  Germany  attacked  Russia  did  it  change  radically  to  all- 
out  support  of  the  war  effort,  and  condemn  all  labor  disputes, 
even  in  nonwar  industries  ? 


00  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

III.  After  the  U.  S.  Communist  Party  in  1945  formally  resumed  the 
* '  class  war ' '  did  it  make  an  abrupt  change  and  oppose  military 
preparedness  and  advocate  all-out  strikes  and  denounce  United 
States  policies? 

(d)  Does  the  organization  oppose  and  condemn  labor-management 
cooperation;  and  denounce  labor  union  leaders  who  favor  cooperation 
and  understanding  between  employers  and  workers  as  "  tools  of  the 
bosses ' '  and  *  *  sellout  artists ' '  ? 

(f)  Does  the  organization  enter  into  labor  disputes,  minority  and 
racial  problems  and  other  conflicts  to  advocate  confusion,  hatred  and 
disunity  ? 

(g)  Does  the  organization  support,  endorse  and  advocate  basic 
policies  of  the  Communist  Party?  (Does  it  criticize  or  condemn  Com- 
munism or  policies  of  the  Communist  Party?) 

(h)  Does  the  organization  denounce  investigation  and  exposure  of 
Communist  activity?  Does  the  organization  denounce  the  prosecution, 
indictment  and  arrest  of  Communists  as  ''invasion  of  civil  rights"  and 
as  an  attempt  to  ' '  impose  thought  control  in  America  ' '  ? 

(i)  Does  the  organization  exploit  and  magnify  any  incident  in  which 
Negroes  and  Jewish  people  are  involved  to  the  detriment  of  the  United 
States  and  the  Constitution  ? 

(j)  Does  the  organization  support  legislative  measures  intended  to 
regiment  the  people  ? 

(k)  Does  the  organization  support  all  measures  intended  to  weaken 
and  destroy  business  and  capitalist  institutions? 

(1)  Does  the  organization  attack  and  condemn  an ti- Communist 
unions  and  leaders  in  the  A.F.  of  L.  and  the  C.I.O. ;  and  support  and 
praise  Communist  dominated  unions  and  Communist  labor  leaders? 

(m)  Does  the  organization  particularly  attack  and  villify  all  anti- 
Communist  progressive,  liberal,  trade-union,  minority  and  even  ultra- 
radical  organizations  because  they  oppose  the  Moscow  brand  of  Com- 
munism-Stalinism ? 

(n)  Does  the  organization  advocate  and  support  a  Communist 
dominated  third  party  political  movement  ? 

(8)  Attitude  on  National  Security 

(a)  Does  the  organization  oppose  a  sound  preparedness  program 
and  universal  military  training  ? 

(b)  Does  the  organization  urge  giving  the  atom  bomb  secret  to 
Soviet  Russia  and  oppose  the  official  proposals  of  the  United  States  in 
the  United  Nations  for  atomic  controls  ? 

(c)  Does  the  organization  oppose  an  Inter- American  defense  pro- 
gram and  seek  to  smear  supporters  of  such  a  program  as  attempting  to 
push  United  States  imperialism  on  South  American  nations? 

(d)  Does  the  organization  support  the  policies  and  programs  of 
the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States  toward  military  preparedness 
and  assistance  to  peace-loving  nations  that  are  threatened  by  Russian 
aggression  ? 

(e)  Does  the  organization  support  and  advocate  ""Win  the  Peace " 
movements  and  similar  programs  to  weaken  the  military  power  of  the 
United  States? 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  89 

(f)  Does  the  organization  support  the  United  Nations  in  vague 
generalities  but  oppose  United  Nations  action  to  investigate,  condemn  or 
stop  Russian  aggression  ? 
(9)  Attitude  on  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism 

(a)  Does  the  organization  or  a  substantial  proportion  of  its  leader- 
ship advocate  and  promote  study  of  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism  as  a 
system  of  government  to  supplant  that  of  the  United  States  ? 

(b)  Does  the  organization  advocate  or  pursue  any  of  the  Marxists- 
Leninist-Stalinist  theories,  ideas,  strategy  and  tactics  outlined  in  detail 
in  the  ensuing  section  of  this  report  ? 

The  percentage  of  "yes"  answers  to  the  above  questions  will  give 
the  proportion  of  Communist  domination,  control  or  influence  in  any 
organization. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  91 

Part  II 
COMMUNIST  FRONT  ORGANIZATIONS 

This  section  of  the  committee's  partial  report  deals  with  organiza- 
tions found  to  be  controlled,  to  a  lesser  or  greater  degree,  by  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  the  United  States. 

In  each  specific  case  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  exhaustive  analysis 
(Part  I  of  this  report)  for  classification  and  degree  of  Communist 
control. 

With  the  exception  of  such  out-and-out  Communist  organizations 
as  the  Communist  Party  itself,  and  the  Young  Communist  League,  the 
reader  is  cautioned  to  hold  in  mind  that  a  Communist  front  organization 
is  characterized  by  the  fact  that  the  majority  of  its  members  are  non- 
Communists.  If  this  were  not  true,  it  should  be  quite  obvious  that  the 
organization  would  be  actually  a  Communist  organization,  and  not  a 
front  in  any  sense. 

The  committee  has,  so  far  as  is  possible,  deleted  the  names  of  officers 
and  sponsors  of  Communist  front  organizations,  who  were,  in  fact,  merely 
dupes  and  innocents  of  Communist  manipulation. 

The  mere  fact  that  a  person  appears  as  a  sponsor  or  endorser  of  a 
number  of  Communist  front  groups  does  not,  by  any  means,  indicate 
that  he  or  she  is  actually  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party.  While  it 
certainly  indicates  a  sort  of  unusual  stupidity,  it  may,  as  a  matter  of  fact, 
only  mean  that  the  individual  is  a  good  intentioned  "sucker"  for  Commu- 
nist deceit  and  deception. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  fact  that  a  name  may  appear  but  once,  or 
comparatively  few  times,  is  no  indication  that  the  person  is  not  a  member 
of  the  Communist  Party.  It  may  be  indicative  that  he  or  she  is  a  most 
important  member  of  the  secret,  conspirative,  illegal  section  of  the  party. 

The  final  test  must,  necessarily,  confine  itself  to  certain  obvious 
factors.  First,  the  education,  background,  experience,  and  character  of 
the  individual  concerned  must  be  carefully  ascertained.  Certain  indi- 
viduals who  might  rate  a  hundred  percent  in  each  of  these  categories 
might  easily  be  attracted  to  a  Communist  front  that  purported  to  stand 
for  certain  high  ideals  and  purposes,  and  yet  be  horrified  and  indignant 
if  anyone  should  so  much  as  suggest  that  the  organization  worked  for 
sinister  and  concealed  objectives.  On  the  other  hand  a  real  American 
patriot  who  rated  zero  in  each  of  the  suggested  categories  might  reason- 
ably be  expected  to  root  for  Browder's  right  to  destroy  the  country  so 
long  as  he  made  no  overt  act  for  its  accomplishment. 

The  psychological  factors  are  not  to  be  overlooked.  The  single-track 
mind,  suffering  from  frustration  and  a  sense  of  guilt,  but  nevertheless 
the  mind  of  a  loyal  citizen  unaware  of  the  true  purposes  of  the  Com- 
munist Party,  might  well  be  ensnared  into  supporting  Communist  causes 
unwittingly  in  the  unconscious  desire  to  right  some  wrong,  fancied  or 
real.  Reasonable  allowances  must  be  made  in  either  of  these  two  cases. 

There  are  many  individuals  in  the  United  States  who  would  probably 
call  themselves  socialists.  While  they  believe  in  many  of  the  ultimate 
Utopian  ideals  of  Marxism  they  also  are  firm  believers  in  freedom  and 
the  right  of  others  to  disagree  with  them  and  to  work  for  their  particular 
ideals.  While  the  American  Socialist  may  be  said  to  be  the  most  informed 
concerning  the  Stalinites,  it  is  nevertheless  true  that  many  uneducated, 


92  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

but  nonetheless  sincere,  socialists  are  ''suckers"  for  Communist  " win- 
dow-dressing ' '  and  purported  causes. 

We  are  concerned  in  this  analysis  with  the  bona  fide,  iron  disciplined 
Communist  revolutionary.  Outstanding  examples  will  be  found  in  the 
Lawsons,  the  Maltzes,  the  Sorrells,  the  Kennys,  the  Sidney  Rogers,  and 
similar  individuals.  They  cannot  plead  ignorance,  either  of  philosophy, 
economics,  or  government,  because  they  all  demand  recognition  in  these 
fields.  The  professors  listed  throughout  this  report  can  hardly  fall  back 
on  the  excuse  that  they  are  uninformed  as  to  the  true  program  of  the 
Communist  Party  or  its  organizations,  because  they  are  supposed  to  be 
skilled  in  these  matters. 

The  reader  will  find  certain  front  organizations  listed  throughout 
this  report  that  clearly  indicate  the  Communist  character  of  the  group. 
Roughly,  these  organizations  are  created  for  publicly  announced  Com- 
munist causes — such  as  committees  for  the  defense  of  avowed  Commu- 
nists— or  brazenly  advertised  groups  for  the  protection  of  Soviet  interest 
against  the  interest  of  the  United  States.  Only  a  moron  might  success- 
fully contend  that  he  truthfully  didn't  know  what  the  organization  really 
was  and  that  he  was,  after  all  was  said  and  done,  an  American  patriot  in 
going  along  with  the  Communist  group. 

Thus  it  may  be  that  a  person  listed  as  supporting  but  one  or  two 
organizations  may  be  more  definitely  in  the  Communist  conspiracy  than 
an  individual  who  is  listed  in  many.  It  depends  on  the  organization. 

The  final  test,  therefore,  is  to  be  based  on  many  factors,  not  the  least 
of  which,  is  the  time  of  the  organization  and  the  particular  party  line 
existing  when  the  organization  was  created  and  functioned. 

As  a  general  rule  the  individual  who  permitted  his  name  to  be  used 
for  a  Communist  front  or  cause  after  August,  1939,  knew  full  well  what 
he  was  doing,  unless  he  was  an  ignorant  recluse  who  never  had  access 
to  the  newspapers.  There  is  also  an  allowance  for  participation  in  a  few 
Communist  fronts  during  the  war,  when  the  United  States  necessarily 
was  aligned  with  the  Soviet  dictatorship  in  the  war  against  Nazi  Ger- 
many, but  the  type  of  fronts  in  this  field  are  extremely  limited. 

The  interested  reader  will  carefully  check  the  index  of  this  report 
and  the  index  of  previous  reports,  and,  by  following  the  classifications 
listed  herein  and  evaluating  the  degree  of  control  and  disguise  of  the 
front,  easily  arrive  at  indisputable  conclusions  susceptible  to  the  most 
thorough  documentation  and  proof. 

The  Communist  fronts  are  arranged  in  this  part  of  the  report  in 
alphabetical  order.  The  committee  has  selected  the  most  important  fronts 
for  this  listing.  But  the  arrangement  here  does  not  purport  to  be  inclu- 
sive, either  as  to  this  report,  or  as  to  the  headings.  The 'committee  has 
included  those  Communist  organizations  that  are  important  to  Califor- 
nia, or  as  filling  in  the  general  pattern  of  Communist  intrigue.  Any  par- 
ticular Communist  front  listed  alphabetically  hereafter  may  include  a 
dozen  or  more  subsidiary  fronts,  found  to  be  Communist  instruments  by 
this  committee.  The  entire  list  will  be  found  in  the  index. 

It  is  suggested  that  the  index  be  used  if  the  organization  being 
researched  does  not  appear  in  the  alphabetical  arrangement. 

The  committee  believes  that  this  partial  report  on  Communist  front 
organizations  will  be  of  great  assistance  to  the  Members  of  the  Senate 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  93 

and  the  people  of  California,  and  that  it  will  serve  materially  to  illus- 
trate and  reveal  the  extent  of  the  criminal  conspiracy  that  menaces  our 
State  and  our  Nation. 

ABOLISH  PEONAGE  COMMITTEE 

This  Communist  front  came  into  being  in  the  latter  part  of  1939. 
It  was  organized  by  the  Midwest  Division  of  International  Labor  Defense, 
* '  the  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party. ' '  This  front  functioned  through 
1940  and  1941,  during  the  period  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  when  the 
Communist  Party  and  its  fronts  were  agitating  against  the  United  States ' 
entry  into  the  * '  Imperialist  war, ' '  as  well  as  against  all  national  defense 
preparations.  The  Communist  purpose  behind  the  Abolish  Peonage  Com- 
mittee was  (1)  To  provoke  national  disunity  and  social  friction  against 
the  national  defense  program;  (2)  to  smear  the  Federal  Bureau  of 
Investigation  and  the  Department  of  Justice  as  an  "American  Gestapo" 
in  line  with  Vito  Marcantonio 's  radio  speech  of  August  13,  1940,  and 
(3)  to  recruit  Negroes  for  the  Communist  Party. 

William  L.  Patterson  was  Executive  Secretary  and  Bob  Wirtz  was 
Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  Abolish  Peonage  Committee.  Among 
others  connected  with  this  organization  are  John  P.  Davis,  Executive 
Secretary  of  the  National  Negro  Congress;  Louis  Colman,  Washington 
representative  of  the  International  Labor  Defense;  Ishmael  P.  Flory, 
member  of  the  Communist  Party,  Chicago,  and  a  member  of  the  National 
Negro  Congress;  Mrs.  Eva  T.  Wells,  member  of  the  Illinois  State 
Advisory  Board  of  the  International  Labor  Defense;  Mrs.  Mary  A. 
Sweres,  member  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  International  Labor 
Defense ;  Theresa  Ehrlich,  member  of  the  legal  staff  of  the  International 
Labor  Defense ;  Harold  Preeze,  author  of  Peonage — 1940  Style  Slavery; 
Pearl  M.  Hart  and  Sema  B.  Belgrade. 

Harold  Preeze  is  a  former  organizer  for  the  Communist  Party  in  the 
southern  states  and  a  frequent  contributor  to  such  Communist  publica- 
tions as  the  New  Masses,  the  Daily  Worker,  the  International  Lai} or 
Defense  News,  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  Newscaster,  the  Protes- 
tant (originally  known  as  the  Protest  Digest),  and  the  Midwest  Daily 
Record.  Preeze  has  also  been  known  as  Richard  Randall. 

Theresa  Ehrlich,  Pearl  M.  Hart,  and  William  L.  Patterson  have  been 
associated  with  the  Communist  Party  Abraham  Lincoln  School,  Chicago. 

ABRAHAM  LINCOLN  BRIGADE 

The  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  was  the  fifteenth  of  the  so-called 
International  Brigade  established  by  the  Spanish  Loyalist  government 
in  its  decree  of  September  23, 1937.  This  brigade  was  composed  of  Ameri- 
cans, Canadians,  and  British  volunteers.  The  Lincoln  and  George  Wash- 
ington Battalions  formed  a  part  of  this  unit.  They  were  combined  to  form 
the  Lincoln- Washington  Battalion  after  the  heavy  casualties  which 
resulted  from  the  Brunete  offensive  of  July,  1937. 

Edwin  Rolfe,  official  historian  of  the  Lincoln  Battalion,  has  esti- 
mated that  2,800  Americans  went  to  Spain,  of  whom  at  least  1,800 
returned  to  the  United  States  to  form  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lin- 
coln Brigade.  The  supporters  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  became 
the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  in  the  spring  of  1937,  some 
months  after  the  departure  of  the  first  American  volunteer. 


94  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade,  and  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  are  all  Com- 
munist-dominated organizations  serving  the  objectives  of  the  Communist 
Parties  in  the  United  States  and  Spain.  Earl  Browder  boasted  that  "over 
60  percent  of  the  Lincoln  Battalion  members  were  members  of  the  Com- 
munist Party. " 

Among  the  known  Communists,  connected  with  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade,  are  Robert  Minor,  acting  General  Secretary  of  the  Communist 
Party  of  the  United  States;  John  Gates,  former  Secretary  of  the  New 
York  State  Young  Communist  League;  William  Lawrence,  formerly 
organizational  Secretary  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  State  of  New 
York ;  Joe  Dallet,  one  time  Communist  candidate  for  Mayor  of  Youngs- 
town,  Ohio ;  T.  H.  Wintringham,  formerly  connected  with  the  Communist 
east  coast  newspaper,  the  Daily  Worker;  Saul  Wellman,  former  member 
of  the  New  York  State  Committee  of  the  Young  Communist  League ;  and 
Steve  Nelson,  a  former  member  of  the  National  Committee  of  the  Commu- 
nist Party  of  the  United  States,  and  presently  chairman  of  the  Communist 
Party  National  Groups  Commission. 

The  command  of  the  International  Brigade  was  entirely  in  the  hands 
of  emigres  from  Russia. 

John  G.  Honeycombe  (see  committee's  1943  report)  estimated  that 
1,350  men  were  either  lost  or  killed  out  of  approximately  3,000  Americans 
in  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  California  Communists  and  sympathizers 
who  were  members  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade :  Ray  Anderson, 
Doc  Bissell,  Joseph  Bianco,  Archie  Brown,  William  Bailey,  Joseph 
Barran,  E.  W.  Bridges,  William  Baker,  Max  Bowers,  Arthur  Brown, 
Benjamin  Brown,  Hy  Brown,  Morris  Conway,  Leon  Cohen,  Maurice 
Conway,  Gordon  Chilton,  Durward  Clark,  John  C.  Coon,  William 
Carroll,  Jimmie  Crooks,  Frank  J.  Civiern,  Dr.  Thomas  Dunn,  Matthew 
Dykstra,  Norman  E.  Dorland,  Walter  Dicks,  Cleo  Duncan,  Russell  Dell, 
Lowell  Duncan,  John  Devine,  Dr.  Leo  Eloesser,  Leif  Erickson,  Howard 
Earl,  Jack  Egan,  Francis  Feingersh,  Wallace  Fishman,  John  Flanner, 
Robert  Ford,  Edward  Fliegel,  Jerome  Ferrogiarco,  Marshall  Garcia, 
Howard  Goddard,  Samuel  A.  Grant,  Jack  Goldstein,  Almon  Gregarie, 
Antonie  Gomez,  Preston  Hill,  John  G.  Honeycombe,  Harold  Hoff,  Fran- 
cis Herman,  Jackson  Haynes,  Aaron  Johnson,  Erie  Jackson,  Ivan  Katnic, 
Luke  Kirman,  John  H.  Kleinow,  George  Kaye,  Arthur  Laudis,  Ben 
Levine,  Thomas  Limau,  Elliett  Loomis,  Alfred  Lallemant,  Charles  Mayer, 
Luchell  McDaniels,  Donald  McLeod,  H.  B.  Megguler,  Felix  Montana- 
rella,  Paul  Merkel,  Lewis  Masterson,  Julius  Molnar,  Robert  Nelson, 
Frank  J.  Owiere,  Earl  Ozias,  Leonard  Olson,  Henry  Olsen,  Kenneth 
Parmelee,  James  Pierce,  John  Peterson,  Henry  Rubin,  William  Reed, 
Nicholas  Ramiriz,  Hyman  Rossman,  Boroslaw  Sliven,  Herbert  H.  Searl, 
Chester  Stimson,  Albert  Stanford,  William  Slavin,  Albert  B.  Stanford, 
Theodore  Schneider,  Michael  Shanzky,  Robert  Schweinsent,  Donald 
Simpson,  Samuel  W.  Stone,  Fredrick  Thompson,  James  N.  Thornton,  Don 
Werglen,  Alice  Wagner,  George  Walters,  Henry  Wentworth,  Frank  E. 
Wilson,  Louis  Widder,  Wilbur  Wellman,  John  Williams,  and  Harry 
Yanowsky. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  95 

ABRAHAM  LINCOLN  SCHOOL 

This  Communist  institution  was  established  in  the  early  part  of  1943 
at  30  Washington  Street,  Chicago,  as  a  streamlined  version  of  the 
Workers'  School  which  was  openly  run  by  the  Communist  Party.  This 
Communist  school  follows  the  general  pattern  of  the  People's  Educa- 
tional Center,  in  Los  Angeles,  and  the  California  Labor  School,  in  San 
Francisco.  (See  Committee's  1947  Report.) 

Among  those  with  Communist  or  Communist  fellow-traveling 
records  connected  with  the  Abraham  Lincoln  School  are  the  following : 
Alban  D.  Winspear,  William  L.  Patterson,  who  received  three  years 
training  in  the  Soviet  Union ;  Hart  Baker,  International  Labor  Defense ; 
John  T.  Bernard,  William  Blake,  Anna  Mae  Brady,  Milt  Burns,  Chicago 
Communist  Party  member ;  Jack  Conroy,  writer  for  the  Communist  press ; 
Ernest  De  Maio,  Theresa  Ehrlich,  International  Labor  Defense ;  Court- 
land  Ever,  Gerald  Fielde,  James  W.  Gilman,  Albert  E.  Glenn,  Pearl  M. 
Hart,  Josephine  Herbst,  Conrad  Komorowski,  Ludwig  Kruhe,  Julian 
Lewis,  Metz  T.  P.  Lochard,  Herbert  March,  organizer  for  the  Young 
Communist  League ;  Stanley  J.  Marks,  C.  J.  McClanahan,  Vera  Mirova, 
Karl  H.  Niebyl,  Grant  W.  Oakes,  Harvey  O'Connor,  Jessie  Lloyd 
O'Connor,  Paul  Romaine,  Charles  S.  Seely,  Frank  G.  Spencer,  Morris 
Topchevsky,  Robert  Travis  and  Ronald  Thompson. 

William  L.  Patterson  was  graduated  from  the  Hastings  College  of 
Law,  University  of  California.  He  was  the  Executive  Secretary  of  the 
Abolish  Peonage  Committee  and  the  former  Executive  Secretary  of  the 
International  Labor  Defense.  He  was  a  member  of  the  National  Commit- 
tee of  the  Communist  Party,  and  the  party's  candidate  for  Congress  in 
Chicago  and  New  York.  He  spent  several  years  in  the  Soviet  Union  and 
in  the  Far  Eastern  Republics.  He  has  been  a  director  of  the  National 
Negro  Congress. 

ACTORS'  LABORATORY  THEATRE 

This  red  front  is  also  referred  to  as  the  Hollywood  Actors'  Labora- 
tory School.  John  Howard  Lawson  has  been  prominently  connected  with 
the  school's  activities.  A  pamphlet  entitled  "A  Word  About  the  Lab" 
reads,  in  part,  as  follows : 

"On  the  day  after  Pearl  Harbor  the  Actors'  Laboratory  went 
to  war.  An  emergency  meeting  of  the  executive  board  was  called, 
and  a  policy  was  adopted  which  has  been  the  basis  of  lab.  work  dur- 
ing the  past  two  and  a  half  yeurs. 

"The  war  job  that  the  lab.  has  undertaken  for  itself  has  been 
to  organize  entertainment  for  servicemen,  utilizing  the  talents  of 
the  legitimate  actor  who  is  neither  a  vaudevillian  nor  a  star.  To  date 
the  lab.  has  produced  seven  full  length  plays  which  have  played  and 
replayed  most  of  the  military  camps  and  installations  in  California, 
using  the  volunteer  talents  of  close  to  two  hundred  actors.  This  work 
has  been  done  in  close  cooperation  with  the  Hollywood  Victory  Com- 
mittee and  IT.  S.  0.  Camp  Shows,  Inc.  In  line  with  its  experimental 
approach  to  craft  problems,  the  lab.  has  developed  a  technique  of 
presenting  plays  at  camps  under  the  crudest  of  conditions. ' ' 


96  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  program  of  the  Actors'  Laboratory  Theatre  in  the  files  of  the 
Senate  Committee  presents  one  act  plays  by  Irwin  Shaw,  Anton  Chekov 
and  Sean  0 'Casey.  "The  Shy  and  Lonely"  is  by  Irwin  Shaw;  "The 
Bear"  and  "The  Evils  of  Tobacco"  are  by  Anton  Chekov;  Morris  Car- 
no  vsky  doing  *  'a  free  adaptation"  of  Chekov 's  "The  Bear"  and  "Pound 
on  Demand"  by  Sean  0 'Casey. 

An  article  in  the  Communist  Daily  Worker  for  April  23,  1936,  indi- 
cates the  Communism  of  Irwin  Shaw.  The  article  is  entitled  "Left 
Theatre  Takes  Stock"  and  is  accredited  to  Ben  Irwin.  Referring  to  one 
of  the  many  red  conferences  of  the  New  Theatre  League  the  writer  of 
the  article  calls  attention  to  "the  movement  that  has  introduced  such 
figures  as  Clifford  Odets  and  more  lately  Irwin  Shaw,  young  author  of 
the  new  antiwar  play  Bury  the  Dead  to  the  American  theatre  scene,  along 
with  a  host  of  other  contributions  including  Private  Hicks  and  News- 
boy." 

Irwin  Shaw  is  listed  among  the  committee  members  and  sponsors 
of  the  Communist  Harry  Bridges  Defense  Committee.  The  Daily  Worker 
for  April  6, 1937,  lists  Irwin  Shaw  as  a  member  of  the  Advisory  Board  of 
Frontier  Films,  together  with  such  noted  Communist  Party  liners  as 
Bruce  Bliven,  Malcolm  Cowley,  Waldo  Frank,  Lillian  Hellman,  Max 
Lerner,  Archibald  MacLeish,  Lewis  Milestone,  Clifford  Odets,  George 
Seldes,  George  Soule,  and  Arthur  Zugsmith.  Shaw  appears  as  one  of  the 
signers  of  the  Communist  inspired  document  on  the  Moscow  Trials, 
defending  Stalin 's  purge  of  the  old  Bolsheviks.  During  the  Stalin-Hitler 
pact  Shaw  joined  with  notorious  Communists  and  fellow  travelers  in 
signing  a  letter  addressed  to  President  Roosevelt  protesting  attacks  upon 
the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  and  condemning  the  "war 
hysteria ' '  being  '  *  whipped  up  by  the  Roosevelt  administration. ' ' 

Morris  Carnovsky  was  a  member  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade. 
He  was  affiliated  with  the  Communist  front  Allied  Voters  Against  Cou- 
dert,  together  with  Stephen  S.  Wise,  Johannes  Steel,  A.  Clayton  Powell, 
Max  Lerner,  Dashieil  Hammett,  and  Arthur  Garfield  Hays.  Senator 
Frederick  R.  Coudert,  Jr.,  was  the  cochairman  of  a  committee  of  the 
New  York  Legislature  and  made  an  investigation  into  subversive  activ- 
ities in  the  public  schools  of  New  York  State.  The  Allied  Voters  Against 
Coudert  is  an  example  of  the  Communist  apparatus  for  character  assas- 
sination in  operation  against  one  who  opposes  the  efforts  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  to  undermine  and  destroy  the  American  Government.  Inci- 
dentally, Senator  Coudert  was  reelected  to  office  by  a  substantial 
majority.  Morris  Carnovsky  was  among  the  signatories  to  the  petition 
sponsored  by  the  American  Committee  for  Democracy  and  Intellectual 
Freedom  to  discontinue  the  Dies  Committee.  He  was  one  of  the  sponsors 
of  a  dinner  given  by  Communist  Donald  Ogden  Stewart  in  tribute  to  the 
contributions  of  the  foreign  born,  held  in  New  York.  (Under  the  general 
auspices  of  the  Communist  front,  American  Committee  for  Protection  of 
Foreign  Born.)  The  Daily  Worker  for  January  11,  1938,  lists  Morris 
Carnovsky,  together  with  Dennis  King,  Jules  Garfield,  Luther  Adler, 
Tookie  Hunter,  Harold  Johnsrud  and  Margaret  Waller  as  supporting 
the  "Boycott  Japanese  Goods  Conference-"  of  the  Communist  front, 
American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy.  He  was  one  of  the  sponsors 
of  the  most  brazen  of  all  Communist  fronts,  the  American  Peace  Mobili- 
zation. Together  with  Canada  Lee,  Howard  Bay,  and  Paul  Robeson, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  97 

Carnovsky  switched  over  after  the  invasion  of  Russia  and  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Communist  front,  Artists'  Front  to  Win  the  War.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Citizens  Committee  for  Harry  Bridges,  Celebration  of  15 
Years  of  Biro  Bidjan,  Jewish  Peoples  Committee,  Abolish  the  Dies  Com- 
mittee, National  Wartime  Conference  of  the  Professions,  The  Sciences, 
The  Arts,  The  White-Collar  Fields,  and  Negro  Playwrights  Co.,  Inc.  He 
served  on  the  Advisory  Council  of  the  Theatre  Arts  Committee  together 
with  Francis  E.  Faragoh,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Dudley  Nichols,  George 
Sklar,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Frank  Tuttle,  and  Orson  Welles.  He  was 
signatory  to  the  statement  on  the  Moscow  Trials  together  with  such 
notorious  Communists  and  Communist  fellow  travelers  as  Haakon  M. 
Chevalier,  Jack  Conroy,  Malcolm  Cowley,  Kyle  Crichton,  Lester  Cole, 
Jerome  Davis,  Muriel  Draper,  Guy  Endore,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn, 
Jules  Garfield,  Robert  Gessner,  Michael  Gold,  William  Gropper,  Har- 
rison George,  Dashiell  Hammett,  Clarence  Hathaway,  Lillian  Hellman, 
Langston  Hughes,  V.  J.  Jerome,  H.  S.  Kraft,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Cor- 
liss Lamont,  Melvin  Levy,  Albert  Maltz,  A.  B.  Magil,  Bruce  Minton, 
Moissaye  J.  Olgin,  Samuel  Ornitz,  Dorothy  Parker,  Paul  Peters,  Holland 
D.  Roberts,  Paul  Romaine,  Morris  U.  Schappes,  Edwin  Seaver,  George 
Seldes,  George  Sklar,  Lionel  Stander,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  Paul  Strand, 
Anna  Louise  Strong,  John  Stuart,  Genevieve  Taggard,  Max  Weber,  and 
Marguerite  Young. 

The  Executive  Board  of  the  Actors'  Laboratory  is  composed  of 
Roman  Bohnen,  Chairman ;  Sam  Levene,  Vice  Chairman ;  Larry  Parks, 
Treasurer;  Helen  Slote,  Executive  Secretary;  and  John  Berry,  Lloyd 
Bridges,  Phoebe  Brand,  Phil  Brown,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Hume  Cronyn, 
Jules  Dassin,  Ed  Dmytryk,  Jody  Gilbert,  Ruth  Nelson,  S.  Sylvan  Simon, 
Art  Smith,  Gloria  Stuart,  Mary  Tarcai,  and  Irene  Tedrow,  board 
members. 

Among  the  audience  sponsors  we  find  the  following :  Alvah  Bessie, 
Mrs.  M.  Blankfort,  Sidney  Buchman,  Vera  Caspary,  Dorothy  Comin- 
gore,  Marc  Connelly,  Richard  Conte,  George  Coulouris,  Katherine 
De  Mille,  Julius  Epstein,  Howard  Estabrook,  William  Fadiman,  Francis 
Edwards  Faragoh,  Mrs.  Ira  Gershwin,  Jay  Gorney,  Michael  Kanin, 
Charles  Katz,  Gene  Kelly,  Alexander  Knox,  Harry  Kurnitz,  Ring  Lard- 
ner,  Jr.,  Melvin  Levy,  Mrs.  Peter  Lorre,  Kenneth  MacGowan,  Aline 
MacMahon,  Albert  Maltz,  Mary  McCall,  Jr.,  Ruth  McKenny,  Lewis 
Milestone,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dudley  Nichols,  Bette  Odets,  Clifford  Odets, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  Ornitz,  Gregory  Peck,  Mita  Reis,  Mrs.  E.  Riskin, 
Allen  Rivkin,  Earl  Robinson,  Gale  Sondergaard,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart, 
Gloria  Stuart,  Barry  Trivers,  and  Dalton  Trumbo. 

Louis  J.  Russell,  former  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  agent 
testified  before  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  October  28, 1947  (page  388  of  the  committee's  report) 
that  Alvah  Bessie  held  Communist  Party  card  47279  in  1944.  Bessie's 
address  was  given  on  the  card  as  "4653  Coldwater  Canyon,  Hollywood." 
Russell  testified  that  the  card  contained  the  notation  ' '  New  card  issued 
on  December  10,  1944." 

Alvah  Bessie's  Communist  record  is  set  forth  at  page  388  to  page 
393  of  the  above  mentioned  congressional  report  and  is  reproduced  here 

8— L-7088-D 


98  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

as  corroborating  the  findings  of  the  California  Legislative  Committee 
investigating  subversive  activities. 

"According  to  the  records  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities,  Alvah  Bessie  is  one  of  the  leading  contributors  to  the 
Communist  publications  in  the  United  States. 

"He  has  been  connected  with  New  Masses,  a  weekly  publica- 
tion of  the  Communist  Party,  as  contributing  editor,  since  1937. 
During  this  period  he  has  contributed  over  85  articles.  As  a  stand- 
ard Communist  rule,  such  officials  of  the  Communist  Press  are 
required  to  be  members  of  the  party. 

"The  People's  World  of  October  11,  1939,  which  is  the  official 
Communist  organ  of  the  west  coast  of  the  United  States,  devotes  an 
article  in  praise  of  the  writings  of  Alvah  Bessie.  The  People's  World 
of  August  26, 1943,  lists  Alvah  Bessie  as  a  speaker  at  a  benefit  given 
under  the  auspices  of  the  People's  World, 

"In  the  September  22,  1942,  issue  of  the  Weekly  Review,  a 
publication  of  the  Young  Communist  League,  Alvah  Bessie  is  listed 
as  an  instructor  at  the  Workers  School  in  New  York  City.  The 
Workers  School  was  established  by  the  Communist  Party  of  the 
United  States.  Alvah  Bessie  has  also  been  an  instructor  at  the  Peo- 
ple's Educational  Center  (People's  World,  January  11,  1944,  p.  5). 

"Alvah  Bessie,  according  to  the  November  16,  1943,  issue  of  the 
People's  World,  was  a  speaker  at  a  West  Side  Los  Angeles  rally 
sponsored  by  the  International  Workers  Order.  The  International 
Workers  Order,  a  Communist-front  organization,  has  been  cited  as 
such  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on 
January  3, 1940,  June  25, 1943,  and  May  29, 1946. 

"In  addition  to  this  citation,  it  was  cited  by  the  House  Com- 
mittee on  Appropriations,  in  a  report  dated  April  21,  1943,  and  by 
special  legislative  committees  of  the  states  of  Pennsylvania,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  California. 

"Former  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle,  in  his  listing  of 
Communist-front  organizations,  which  appeared  in  the  Congres- 
sional Record  of  September  24, 1943,  characterized  the  International 
Workers  Order  as  '  one  of  the  strongest  Communist  organizations. ' 
The  People's  World  of  November  10,  1942,  lists  Alvah  Bessie  as  the 
coauthor  of  a  pamphlet  issued  by  the  International  Workers  Order 
in  connection  with  its  front-line  fighter's  campaign. 

"Alvah  Bessie  was  a  contributor  to  the  July  and  September 
1937  and  January  1938  issues  of  the  magazine  Fight,  which  maga- 
zine was  the  official  publication  of  the  American  League  Against 
War  and  Fascism.  The  American  League  Against  War  and 
Fascism  was  active  in  the  period  1932  to  1937  in  behalf  of  the  Soviet 
foreign  policy.  It  proclaimed  an  openly  treasonable  program. 

"It  was  cited  as  subversive  by  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  on  January  3,  1940,  March  29,  1944,  and 
May  29,  1946.  Former  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  cited  this 
organization  as  established  in  the  United  States  in  an  effort  to  create 
public  sentiment  on  behalf  of  a  foreign  policy  adapted  to  the  inter- 
ests of  the  Soviet  Union. 

"Alvah  Bessie  was  also  the  sponsor  of  the  organization  known 
as  the  Artists'  Front  to  Win  the  War  (the  official  program,  Octo- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  99 

ber  16,  1942).  While  in  1942  all  Americans  were  interested  in  win- 
ning the  war,  the  Artists '  Front  to  Win  the  War  echoed  the  demand 
of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  for  the  express  purpose 
of  placing  pressure  upon  the  military  leaders  in  this  country  by  a 
demand  for  an  immediate  opening  of  a  second  front  in  Europe  at  a 
time  when  Russia  was  suffering  military  reversals.  The  Artists' 
Front  to  Win  the  WTar  was  sponsored  by  the  same  persons  who,  dur- 
ing the  Stalin-Hitler  pact,  were  referring  to  the  United  States  as  a 
war-mongering  nation  and  demanding  the  discontinuance  of  Amer- 
ica's  lease-lend  program,  which  was  designed  to  aid  Great  Britain 
in  its  struggle  against  Nazi  Germany. 

"Alvah  Bessie  was  a  sponsor  and  consistent  supporter  of  the 
League  of  American  Writers  (New  Masses,  April  22,  1941,  and 
June  17,  1941;  Daily  Worker,  September  14,  1942;  and  People's 
World,  September  23,  1942).  The  League  of  American  Writers, 
which  was  an  affiliate  of  the  International  Union  of  Revolutionary 
Writers,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow,  was  pledged  to  the  defense 
of  the  Soviet  Union  and  "use  of  art  as  an  instrument  of  the  class 
struggle."  The  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  has 
cited  this  organization  as  a  Communist  front  in  reports  of  January 
3,  1940,  June  25,  1942,  and  March  29,  1944.  Former  Attorney  Gen- 
eral Francis  Biddle  in  his  characterization  of  this  organization 
stated ' '  the  overt  activities  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  in  the 
last  two  years  leave  little  doubt  of  its  Communist  control"  (Con- 
gressional Record,  September  24,  1942,  p.  7686). 

"Alvah  Bessie  has  openly  avowed  himself  in  support  of  the 
Soviet  Union.  He  has  also  contributed  articles  to  the  magazine  Soviet 
Russia  Today,  which  magazine  is  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the 
Soviet  Union  (September,  1937,  p.  6 ;  October,  1941,  p.  30 ;  January, 
1942,  p.  29 ;  and  February,  1942,  p.  29). 

"Earl  Browder,  former  head  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the 
United  States,  in  testifying  before  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities,  stated  that  the  Communist  Party  formed 
certain  of  its  members  into  a  fighting  force  known  as  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade  for  participation  in  the  Spanish  Civil  War.  This 
effort  was  initiated  at  the  Seventh  Congress  of  the  Communist  Inter- 
national in  the  summer  of  1935.  Alvah  Bessie  was  a  staff  officer  of 
the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  and  fought  in  Spain  as  an  ally  of 
other  Communist  units  which  were  supporting  the  Loyalist  cause 
(People's  World  of  December  30,  1942;  files  of  the  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities). 

* '  Alvah  Bessie  was  a  member  of  the  advisory  board  of  the  peri- 
odical New  Currents  (March,  1947)  and  a  member  of  the  editorial 
staff  of  the  publication  Mainstream  (winter,  1947).  Both  these  pub- 
lications were  organized  by  leading  Communists  and  supported  by 
the  Communist  press. 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  December  12,  1938,  carries  an  article 
concerning  the  returning  veterans  of  the  Lincoln  Brigade  entitled 
'Huge  Parade  Will  Greet  Boys  at  Ship.'  Returning  veterans  are 
listed  according  to  state,  and  the  name  Alvah  Bessie  is  listed  under 
the  State  of  New  York. 


100  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  December  12,  1938,  carries  an  article 
entitled  'Unions  Will  Form  Guard  of  Honor'  concerning  the  arrival 
of  150  veterans  of  the  Lincoln  Brigade.  Alvah  Bessie  was  listed  as 
a  commissar  in  the  returning  group. 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  January  11,  1941,  carries  an  article  on 
page  7  entitled  'Bells  Toll  for  Hemingway  at  Vet's  Symposium/ 
This  article  stated  that  a  number  of  the  veterans  of  the  Spanish 
Civil  War,  being  angered  at  the  picture  of  the  Spanish  Civil  War 
presented  by  Ernest  Hemingway  in  his  latest  book,  For  Whom  the 
Bell  Tolls,  had  announced  their  intention  of  speaking  from  the  floor 
at  a  symposium  of  the  book  which  was  to  be  held  at  50  East  Thir- 
teenth Street  (the  headquarters  of  the  Communist  Party  U.  S.  A.) 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Workers  School.  Alvah  Bessie,  sergeant 
adjutant  of  the  Lincoln  Battalion  and  well-known  short-story  writer 
and  novelist  was  listed  as  one  of  the  speakers. 

"A  leaflet  which  was  distributed  in  the  Los  Angeles  area  dis- 
closed that  a  meeting  sponsored  by  the  American  Committee  for 
Spanish  Freedom  and  by  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade  was  to  be  held  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium,  843  South 
Grand  Avenue,  Los  Angeles,  California.  On  June  10,  1946,  Alvah 
Bessie  undertook  to  act  as  chairman  of  this  meeting,  introducing 
first  Russell  Nixon,  described  as  a  former  professor  of  Harvard  Uni- 
versity and  an  economist  of  the  United  Electrical,  Radio,  and 
Machine  Workers  of  America,  C.I.O.,  a  Communist-controlled  union. 

1 '  The  Daily  Worker  for  September  29,  1946,  on  page  3  carries 
a  photograph  of  Gen.  Karol  Swierczewski,  of  Soviet  controlled 
Poland,  pictured  with  Americans  whom  he  decorated  with  the  Dom- 
browski  Medal  at  the  national  convention  of  the  Veterans  of  the 
Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade.  Bart  van  der  Schelling  accepted  the 
award  for  Alvah  Bessie. 

"The  publication  Volunteer  for  Liberty  for  November,  1946,  in 
reporting  the  election  of  officers  of  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade  listed  Alvah  Bessie  as  a  member  of  the  national 
executive  board. 

"Alvah  Bessie  was  listed  as  a  sponsor  for  a  theatrical  program 
to  be  held  January  19,  1947,  at  the  Valeska  Theatre,  New  York, 
entitled  '  Stars  Entertain  for  Republican  Spain. '  The  program  was 
arranged  for  the  benefit  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade. 

"On  April  12,  1944,  a  mass  meeting  was  held  at  the  Philhar- 
monic Auditorium  at  Los  Angeles  for  the  benefit  of  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee.  This  committee  (Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Refugee  Committee)  has  furnished  transportation  and  support  for 
international  Communist  agents  like  Gerhardt  Eisler. 

' '  It  has  been  cited  for  contempt  of  Congress. 

"Alvah  Bessie  took  part  in  this  meeting  and  made  an  eloquent 
plea  for  money,  stating  that  $560,000  was  needed  to  carry  out  the 
program  of  relief  undertaken  by  the  committee.  He  stated  that  a 
$60,000  hospital  was  to  be  built  in  Mexico  and  that  the  money  was 
to  be  used  to  take  care  of  Loyalists  wherever  they  might  be.  During 
the  taking  of  the  collection,  Bessie  took  off  his  necktie  and  said  he 
would  auction  it  off  to  the  highest  bidder.  He  stated  that  the  tie 
had  a  history,  that  when  he  was  in  Spain  in  1937  and  1938  with  the 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  101 

Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  he  had  purchased  the  tie  at  Barcelona, 
Spain. 

"The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  together  with 
the  Council  on  African  Affairs,  held  a  dinner  at  the  Ambassador 
Hotel,  Los  Angeles,  California,  February  4,  1945.  Alvah  Bessie 
attended  this  meeting  and  introduced  the  featured  speaker  of  the 
evening,  Paul  Robeson,  who  is  a  devout  Soviet  apologist. 

' l  Virginia  Wright  in  her  column  in  the  Los  Angeles  Daily  News, 
June  11, 1945,  stated  that  Alvah  Bessie,  Warner  Bros,  screen  writer, 
would  be  the  principal  speaker  Saturday  night  in  the  garden  cabaret 
to  be  held  for  the  benefit  of  the  Spanish  maquis  at  636  Reese  Place, 
Burbank.  This  article  stated  that:  'Some  50,000  Spanish  maquis, 
remnants  of  the  men  who  fought  for  the  Spanish  Republic  and  then 
joined  with  the  United  Nations  in  liberating  France,  are  now  desti- 
tute in  Europe.7 

"  '  It  is  of  these  Alvah  Bessie  speaks  with  knowledge.  He  was 
one  of  the  group  of  Americans  who  fought  in  Spain  as  part  of  the 
famous  Lincoln  Brigade. ' 

"It  was  further  indicated  that  the  program  was  planned  by 
the  Burbank  chapter  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee. 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  September  27,  1942,  published  a  class 
schedule  for  the  Workers  School,  35  East  Twelfth  Street,  New  York 
City.  This  was  at  the  time  the  official  school  of  the  Communist  Party 
was  conducted  at  party  headquarters.  Alvah  Bessie  is  listed  as  teach- 
ing a  course  '  Literature  and  the  World  We  Live  in. ' 

"On  page  17  of  a  booklet  entitled  'Workers  School'  announcing 
courses  for  the  winter  term,  1943,  Alvah  Cecil  Bessie  was  listed  as 
lecturing  on  literature  and  the  world  we  live  in,  which  is  stated  to 
be  a  course  of  12  lectures  (and  discussions)  that  will  attempt  to 
relate  the  world  in  which  we  live  to  some  outstanding  achievements 
of  literary  art  of  our  time.  The  announcement  states  that  leading 
dramatic  writers  (Steinbeck,  Smolokov,  Richard  Wright,  Lillian 
Hellman,  Clifford  Odets,  and  others)  will  be  used  as  a  point  of 
departure  for  discussions  of  the  history  of  social  institutions  as  they 
have  been  reflected  by  the  writers  of  all  times. 

"The  School  for  Writers,  1717  North  Vine  Street,  Hollywood, 
California,  which  was  sponsored  by  the  League  of  American  Writers, 
in  a  prospectus  for  the  summer  term  of  1943  shows  Alvah  Bessie  as 
teaching  a  course  in  short  stories.  *  *  * 

"A  letterhead  on  recent  literature  put  out  by  the  American- 
Russian  Institute  of  Southern  California  lists  Alvah  Bessie  as  being 
on  the  board  of  directors.  This  organization  has  conducted  active 
pro-Soviet  propaganda. 

"In  a  pamphlet  entitled  'Informed  Speakers  Offer  You  Facts 
on  the  U.  S.  S.  R.'  there  appeared  the  following  information : 

"  'The  American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations  has  a  speakers* 
bureau  to  supply  just  such  information.  We  can  provide  your  organi- 
zation with  speakers  who  by  study  or  by  personal  experience  know 
the  Soviet  Union. ' 

' '  Alvah  Bessie  was  listed  as  an  available  speaker. 

"A  10-cent  pamphlet  by  Alvah  Bessie,  The  Soviet  People  at 
War,  was  published  by  the  American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations, 


102  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

112  East  19th  Street,  New  York.  This  organization  has  been  cited 
as  a  Communist  Party  instrument  by  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  on  March  29,  1944,  and  by  the  Committee 
for  Cultural  Freedom,  headed  by  John  Dewey  in  April,  1940. 

"A  pamphlet  entitled  'Hear  About  the  U.  S.  8.  R.'  was  pub- 
lished by  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship.  This 
pamphlet  explains  the  speakers'  bureau  of  the  organization  and  is 
addressed  particularly  to  organizations  who  might  be  interested  in 
securing  a  speaker  on  various  Kussian  topics.  Alvah  Bessie,  author  of 
Men  in  Battle,  was  listed  as  an  available  speaker. 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  December  29,  1942,  carries  an  article 
captioned  'Allied  notables  hail  IWO  booklet  on  war.'  The  article 
states  that  numerous  acknowledgments  from  prominent  leaders  in 
all  walks  of  life  were  pouring  into  the  International  Workers  Order 
offices  in  New  York  City  on  receipt  of  a  fraternal  de  luxe  limited 
edition  of  This  Is  Tour  Enemy,  written  by  Alvah  Bessie,  American 
novelist. 

'  *  The  International  Workers  Order  arranged  a  symposium  for 
November  22,  1943,  to  be  held  at  the  Studio  Carpenters  Hall,  5164 
Santa  Monica  Boulevard,  Los  Angeles,  California.  Approximately 
530  people  attended  this  meeting.  Alvah  Bessie  spoke. 

"The  People's  World  newspaper  for  March  17,  1945,  reports 
that  Alvah  Bessie  would  speak  on  the  last  link  in  the  Axis  chain  on 
Monday,  March  19, 1945,  at  the  Screen  Cartoonist  Guild,  6272  Yucca, 
Hollywood.  According  to  the  announcement,  admission  would  be 
free  and  refreshments  would  be  served  under  the  auspices  of  Lodge 
469  of  the  International  Workers  Order. 

"The  People's  Daily  World  for  November  13,  1945,  in  a 
write-up  on  a  meeting  sponsored  by  the  American  Committee  for 
Spanish  Freedom,  relative  to  a  "Break  relations  with  Spain  rally" 
to  be  held  at  the  Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles,  November  16, 
1945,  stated  that  a  number  of  Hollywood  personages  would  partici- 
pate in  the  evening  event  with  the  script  for  the  skit  being  provided 
by  Alvah  Bessie.  Alvah  Bessie's  name  appears  on  the  letterhead  of 
the  American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom  as  a  sponsor.  This 
organization  was  part  of  the  Communist  campaign  in  behalf  of 
Soviet  policy  in  the  Spanish  Civil  War. 

' l  On  December  16, 1945,  a  '  welcome  home,  Joe '  dinner  was  given 
as  a  'tribute  to  America's  young  fighting  men  and  women  on  the 
occasion  of  the  second  anniversary  of  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy. '  This  organization  was  formerly  known  as  the  Young  Commu- 
nist League.  Alvah  Bessie's  name  appeared  on  a  program  along  with 
the  names  of  John  Howard  Lawson  and  Paul  Robeson. 

"The  Chicago  Herald-Tribune  for  June  9,  1941,  reports  that 
Alvah  Bessie  was  elected  a  member  of  the  national  executive  board 
of  the  Fourth  American  Writers  Congress. 

"Sender  Garlin,  in  the  Daily  Worker  for  June  11,  1941,  in  com- 
menting on  the  Fourth  American  Writers  Congress  stated  that: 
1  Alvah  Bessie,  veteran  of  the  Spanish  War,  spoke  on  the  writers  and 
the  struggle  of  fascism  in  Spain.  He  told  not  only  of  the  men  who 
fought  for  Spain  but  of  those  literary  mercenaries  who  betrayed 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  103 

Spain 's  cause  and  the  cause  of  mankind  when  Spain  was  temporarily 
defeated.  *  *  *' 

4  *  On  November  12,  1943,  the  forum  of  the  League  of  American 
Writers  presented  the  subject  'This  is  Treason,'  a  forum  on  Hitler's 
secret  weapon.  The  proceeds  of  this  forum  were  to  go  to  an  organiza- 
tion known  as  Sleepy  Lagoon  Defense  Committee,  an  affiliate  of  the 
International  Labor  Defense  cited  by  Attorney  General  Biddle  as 
the  'legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party.' 

"At  this  forum  Alvah  Bessie  read  a  paper  by  Dr.  Harry  Hoijer, 
reviewing  Allen  Chase's  book  Falange.  Prior  to  the  reading  of  the 
paper  Bessie  stated  that  the  Fascists  of  Germany  and  Italy  really 
instigated  the  so-called  Spanish  Civil  War  and  were  aided  by  the 
United  States  through  its  neutrality  laws  as  well  as  the  appeasement 
policy  of  Great  Britain  and  France.  He  said  the  appeasement  policy 
gave  the  Japs  time  to  prepare  and  also  permitted  them  to  buy  more 
scrap  to  wage  war  ultimately  against  the  Allies. 

' '  In  1944  Alvah  Bessie  was  listed  as  being  on  the  national  board 
of  the  League  of  American  Writers. 

' '  The  magazine  New  Currents  in  its  December,  1944,  and  Janu- 
ary, 1945,  issues  lists  Alvah  Bessie  as  a  member  of  its  advisory 
board.  This  magazine  is  a  publication  of  the  American  Committee 
of  Jewish  Writers,  Artists,  and  Scientists,  Inc.  The  writers  for  this 
magazine  have  included  those  who  have  contributed  to  the  Commu- 
nist and  Soviet  press. 

"The  Independent  Citizens  Commission  of  the  Arts,  Sciences, 
and  Professions  publishes  a  monthly  journal  of  opinion,  the  Inde- 
pendent, which  is  sent  to  all  members  and  to  more  than  100  daily  and 
weekly  newspapers  throughout  the  country.  Alvah  Bessie  is  listed 
as  one  of  the  contributing  editors  to  this  publication.  This  organiza- 
tion has  been  repudiated  by  Harold  L.  Ickes  and  other  liberals  as 
Communist-dominated. 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  September  22,  1946,  published  photo- 
graphs of  Alvah  Bessie  and  others  who  were  to  be  connected  with  a 
new  magazine,  Mainstream.  Bessie  was  indicated  to  be  on  the  edi- 
torial board.  Mainstream  was  described  as  a  Marxist  literary  maga- 
zine, aiming  to  advance  a  people's  working-class  literature  in 
America.  It  was  stated  that  the  magazine  would  strive  'to  stimulate 
and  guide  Marxist  thinking  in  literature. ' 

' '  A  brochure  advertising  this  magazine  states  '  the  fundamental 
character  of  this  magazine  is  determined  by  its  allegiance  to  the 
Marxist  science  of  history,  culture,  and  human  progress  *  *  *.'  The 
brochure  states:  'We  call  upon  writers  to  fight  anti-Communist 
influences  in  writing  today,  we  fight  the  literary  anti-Sovieteers  who 
constitute  an  auxiliary  legion  of  the  war  makers. ' 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  April  13,  1940,  carried  an  article  cap- 
tioned  'Philadelphia  anti-Dies  rally  to  hear  noted  authors.'  The 
article  states  that  noted  authors  would  speak  at  a  big  mass  meeting 
in  Town  Hall,  150  Broad  Street,  on  the  following  night,  in  a  protest 
against  the  Dies  Committee  unconstitutional  raids  on  the  seizure  of 
material  from  Communist  Party  and  IWO  offices  there.  The  speakers 
included  Ruth  McKenney,  William  Blake,  Alvah  Bessie,  Mark 
Blitzstein,  Bruce  Minton,  and  others.  The  meeting  was  to  be  under 


104  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

the  auspices  of  the  People's  Forum,  with  the  New  Masses  par- 
ticipating. 

"Alvah  Bessie,  writer,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  appeared  on  a  list 
captioned  1 1  hereby  join  in  signing  the  January,  1943,  * '  Message  to 
the  House  of  Eepresentatives ' '  opposing  renewal  of  the  Dies  Com- 
mittee. Copies  of  this  list  were  transmitted  to  Members  of  Congress 
by  the  National  Federation  of  Constitutional  Liberties,  1123  Broad- 
way, Eoom  907,  New  York,  N.  Y. ' 

"The  Daily  Worker  for  February  18,  1942,  carried  an  article 
concerning  the  individual's  interest  in  the  immediate  release  of  Earl 
Browder.  Alvah  Bessie  is  listed  with  many  others  by  the  Citizens 
Committee  as  having  communicated  with  the  Chief  Executive  of 
the  Nation  on  the  Browder  case,  calling  upon  him  'to  correct  his 
injustice  by  an  act  of  executive  clemency. ' 

"Page  3  of  the  Daily  People's  World  for  April  19, 1946,  carries 
an  article  entitled  '  Forum  Tonight  to  Hear  Report  on  Peace  Meet. ' 
It  was  stated  that  a  report  on  the  Win-the-Peace  Conference,  by 
William  Pomerance,  executive  secretary,  Screen  Writers  Guild, 
would  highlight  the  Hollywood  Forum  on  the  following  night  at  the 
Allan  Rudack  Studio,  7312  Beverly  Boulevard.  Waldo  Salt  was  to 
be  moderator  of  the  forum,  and  Alvah  Bessie  was  included  among 
the  speakers.  The  Win-the-Peace  Conference  is  the  most  recent 
version  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  which  picketed  the 
White  House  during  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact." 

Letters  recently  received  by  agents  of  this  committee  indicate  that 
the  Actors'  Laboratory  Theater  has  access  to  the  mailing  lists  of  the 
Communist  Party.  (See  the  Committee's  1947  Report.) 

A  letterhead  of  the  Actors'  Laboratory  Theater  for  February,  1948, 
gives  the  headquarters  of  the  organization  as  1455  North  Laurel  Avenue, 
in  Hollywood.  The  telephone  number  is  HOllywood  6391.  The  letterhead 
carries  the  caption:  "The  Actors'  Laboratory  Inc.  is  a  Non-Profit  Cor- 
poration composed  of  a  Theater  Wing  and  a  Workshop  Training  Pro- 
gram— Founded  1941." 

The  executive  board  is  listed  on  the  letterhead  and  it  is  as  follows : 
Roman  Bohnen,  J.  George  Bragin,  Phoebe  Brand,  Lloyd  Bridges,  J. 
Edward  Bromberg,  Phil  Brown,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Howland  Chamber- 
lin,  Hume  Cronyn,  Michael  Gordon,  Rose  Hobart,  H.  S.  Kraft,  Will  Lee, 
Daniel  Mann,  Joseph  Papirofsky,  Larry  Parks,  Abraham  L.  Polonsky, 
Anthony  Quinn,  Waldo  Salt,  Art  Smith,  Mary  Tarcai,  George  Tyne, 
John  Vernon,  John  Wexley,  and  Mervin  Williams. 

Oliver  Carlson,  who  testified  before  the  House  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities  in  Washington  as  an  expert  witness  on  Communism, 
wrote  in  the  American  Mercury  in  the  February  19,  1948,  issue,  as 
follows : 

"Actors'  Laboratory,  Inc.,  located  at  1455  North  Laurel  Ave- 
nue, in  Hollywood,  is  something  else  again. 

"Its  primary  function  apparently  is  to  draw  ambitious  young 
actors  and  actresses  into  the  orbit  of  Communist  front  organiza- 
tions. Ostensibly  the  Actors'  Laboratory  is  a  combination  training 
school  and  experimental  theatre,  but  in  fact  it  has-always  been  more 
political  than  artistic. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  105 

1  i  Communist  Party  literature  is  always  available  at  the  Actors ' 
Lab,  and  the  organization  has  frequently  donated  funds  and  talent 
to  help  put  across  pro-Communist  demonstrations.  Its  activities  are 
well  publicized  in  the  People 's  World. 

"The  list  of  sponsors  and  directors  of  the  Actors  Laboratory 
comprises  a  representative  cross  section  of  Hollywood  Stalinism.  The 
1  audience  sponsors'  include  Alvah  Bessie,  King  Lardner,  Jr.,  Albert 
Maltz,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Sam  Ornitz,  Gale  Sondergaard  and  Sidney  Buchman. 

' '  The  members  of  the  Actors '  Lab 's  executive  board  and  faculty 
include:  J.  Edward  Bromberg,  who  came  to  Hollywood  from  the 
Group  Theatre  in  New  York,  where,  according  to  testimony  received 
by  the  house  committee,  he  was  a  member  of  the  local  party  faction ; 
actor  Morris  Carnovsky,  who  has  been  active  in  the  Hollywood 
Writers  Mobilization,  the  PCA  and  other  fronts ;  Larry  Parks,  the 
actor  who  has  become  notorious  for  his  ardent  defense  of  Soviet 
and  Communist  policies  in  the  past  two  years,  and  who  has  also 
been  active  in  the  Hollywood  Independent  Citizens  Committee ;  Hy 
Kraft,  who  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League,  who 
signed  a  petition  in  1938  justifying  Stalin's  purges  in  Russia,  and 
who  has  been  a  frequent  speaker  at  front  meetings;  Abraham  L. 
Polonsky,  a  screen  and  radio  writer  who  was  (according  to  the 
People's  World  of  September  24,  1946)  Secretary  of  the  Hollywood 
Writers  Mobilization,  and  who  was  also  active  in  the  Hollywood 
Community  Radio  Group,  another  Communist  front;  Anthony 
Quinn,  a  popular  Mexican-born  screen  star  who  is  a  favorite  of  the 
People's  World;  and  Jacobina  Caro,  whose  husband  is  Sidney 
Davison  of  the  PEC,  and  who  was  registered  as  a  Communist  in 
Los  Angeles  in  1940,  under  the  name  of  Mrs.  Jacobina  Davison." 

Rose  Hobart  was  subpenaed  and  testfied  before  the  committee  at 
its  Los  Angeles  hearing  on  February  19,  1948.  She  stated  that  she  was 
an  actress,  presently  employed  in  a  play  titled  ' '  Deep  Are  the  Roots. ' ' 

Miss  Hobart  refused  to  say  whether  or  not  she  was  a  member,  or 
had  been  a  member,  of  the  Communist  Party,  thus  following  the  current 
Communist  Party  line  to  avoid  exposure.  Her  testimony  followed  the 
usual,  evasive  and  argumentative  pattern  set  by  Communists  who  have 
been  brought  before  the  committee. 

After  having  conferred  innumerable  times  with  William  B.  Ester- 
man,  her  attorney,  Miss  Hobart  admitted  that  she  was  associated  with 
the  Actors  Laboratory  Theatre,  and,  because  it  was  a  matter  of  record, 
stated  that  she  was  a  member  of  the  board  of  directors.  She  said  that 
the  group  meets  in  a  building  located  at  1455  Laurel  Avenue,  in  Holly- 
wood. 

The  committee  found  that  there  is  no  doubt  concerning  Rose 
Hobart 's  Communist  connections. 

Roman  Bohnen,  also  of  the  Actors  Laboratory  Theatre,  was  sub- 
penaed and  testified  before  the  committee  February  19,  1948.  He  fol- 
lowed the  same  pattern  set  by  Rose  Hobart  and  evaded  or  refused  to 
answer  most  questions.  He  was  willing  to  admit  that  he  was  an  actor, 
"between  engagements."  He  finally  stated  that  he  was  the  chairman 
of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Actors  Laboratory  Theatre.  He  testi- 


106  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

fied  that  the  school  had  been  certified  by  the  State  Department  of  Educa- 
tion for  federal  funds.  He  reluctantly  admitted  that  Jacobina  Caro 
(admitted  Communist)  was  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  Actors  Lab- 
oratory Theatre.  Pie  refused  to  state  when  he  had  joined  the  Communist 
Party,  or  whether  he  had  been  or  was  presently,  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party. 

J.  Edward  Bromberg  was  also  subpenaed  and  testified  on  February 
19,  1948.  He  also  was  willing  to  admit  that  he  was  an  actor  and  unem- 
ployed at  the  time  of  testifying.  He  admitted  that  his  name  was  on  the 
letterhead  of  most  of  the  " Actors'  Lab  stationery,"  as  a  member  of 
the  board  of  directors.  He  was  willing  to  say  that  he  was  connected 
with  such  organizations  as  published  his  name  on  their  letterheads. 

Bromberg  stated  that  he  was  born  in  Hungary  and  that  he  was  a 
naturalized  citizen.  He  refused  to  answer  whether  or  not  he  had  ever 
been,  or  was  at  the  time  of  testifying,  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Will  Lee  appeared  and  testified  February  18,  1948.  He  stated  that 
he  was  an  actor,  employed  as  a  teacher  at  the  Actors  Laboratory  Theatre. 
He  also  said  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  executive  board.  Like  all  of 
the  other  Communists  who  had  appeared  before  the  committee  in  this 
phase  of  its  investigation,  Will  Lee  refused  to  answer  whether  or  not  he 
had  been,  or  was,  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party. 

AGE  OF  TREASON 

Official  publication  of  the  American  Peace  Crusade  with  which 
Herbert  Biberman,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Mrs.  Mary  Aidlin,  Maynard 
Hamilton,  Dr.  Morris  Feder,  Rev.  Carl  Allen,  Herb  Sorrell,  Philip  M. 
Connelly,  Mrs.  Lee  Bachelis,  Rev.  Hamilton  Boswell,  Don  Healey  and 
Earnest  Dawson  were  associated. 

ALL-AMERICA  ANTI-IMPERIALIST  LEAGUE 

Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  found  the  Ail-America  Anti- 
Imperialist  League  a  Communist  front.  The  Fourth  National  Conven- 
tion of  the  Communist  Party  (then  known  as  the  Workers'  Party)  in 
August,  1925,  reported  that  "our  party  was  largely  instrumental  in  the 
establishment  of  the  All- America  Anti-Imperialist  League  *  *  *." 

The  statement  of  the  convention  was  modest  as  there  is  no  doubt 
whatsoever  that  the  Communist  Party  was  solely  responsible  for  the 
organization. 

The  All-America  Anti-Imperialist  League  functioned  from  1925 
until  1933,  when  it  was  supplanted  by  the  American  League  Against  War 
and  Fascism. 

Manuel  Gomez  was  the  league 's  secretary  during  its  early  years.  He 
was  replaced  by  William  Simons.  Both  Gomez  and  Simons  were  pub- 
licly avowed  members  and  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party.  The  Labor 
Defender  of  November,  1928,  carried  a  picture  of  a  group  of  delegates  to 
the  Second  World  Congress  of  the  Communist  International  in  which 
Manuel  Gomez  appeared  together  with  Lenin  and  other  high  func- 
tionaries of  the  world  Communist  movement.  William  Simons  was  Com- 
munist Party  organizer  in  Omaha,  Nebraska,  in  1936. 

Paul  Crouch  was  acting  secretary  of  the  All- America  Anti- 
Imperialist  League  for  a  brief  period  in  1928.  Crouch  had  been  court- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  107 

martialed  and  convicted  of  disseminating  Communist  propaganda  within 
the  United  States  Army  while  he  was  stationed  in  Hawaii.  Together  with 
Walter  M.  Trumbull,  who  was  convicted  on  the  same  charge,  he  served  a 
term  of  imprisonment  at  Alcatraz.  Crouch  later  became  a  Communist 
Party  organizer  in  Alabama. 

Scott  Nearing,  William  Z.  Foster,  Albert  Weisbord,  Ben  Gold,  Max 
Schachtman,  Harry  Gannes,  William  F.  Dunne,  and  Harriet  Silverman 
are  among  the  publicly  avowed  Communist  Party  members  who  served 
on  the  national  committee  of  the  All-America  Anti-Imperialist  League. 

In  its  later  years,  the  organization  was  known  by  the  shorter  name, 
Anti-Imperialist  League.  Throughout  its  existence,  it  was  affiliated  with 
the  League  Against  Imperialism  which,  in  turn  was  the  world-wide 
organization  directly  under  the  control  of  the  Communist  International. 

Langston  Hughes  was  affiliated  with  the  organization. 

Among  the  members  of  the  National  Committee  in  1928  were  the 
following:  Roger  Baldwin,  Charlotte  Anita  Whitney,  Scott  Nearing, 
John  Brophy,  William  Z.  Foster,  Paxton  Hibben,  W.  E.  B.  Du  Bois, 
William  Pickens,  Robert  W.  Dunn,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Arthur  Gar- 
field  Hays,  Ben  Gold,  Freda  Kirchwey,  Lillian  Herstein,  Max  Schacht- 
man, Harry  Gannes,  Arthur  C.  Calhoun,  Fred  T.  Douglas,  Ernest  Unter- 
mann,  William  F.  Dunne,  Harriet  Silverman,  Eduardo  Machado,  P.  T. 
Lau,  Theodore  Debs,  and  G.  F.  Vanderveer. 

ALL-CALIFORNIA  CONFERENCE  FOR  DEFENSE  OF  CIVIL  RIGHTS  AND 
AID  TO  LABOR'S  PRISONERS 

This  Communist  conference  was  held  in  San  Francisco,  April  23, 
1938.  It  was  called  into  being  by  the  Northern  California  District  of  the 
International  Labor  Defense,  the  "legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party." 

Ellis  E.  Patterson,  Reid  Robinson,  Frederick  Conliff,  Tom  Mooney, 
J.  V.  McNamara,  and  Henry  Schmidt,  were  among  the  endorsers  of  this 
organization. 

ALL-UNION  SOCIETY  FOR  CULTURAL  RELATIONS 
WITH  FOREIGNERS  (VOKS) 

Roman  Weller  of  Moscow,  representing  the  Bureau  of  Cultural 
Relations  came  to  the  United  States  in  1925  to  "  establish  closer  cultural 
relations  between  the  United  States  and  the  Soviet  Union." 

Anna  Louise  Strong  in  her  book,  I  Change  Worlds,  tells  how  she 
organized  the  Society  for  Cultural  Relations  with  Foreign  Countries 
and  wrote  its  first  prospectus.  Anna  Louise  Strong  has  been  the  editor 
of  the  Moscow  News  for  a  number  of  years. 

VOKS  is  the  abbreviated  reference  to  the  organization. 

AMERICAN  CIVIL  LIBERTIES  UNION 

In  its  1943  Report  to  the  Legislature,  the  Legislative  Committee 
investigating  un-American  activities  in  California  reported  the  following 
finding : 

' '  The  American  Civil  Liberties  Union  may  be  definitely  classed 
as  a  Communist  front  or  *  transmission  belt '  organization.  At  least  90 
percent  of  its  efforts  are  expended  on  behalf  of  Communists  who 


108  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

come  into  conflict  with  the  law.  While  it  professes  to  stand  for  free 
speech,  a  free  press  and  free  assembly,  it  is  quite  obvious  that  its 
main  function  is  to  protect  Communists  in  their  activities  of  force 
and  violence  in  their  program  to  overthrow  the  government. " 

During  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union 
suddenly  took  the  position  that  persons  who  support  "totalitarian  dic- 
tatorship ' '  in  any  country  can  give  nothing  more  than  a  tongue-in-cheek 
allegiance  to  civil  liberties  in  the  United  States.  Although  the  American 
Civil  Liberties  Union  was  organized  in  1920  and  had  been  defending 
Communists  for  over  20  years  while  the  '  *  totalitarian  dictatorship ' '  was 
in  ruthless  operation  denying  elementary  rights  to  the  citizens  of  Eussia, 
it  took  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  to  awaken  the  organization. 

The  resolution  adopted  by  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union,  how- 
ever, was  encouraging  to  the  California  Legislative  Committee  investi- 
gating un-American  activities  in  California.  While  its  philosophy  and 
its  activities  plus  its  Communist  and  Communist  Party  traveling  mem- 
bership, placed  the  organization  indisputably  in  the  Stalinite  solar 
system,  the  action  of  1940,  on  the  surface,  indicated  that  the  loyal  element 
within  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union  was  about  to  capture  the 
organization  for  American  purposes. 

The  Daily  Worker  for  March  19,  1940,  carried  the  text  of  a  letter 
signed  by  17  alleged  "Liberal  Leaders "  addressed  to  the  American  Civil 
Liberties  Union.  These  alleged  ' '  Liberal  Leaders ' '  asked  some  embarrass- 
ing and  pertinent  questions :  ' '  The  phrasing  of  the  resolution  is  danger- 
ous/' declare  the  17.  "Its  context  is  worse.  The  Civil  Liberties  was 
founded  in  1920.  The  Soviet  Union  was  established  in  1917,  and  with 
it  the  'dictatorship  of  the  proletariat.'  We  are  told  that  Communists  are 
to  be  barred  from  office  or  employment  in  the  Civil  Liberties  Union 
because,  while  fighting  for  civil  liberties  in  America,  they  accept  their 
suppression  in  Soviet  Russia.  Why  then,  did  the  Civil  Liberties  Union 
wait  until  1940  before  seeking  to  bar  them?"  The  letter  goes  on  to  state : 
' '  But  civil  liberties  within  the  Soviet  Union  were  no  different  before  the 
(Stalin-Hitler)  Pact  than  after.  One  could  not  print  an  opposition  paper 
in  Moscow  in  August,  1939,  before  the  Pact,  or  after  it,  in  Septem- 
ber, 1939." 

When  it  is  remembered  that  the  U.  S.  Communists  under  directive 
of  the  Kremlin  were  vigorously  supporting  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  while 
Hitler  and  Stalin  were  looting  Europe,  the  Communist  character  of  the 
17  "Liberal  Leaders"  becomes  obvious.  Their  letter  continues: 

"Could  it  be  that  the  majority  of  the  national  committee  and 
board  of  directors  of  the  Civil  Liberties  Union  is  taking  sides  in  the 
developing  European  conflict?  Is  their  real  objection  an  objection 
to  the  position  of  the  Soviet  Union  in  that  conflict  ?  Has  that  question 
anything  to  do  with  the  need  for  defending  civil  liberties  in  Amer- 
ica? *  *  *  The  Civil  Liberties  Union  was  formed  in  1920  to  fight 
postwar  hysteria.  It  would  be  a  great  pity  if  it  were  now  to  become 
the  victim  of  prewar  hysteria. ' ' 

Among  the  17  "liberal  leaders"  signing  this  letter  were  two  high 
officials  in  the  executive  branch  of  the  United  States  Government,  namely 
Robert  Morss  Lovett  and  Henry  T.  Hunt,  both  of  whom  were  appointees 
of  the  Department  of  the  Interior.  I.  F.  Stone  and  James  Wechsler  were 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  109 

connected  with  the  Washington  Bureau  of  Marshall  Field's  left-wing 
newspaper  PM.  William  F.  Cochran,  also  a  signer  of  the  letter,  is  a  mil- 
lionaire real-estate  operator  in  Baltimore.  All  of  the  17  signers  have  been 
consistent  supporters  of  the  Communist  Party,  its  leaders,  and  various 
front  organizations.  John  T.  Bernard,  Prof.  Franz  Boas,  Howard  Costi- 
gan,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Prof.  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  Prof.  Robert  S. 
Lynd,  Carey  McWilliams,  Rev.  Dr.  A.  T.  Mollegan,  Prof.  C.  Fayette 
Taylor,  Charles  S.  Ascher,  Gardner  Jackson,  and  Maxwell  S.  Stewart. 

Undoubtedly  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union  was  resorting  to 
drastic  Communist  strategy  in  retreating  during  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact. 
This  fact  is  strongly  indicated  by  the  personnel  of  the  National  Commit- 
tee and  the  Board  of  Directors  in  1946.  On  the  letter  of  the  American 
Civil  Liberties  Union  signed  by  A.  A.  Heist  for  September,  1946,  we  find 
many  of  the  17  so-called  " liberal  leaders"  listed. 

So  that  the  members  of  the  Legislature  and  interested  persons  may 
check  the  pattern  in  this  Report,  the  names  listed  for  the  National  Com- 
mittee and  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union 
are  here  published. 

The  National  Committee  is  composed  of  Louis  Adamic,  Bishop  James 
Chamberlain  Baker,  Dr.  Harry  Elmer  Barnes,  Prof.  Edwin  M.  Borchard, 
Van  Wyck  Brooks,  Dr.  Henry  Seidel  Canby,  John  M.  Coffee,  Morris  L. 
Cooke,  Prof.  George  S.  Counts,  Melvyn  Douglas,  Dorothy  Canfield  Fisher, 
Rev.  Harry  Emerson  Fosdick,  Kate  Crane  Gartz,  Dr.  Mordecai  W.  John- 
son, Dr.  John  A.  Lapp,  Max  Lerner,  William  Draper  Lewis,  Robert  Morss 
Lovett,  Prof.  Robert  S.  Lynd,  Bishop  Francis  J.  McConnell,  Carey 
McWilliams,  A.  J.  Muste,  Bishop  G.  Bromley  Oxnam,  Prof.  Max  Radin, 
A.  Philip  Randolph,  Raymond  Swing,  Oswald  Garrison  Villard,  and  Dr. 
William  Lindsay  Young. 

Among  the  members  of  the  Board  of  Directors  are  Ernest  Angell, 
Prof.  Paul  F.  Brissenden,  Morris  L.  Ernst,  Osmond  K.  Fraenkel,  Walter 
Gellhorn,  Arthur  Garfield  Hays,  Dorothy  Kenyon,  Corliss  Lamont,  Prof. 
Eduard  C.  Lindeman,  Elmer  Rice,  Whitney  North  Seymour,  and  Rev. 
William  B.  Spofford. 

The  director  of  the  Southern  California  branch  is  Aaron  Allen  Heist. 
Dr.  Clinton  J.  Taft  is  listed  as  Director  Emeritus.  The  Southern  Califor- 
nia Committee  is  as  follows :  Dr.  E.  P.  Ryland,  A.  L.  Wirin,  Mrs.  John 
Beardsley,  Dr.  Oliver  H.  Bronson,  Reuben  Borough,  Floyd  Covington, 
Hugh  Hardyman,  Rev.  Allan  Hunter,  J.  W.  MacNair,  Carey  McWil- 
liams, Robert  Morris,  Fred  Okrand,  Prof.  J.  B.  Ramsey,  Mrs.  Ralph 
Smith,  and  J.  B.  Tietz. 

A  letter  signed  by  Isaac  Pacht  under  date  of  December  23, 1946,  from 
257  South  Spring  Street,  Los  Angeles,  lists  a  campaign  committee  com- 
posed of  Jerome  W.  MacNair,  William  C.  Carr,  J.  B.  Tietz,  and  Mar- 
garet E.  Hughes. 

This  letterhead  also  lists  a  Membership  Committee  composed  of  the 
following :  Bishop  James  C.  Baker,  Mrs.  Helen  Beardsley,  Edmund  W. 
Cooke,  Dr.  George  Day,  Melvyn  Douglas,  John  Anson  Ford,  Dr.  Lowell 
Frost,  Mrs.  Lowell  Frost,  Prof.  Hubert  Herring,  Dr.  Raymond  G.  McKel- 
vey,  Lor  en  Miller,  Judge  Isaac  Pacht,  Dr.  Robert  B.  Pettengill,  Mrs. 
Ralph  Smith,  and  James  Wallace. 

The  Open  Forum,  official  bulletin  of  the  Southern  California  branch 
of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union,  lists  Aaron  Allen  Heist,  as  the 


110  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Director-Editor.  The  Board  of  Directors  is  as  follows :  J.  W.  MacNair, 
A.  L.  Wirin,  J.  B.  Tietz,  Mrs.  John  Beardsley,  Dr.  Oliver  H.  Bronson, 
Reuben  Borough,  Edmund  W.  Cooke,  Floyd  Covington,  Prof.  George  M. 
Day,  Hugh  Hardyman,  Rev.  Allan  Hunter,  Katherine  Kilbourne,  Loren 
Miller,  Robert  Morris,  Fred  Okrand,  John  C.  Packard,  Prof.  J.  B.  Ram- 
sey, Dr.  E.  P.  Ryland,  Glenn  Smiley,  Mrs.  Ralph  Smith,  Dr.  Clinton  J. 
Taft,  Elizabeth  A.  Wood,  and  Dr.  William  Lindsay  Young. 

The  issue  of  the  Open  Forum,  above  referred  to,  attacks  the  Freedom 
Train  and  the  Freedom  Pledge.  Among  other  things,  the  paper  states  that 
' '  To  sign  the  *  *  *  pledge  is  to  subscribe  thoughtlessly  to  a  falsehood ! 
Ask  the  three  million  federal  employees  under  the  shadow  of  the  Tru- 
man Witch  Hunt  Order,  the  Los  Angeles  County  employees,  the  thou- 
sands of  citizens  directly  and  indirectly  effected  by  the  Thomas  and  Ten- 
ney  and  similar  committees,  not  to  mention  the  millions  of  common  citi- 
zens subjected  to  FBI,  'subversive  squads'  and  other  thought  control 
agencies  *  *  *.  " 

There  is  little  difference  in  this  statement  by  the  American  Civil 
Liberties  Union  and  the  statement  of  the  Communist  Party  on  the  same 
subject. 

The  Communist  character  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union  is 
further  indicated  in  an  article  published  in  the  Open  Forum  for  March  6, 
1948.  It  reads,  in  part,  as  follows : 

"For  Congress  to  outlaw  the  Communist  Party  as  'subversive' 
or  as  '  an  agent  of  a  foreign  government '  would  be  unconstitutional, 
since  Congress  would  be  exercising  a  judicial  function  in  so  declaring. 
"  Attorney  General  Tom  Clark,  appearing  before  a  subcommit- 
tee of  the  J.  Parnell  Thomas  inquisitorial  committee,  which  has  never 
yet  reported  out  a  bit  of  legislation,  even  went  so  far  as  to  say  that 
the  government  could  not  prove  that  Communists  are  foreign  agents 
or  that  they  advocate  the  violent  overthrow  of  the  government. 
(Which  proves  that  Clark  is  not  so  able  a  man  as  California's  Jack 
Tenney!  Or,  do  the  courts  require  Clark  to  deal  with  facts? — Ed.) 
Clark's  subordinate,  J.  Edgar  Hoover,  testified  that  from  a  practical 
point  of  view  such  legislation  would  be  folly  since  it  would  simply 
drive  Communists  underground. 

"Arthur  Garfield  Hays,  appearing  as  A.  C.  L.  U.  counsel,  in  his 
testimony  declared  that  the  proposed  measures  were  bills  of  attain- 
der, passing  judgments  on  people  by  legislative  fiat  rather  than 
judicial  process  *  tt  *. 

"Mr.  Morris  Ernst,  also  of  the  New  York  Board  of  Directors, 
appeared  before  the  committee  in  an  unofficial  capacity. ' ' 

The  Senate  Committee  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  reiterates  the  findings  of  former  legislative  committees  con- 
cerning the  Communist  character  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union. 
The  International  Labor  Defense,  called  "the  legal  arm  of  the  Com- 
munist Party"  by  former  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle,  has  not 
established  a  better  Communist  record  than  this  thinly  disguised  organ- 
ization that  devotes  its  energies  to  the  defense  of  enemies  of  the  United 
States. 

The  committee  has  stated  in  previous  reports  that  all  Communist 
fronts  are  characterized  by  the  fact  that  many  of  the  individuals 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  111 

attracted  to  such  organizations  are  not  necessarily  Communists  and,  in 
many  cases,  the  membership  of  a  Communist  front  organization  will  be 
composed,  for  the  greater  part,  of  non-Communists.  This  same  finding 
applies,  of  course,  to  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union.  Ernest  Besig, 
the  director  of  the  Northern  California  Branch  of  the  American  Civil 
Liberties  Union,  appears  to  be  a  sincere,  conscientious  American,  whose 
reasoning  leads  him  to  the  defense  of  most  anyone,  regardless  of  the 
accusation.  Ernest  Besig,  however,  has,  on  several  occasions,  expressed 
himself  concerning  Communists  and  Communism.  He  testified  before 
a  sub-committee  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
Fairfax,  October  23, 1947.  He  identified  the  official  organ  of  the  Northern 
Branch  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union  for  February  and  March, 
1941,  in  which  he  had  unequivocally  stamped  the  Northern  California 
Council  for  Academic  Freedom  and  Civil  Liberties  a  Communist  front. 
He  orally  reiterated  his  written  statements.  His  testimony,  in  part,  is 
as  follows : 

Q.  (Mr.  Combs)  :  *  *  *  The  American  Civil  Liberties  Union 
publishes  a  number  of  papers.  I  am  speaking  of  the  branch  of  the 
organization  of  which  you  are  a  member. 

A.  That 's  correct. 

Q.  What  is  the  name  of  that  publication? 

A.  The  American  Civil  Liberties  Union-News. 

Q.  Did  you  publish  such  a  paper  in  February,  1941  ? 

A.  Yes.  It's  in  its  twelfth  year,  so  we  must  have. 

******* 

Q.  (Mr.  Combs)  :  Now,  in  connection  with  the  issues  for  Feb- 
ruary, 1941,  and  March,  1941,  there  are  some  statements  concern- 
ing one  of  the  organizations  I  mentioned  a  while  ago ;  the  Northern 
California  Council  for  Academic  Freedom  and  Civil  Liberties,  I 
believe. 

A.  Do  you  want  to  know  what  I  think  of  that  organization  ? 

Q.  I  know  what  you  think  of  it.  You  said  so  in  your  paper. 

A.  I  said  so  not  only  in  the  paper  but  in  speeches,  and  as  a 
result  the  Chairman  of  this  group  (Northern  California  Council 
for  Academic  Freedom  and  Civil  Liberties)  sent  a  protest  to  my 
committee. 

Q.  Well,  you  think  the  organization  was  definitely  a  Communist 
front  ? 

A.  Undoubtedly,  and  undoubtedly  also,  it  got  a  lot  of  inter- 
ested people  involved  in  it. 

Q.  As  Communist  fronts  are  set  up  to  do. 

A.  Correct. 

Q.  Now,  how  did  you  arrive  at  the  conclusion  that  this  par- 
ticular organization  was  a  Communist  front? 

A.  Well,  after  you  've  been  in  this  business  of  civil  liberties  for 
the  number  of  years  that  I  have  been  in  it,  you  come  across  certain 
individuals  who,  as  you  indicate^  with  Mr.  Flaxer,  get  involved 
in  first  one  organization  and  then  another.  That  was  true  of  the 
Committee  on  Academic  Freedom.  Louise  Branston  had  been  con- 
nected with  a  number  of  front  organizations  and  seemed  to  shift 
around. 


112  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

From  the  foregoing  testimony  of  Mr.  Besig,  who  is  indisputably  a 
sincere  man,  the  committee  is  given  one  of  the  elemental  tests  for 
determining  the  character  of  a  suspected  organization.  Applying  the 
same  rule  to  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union,  its  Communist  front 
character  is  indicated.  When  the  other  tests  are  applied  no  doubt  at  all 
is  left  in  the  mind  of  a  reasonable  person. 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  A  FREE  INDONESIA 

See  American  Committee  for  Indonesian  Independence. 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  A  KOREAN  PEOPLE'S  PARTY 

This  is  just  one  of  many  Communists  fronts  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
testing American  policy  in  Korea  and  creating  pressure  for  the  recall 
of  American  occupation  forces  from  that  country. 

Among  other  such  Communist  fronts  for  the  same  purpose  are  the 
Korean  Culture  Society,  the  American  Committee  to  Aid  Korean  Feder- 
ation of  Trade  Unions,  and  the  Korean  Independent  News  Company. 

All  of  these  organizations  have  had  the  support  of  the  over-all  Com- 
munist front  in  this  field,  the  National  Win  the  Peace  Committee. 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  DEMOCRACY  AND 
INTELLECTUAL  FREEDOM 

This  Communist  front  was  established  on  Lincoln's  birthday  in 
1939.  It  announced  that  it  stood  for  the  "  preservation  and  extension 
of  democracy  and  intellectual  freedom. ' '  Franz  Boas  was  the  chairman 
of  the  American  Committee  for  Democracy  and  Intellectual  Freedom. 

The  American  Committee  for  Democracy  and  Intellectual  Freedom 
was  the  successor  to  the  Communist  front,  the  Scientists'  Committee. 

The  activities  of  this  group  were  always  in  behalf  of  Communists. 
Franz  Boas,  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  and  Max  Yergan,  chairman  and 
executive  committee  members  respectively,  have  all  been  associated  with 
Communist  front  organizations  defending  Communists.  Boas,  Rauten- 
strauch, and  Yergan  have  been  affiliated  with  International  Labor 
Defense,  National  Committee  for  the  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners, 
National  Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties  in  America,  National 
Emergency  Conference  for  Democratic  Rights,  Greater  New  York 
Emergency  Conference  on  Inalienable  Rights,  and  Committee  on  Elec- 
tion Rights.  These  three  men  have  been  signers  of  various  statements 
in  defense  of  the  Communist  Party. 

The  American  Committee  for  Democracy  and  Intellectual  Freedom 
has  followed  the  Communist  Party  line  as  it  switched  and  squirmed  in 
support  of  the  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia. 

Other  party-liners  on  the  executive  committee  of  the  American  Com- 
mittee for  Democracy  and  Intellectual  Freedom  are  Prof.  Eric  T.  Bell, 
Prof.  Raymond  T.  Birge,  Prof.  Olga  Bridgman,  Dean  Samuel  B.  Morris, 
Prof.  Edward  C.  Tolman,  and  Prof.  Bailey  Willis. 

The  Communist-defending  proclivities  of  the  American  Com- 
mittee for  Democracy  and  Intellectual  Freedom  is  indicated  in  a  peti- 
tion sponsored  by  the  organization  calling  for  the  discontinuation  of 
the  Dies  Committee.  Among  those  who  signed  this  petition  are  Clarence 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  113 

M.  Dykstra,  Frank  Kingdon,  Mary  E.  Woolley,  Francis  J.  McConnell, 
Paul  Robeson,  Van  Wyck  Brooks,  Lillian  Hellman,  Emil  Lengyel,  Elmer 
Rice,  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  Sophronisba  P.  Breckinridge,  Edward  C. 
Tolman,  Jerome  Davis,  Robert  Inglehart,  Matt  Lerner,  George  Soule, 
Malcolm  Cowley,  Freda  Kirchwey,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  Dashiell  Ham- 
mett,  Leane  Zugsmith,  Arthur  Kober,  Countee  Cullen,  Alfred  Kreyn- 
borg,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Herman  Shumlin,  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson, 
Aaron  Copland,  Rockwell  Kent,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Max  Yergan,  Dorothy 
Kenyon,  Hugh  De  Lacy,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Charles  Erskine,  James  B. 
Carey,  Martha  Dodd,  and  George  Seldes. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  a  Washington  State  Legislative  Com- 
mittee elicited  testimony  from  Mrs.  Katharine  Fogg,  a  Democratic 
leader  and  ex-legislator,  that  Hugh  De  Lacy  is  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  Mrs.  Katharine  Fogg  is  reported  as  testifying:  "I  wanted 
to  quit  the  Communist  Party  long  before  I  did,  but  I  was  told  I  could 
not  quit,  and  at  a  picnic  at  Shadow  Lake,  Hugh  De  Lacy  wiggled  his 
finger  at  my  nose  and  said:  'Katharine  Fogg,  we  made  you  and  well 
break  you'." 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  INDONESIAN  INDEPENDENCE 

This  front  was  organized  to  create  support  for  the  Indonesian  revo- 
lution. The  National  headquarters  is  at  23  West  Twenty-sixth  Street  in 
New  York  City,  and  the  group  is  supported  by  Hugh  De  Lacey,  Elmer 
Benson,  Muriel  Draper,  Frederick  V.  Field,  Dr.  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild, 
W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  James  Dombrowski,  Louis  E.  Burnham,  Dr.  Harl  R. 
Douglas,  Zarko  M.  Buncheck,  Henrietta  Buckmaster,  and  Zlato 
Balokovic. 

Stemming  from  this  red  front  are  several  subsidiary  committees, 
such  as  the  American  Committee  for  a  Free  Indonesia,  Los  Angeles,  and 
the  American  Committee  for  a  Free  Indonesia,  San  Francisco. 

Leo  Gallagher,  notorious  California  Communist  attorney  is  listed 
on  the  letterhead  of  the  Los  Angeles  branch  of  the  American  Committee 
for  Indonesian  Independence  as  chairman;  George  K.  Anang,  vice 
chairman,  Ede  Kemnitzer,  secretary,  and  Ann  Budiselick,  treasurer. 
The  Los  Angeles  headquarters  is  given  as  8706  Melrose  Avenue,  tele- 
phone number  Bradshaw  2-3774. 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  PROTECTION  OF  FOREIGN  BORN 

The  American  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  is  the 
organization  that  succeeded  the  National  Council  for  the  Protection  of 
the  Foreign  Born.  This  Communist  front  works  closely  with  the  Inter- 
national Labor  Defense,  the  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party,  in  defense 
of  foreign-born  Communists  and  sympathizers.  Since  the  Communist 
International,  by  its  own  admission,  has  been  constituted  as  a  world 
party,  its  agents  travel  frequently  from  country  to  country.  The  Ameri- 
can Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Foreign  Born,  by  protecting  foreign 
Communists  who  come  to  this  country,  has  aided  in  enabling  them  to 
operate  here. 

The  National  Council  for  the  Protection  of  the  Foreign  Born  and 
its  successor,  the  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born, 
have  consistently  followed  the  Communist  Party  line  in  all  of  its  twisting 
curves  for  the  support  of  Soviet  foreign  policy. 

9_L-7088-D 


114  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Among  those  who  have  been  affiliated  in  one  capacity  or  another 
with  the  American  Committee,  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born  are  the 
following:  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Joris  Ivens,  Edward  G.  Robinson, 
Jacob  Ben  Ami,  Zlatko  Balokovic,  Bay  Lev,  Maurice  Hindus,  Prof.  Emil 
Lengyel,  Prof.  Max  Lerner,  Ella  Winter,  Maxim  Kopf,  Pachita  Crespi, 
Yasuo  Kuniyoshi,  Dr.  Li  Yu  Ying,  Dr.  Bela  Schick,  Vilhjalmur  Stefan- 
sson,  Charles  Collins,  Hugo  Ernst,  Leo  Krzycki,  Michael  Obermeier, 
Michael  Quill,  Dr.  Ira  DeA  Reid,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Canada  Lee,  William 
Rose  Benet,  Dr.  Aaron  Bodansky,  Irene  Bordoni,  Louis  B.  Boudin, 
Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Aaron  Copland,  Kyle  Crich- 
ton,  Joseph  Curran,  Prof,  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  Abram  Flaxer, 
Langston  Hughes,  George  Jessel,  Emil  Ludwig,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederic 
March,  Dudley  Nichols,  Olga  Petrova,  Prof.  Arthur  Upham  Pope,  Louis 
S.  Posner,  Rev.  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  Elmer  Rice,  Paul  Robeson,  Doris 
Rosenthal,  Lisa  Sergio,  Frank  Tuttle,  Orson  Welles,  Dr.  Max  Yergan, 
Blanche  Yurka,  William  Zorach,  Bishop  James  A.  Baker,  Hugh  De 
Lacey,  Leo  Eloesser,  Guy  Endore,  Bishop  Edward  L.  Parsons,  Reid 
Robinson,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Mary  McLeod  Beth- 
une,  Dr.  Franz  Boas,  Van  Wyck  Brooks,  Thomas  F.  Ford,  Dr.  Frank  P. 
Graham,  Sidney  Hillman,  Rockwell  Kent,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Rev. 
Sidney  Lovett,  Dr.  Henry  N.  MacCracken,  Bishop  Francis  J.  McConnell, 
Culbert  L.  Olson,  Prof.  Max  Radin,  Prof.  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  Rose 
Schneiderman,  Dr.  Guy  Emery  Shipler,  Dr.  Harry  F.  Ward,  Dr.  Mary 
E.  Wooley,  Pearl  M.  Hart,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Prof.  Thomas  Addis,  Prof. 
Sophonisba  Breckinridge,  Rabbi  Henry  Cohen,  Rev.  Stephen  Fritchman, 
Aline  Davis  Hays,  Carol  King,  Rev.  Edgar  A.  Lowther,  Lewis  Merrill, 
Stanley  Nowak,  Rev.  Max  C.  Putney,  Michael  Quill,  Adolph  J.  Sabath, 
George  Seldes,  Peter  Shipka,  Herman  Shumlin,  Curt  Swinburne,  Donald 
Henderson,  Manuel  Buaken,  Frederick  N.  Myers,  Frederick  V.  Field, 
Lewis  Alan  Berne,  Joseph  Cadden,  Martha  Dodd,  Muriel  Draper,  Abram 
Flaxer,  Dr.  Alexander  Meiklejohn,  Genevieve  Taggard,  Rev.  John  B. 
Thompson,  OswTald  Garrison  Villard,  Dr.  J.  Raymond  Walsh,  Art  Young, 
Louis  Adamic,  and  James  Waterman  Wise. 

Joseph  Dean  was  the  President  of  the  National  Council  for  Protec- 
tion of  Foreign  Born  Workers;  Henry  T.  Hunt,  Legal  Adviser;  Nina 
Samorodin,  Secretary-Treasurer ;  Max  Orlowsky,  First  Vice  President ; 
and  P.  Pascal  Cosgrove,  Second  Vice  President. 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  RUSSIAN  FAMINE  RELIEF 

James  H.  McGill,  A.  W.  Ricker,  and  Walter  W.  Liggett  entered  into 
a  contract  with  official  representatives  of  the  Soviet  Government  in  1922, 
whereby  they  were  to  set  up  the  American  Committee  for  Russian 
Famine.  The  organization  immediately  assumed  a  political  character. 

One  of  the  organization's  leading  speakers,  Isaac  McBride,  declared : 
1  i  We  are  going  to  milk  the  bourgeoisie  of  this  country  and  they  will  help 
us  to  keep  up  the  struggle  against  themselves. ' ' 

The  Communists  are  not  quite  so  frank  about  their  purposes  in  1948 
as  they  were  in  1922.  McBride,  however  told  the  truth  in  1922  and 
expressed  the  well  known  principle  of  all  Communist  front  groups :  Make 
the  non- Communists  work  for  Communism  and  their  own  destruction. 

James  H.  McGill  was  the  secretary-treasurer  of  the  American  Com- 
mittee for  Russian  Famine  Relief. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  115 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  SPANISH  FREEDOM 

Over  34  of  the  sponsors  of  the  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  of  the  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  are  also  officers  and  sponsors  of  the 
American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom.  The  national  offices  of  this 
organization  are  located  at  55  West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York  City. 

The  American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom  has  made  no  attempt 
to  conceal  its  objective  in  forcing  a  break  in  diplomatic  relations  between 
the  United  States  and  Spain. 

As  is  usually  the  case,  the  key  position  of  this  Communist-front  is 
held  by  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party.  Allen  Chase  is  the  secretary. 
In  1936  Allen  Chase  was  a  candidate  for  Congress  in  New  York  on  the 
Communist  Party  ticket. 

Bartley  Crum  is  the  Vice  Chairman  of  this  Communist  transmission 
belt.  Crum  has  had  extensive  association  with  the  Communist-front 
movement  in  the  United  States. 

Samuel  J.  Novick  is  the  treasurer  of  the  organization.  Novick's 
Communist  affiliations  are  numerous. 

Other  individuals  with  extensive  Communist  or  fellow  traveling 
affiliations  are  the  following:  Lewis  Merrill  (alias  Louis  Cohen),  Inter- 
national President  of  the  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of 
America ;  Joseph  Curran,  National  Maritime  Union ;  J.  Rubin,  Hotel  and 
Restaurant  Workers  Union ;  Lewis  0.  Hartman,  Boston  Bishop ;  J. 
Raymond  Walsh,  Research  Director  for  the  Congress  of  Industrial 
Organization;  Stephen  H.  Fritchman,  newly  appointed  Pastor  of  the 
First  Unitarian  Church  of  Los  Angeles;  and  Albert  E.  Kahn. 

J.  Raymond  Walsh  has  a  long  Communist  fellow-traveling  record 
and  is  affiliated  with  the  following  Communist  Front  groups :  American 
Committee  for  Protection  of  Foreign  Born,  American  Council  on  Soviet 
Relations,  American  Student  Union,  Council  for  Pan-American 
Democracy,  Inter-Professional  Association  for  Social  Insurance,  League 
of  American  Writers,  National  Citizens  Political  Action  Committee, 
National  Emergency  Conference,  National  Emergency  Conference  for 
Democratic  Rights,  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties. 
He  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Open  Letter  for  Closer  Cooperation  With 
the  Soviet  Union. 

Stephen  H.  Fritchman  replaced  the  Reverend  Ernest  Caldecott  as 
Pastor  of  the  First  Unitarian  Church  at  Eighth  and  Vermont  Streets  in 
the  City  of  Los  Angeles,  much  to  the  chagrin  of  that  portion  of  the 
congregation  who  believe  in  the  United  States  of  America.  Fritchman 
is  a  very  active  Communist-fronter.  He  has  been  connected  with  the  fol- 
lowing Communist  front  organizations  and  activities:  Committee  to 
Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out  of  War  (during  Stalin-Hitler  Pact), 
Congress  of  Youth,  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties, 
Emergency  Peace  Mobilization,  New  Masses,  American  Youth  Congress, 
Greater  Boston  Committee  for  the  Boycott  of  Japanese  Goods,  North 
American  Spanish  Aid  Committee,  and  the  United  American  Spanish 
Aid  Committee.  During  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  Conference 
held  in  Chicago  in  October  of  1940,  Fritchman  helped  register  delegates. 


116  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  letter,  under  date  of  November  1,  1945,  signed  by  Communist  Leo 
Gallagher,  Los  Angeles  Chairman  of  the  American  Committee  for  Span- 
ish Freedom,  closes  with  the  following : 

It  is  with  great  pride  that  we  present  at  this  meeting,  Congress- 
man John  M.  Coffee,  Mr.  Hartley  Crum,  and  Mr.  Frederick  Thomp- 
son. Also  representatives  from  the  A.F.L.  and  C.I.O.  and  Hollywood 
will  participate  in  the  program.  This  meeting  MUST  be  a  success  and 
the  Shrine  must  be  filled.  No  admission  will  be  charged,  but  we  feel 
it  is  the  obligation  of  everyone  to  be  present  on  November  16th. 
Your  presence  will  signify  your  interest  in  the  cause  of  Spain  and 
the  cause  of  world-wide  democracy. 

An  enclosed  leaflet  announces  a  mass  meeting  at  the  Shrine  Audi- 
torium in  Los  Angeles,  and,  in  addition  to  Congressman  Coffee,  Bartley 
Crum,  Frederick  Thompson,  Dalton  Trumbo  is  listed  as  the  chairman  of 
the  meeting. 

The  letterhead  of  the  Gallagher  letter  above  referred  to,  lists  the 
headquarters  of  the  American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom  as  5245 
De  Longpre  Avenue,  Los  Angeles,  and  the  telephone  number  11010. 
Carey  Me  Williams  is  an  honorary  chairman ;  Norman  Pearlman,  treas- 
urer ;  and  Arthur  Landis,  executive  secretary.  The  following  Communist 
fronts  are  listed  as  ' '  sponsoring  organizations ' ' :  Veterans  of  the  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  Brigade,  National  Citizens  Political  Action  Committee,  Los 
Angeles  CIO  Council,  Hollywood  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of 
the  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions,  Musicians  Congress,  and  American 
Youth  for  Democracy. 

Individual  sponsors  presents  the  old  guard,  for  the  greater  part,  of 
Communists  and  stalwart  Communist  fellow-travelers.  The  list  is  as 
follows:  Mrs.  Fay  E.  Allen,  Reuben  Borough,  John  M.  Coffee,  Philip  M. 
Connelly,  Peter  De  Lima,  Kate  Crane  Gartz,  Leo  Gallagher,  Yip  Har- 
burg,  Robert  W.  Kenny,  Carey  McWilliams,  Ben  Margolis,  Albert  Maltz, 
John  T.  McTernan,  Senial  Ostrow,  Ellis  E.  Patterson,  and  Milton  S.  Tyre. 

Albert  Maltz  is  an  important  Communist  in  the  solar  system  of  Com- 
munist front  organizations.  Louis  J.  Russell,  former  member  of  the 
Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  testified  before  the  Thomas  Committee 
in  Washington  October  28,  1947,  that  Albert  Maltz  held  Communist 
Party  card  number  47196.  The  address  on  the  Communist  Party  card 
was  given  as  8526  Linden  Hurst,  Los  Angeles.  Mr.  Russell  testified  that 
the  card  contained  a  notation  ''1944  Card  No.  46801." 

The  Communist  record  of  Albert  Maltz  is  set  forth  in  the  Con- 
gressional Report  at  page  371,  and  because  it  corroborates  the  findings 
of  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  it  is 
here  reproduced. 

Albert  Maltz  has  not  to  our  knowledge  publicly  admitted  member- 
ship in  the  Communist  Party.  However,  complete  loyalty  to  the  Commu- 
nist Party  has  seldom  been  so  startlingly  demonstrated  as  it  has  been  in 
the  case  of  Mr.  Maltz.  The  outstanding  demonstration  occurred  when 
Mr.  Maltz  started  a  literary  and  communistic  furore  by  criticizing  the 
traditional  Communist  premise  that  "art  is  a  weapon."  His  criticism 
was  contained  in  an  article  in  the  New  Masses,  official  weekly  publication 
of  the  Communist  Party,  on  February  12, 1946.  This  heresy  by  Mr.  Maltz 
was  immediately  denounced  by  Communist  leaders  at  mass  meeting  and 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  117 

in  article  upon  article  in  the  New  Masses  and  other  official  party  publica- 
tions. On  April  7,  1946,  Mr.  Maltz  yielded  to  the  pressure  and  publicly 
recanted  his  statements  in  an  article  in  the  Worker,  official  newspaper  of 
the  Communist  Party.  This  controversy,  which  attracted  nation-wide 
attention  has  been  reviewed  in  Life  magazine  for  July  29,  1946 ;  in  the 
Washington  Post  for  February  25,  1946 ;  and  in  the  New  York  World- 
Telegram  for  September  18, 1946.  The  Washington  Post  said  in  part : 

"It  seems  that  a  Communist  critic,  one  Comrade  Albert  Maltz,  had 
dared  to  say,  almost  in  as  many  words,  that  a  literary  artist  need  not  be 
expected  to  turn  himself  inside  out  trying  to  keep  up  with  every  kink  and 
kidney  bending  in  the  party  line."  The  World-Telegram  noted  that: 
"The  party  promptly  dropped  a  ton  of  bricks  on  Mr.  Maltz."  Life  maga- 
zine observed  thus  about  Mr.  Maltz'  recanting:  "Folding  completely 
before  the  party  discipline,  Maltz,  even  castigated  his  sympathizers  who 
had  objected  to  the  abusive  tone  in  which  correction  had  been  admin- 
istered." On  at  least  four  occasions  Albert  Maltz  has  publicly  supported 
the  Communist  Party.  The  Daily  Worker,  official  Communist  newspaper, 
on  May  4, 1936,  page  2,  announced  that  one  of  Albert  Maltz'  plays  would 
be  given  for  the  benefit  of  the  Communist  Party.  The  Daily  Worker  for 
March  5,  1941,  page  2,  reported  that  Mr.  Maltz  was  one  of  the  signers  of 
a  statement  to  the  President  defending  the  Communist  Party,  and  on 
July  19,  1942,  page  4,  the  same  publication  listed  Mr.  Maltz  as  a  signer 
of  an  open  letter  denouncing  former  Attorney  General  Biddle  's  charges 
against  the  Communist  Party  and  Communist  Party  Member  Harry 
Bridges.  The  New  Leader  for  February  8, 1941,  listed  Mr.  Maltz  as  being 
on  the  "call"  of  a  conference  to  keep  the  Communist  Party  on  the  state 
ballot  in  New  York. 

On  July  21,  1940,  page  1,  the  Worker  announced  that  Albert  Maltz 
would  write  a  serial  story,  the  ' '  Underground  Stream, ' '  depicting  the  life 
of  a  Communist  organizer  and  hero.  The  Communist  Party 's  official  organ, 
the  Daily  Worker,  said  on  January  25,  1943,  in  an  article  by  the  worker 
columnist  and  party  member  Mike  Gold,  that :  "  I  can  think  of  almost  no 
American  author  who  has  done  an  adequate  portrait  of  an  American 
Communist.  Albert  Maltz  in  'Underground  Stream'  did  a  wonderful 
sketch  but  not  a  sufficiently  rounded  portrait  of  the  American  Com- 
munist." The  Communist  Party  organizer  and  hero  of  "The  Under- 
ground Stream"  is  a  character  named  Frank  Prince  who  is  killed  by  a 
Black  Legion  crew  on  orders  of  the  management  of  an  industrial  plant 
because  the  organizer  refused  to  desert  the  Communist  Party.  Prince 
had  become  a  Communist,  Maltz  writes,  as  a  result  of  ' '  daily  events,  his 
work  and  life — and  among  those  events  a  tire  chain  wielded  by  a  police- 
man *  *  *  later,  the  acceptance  of  certain  principles,  of  the  political 
program  for  which  the  Communist  movement  stood,  had  kept  him  in  the 
party  "(p.  103). 

The  Daily  Worker  of  June  8, 1938,  announced  that  "The  New  York 
State  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  will  honor  a  group  of  20  stu- 
dents who  will  complete  the  two-week  National  Training  School  for 
State  Literary  Directors  on  June  15,  1938."  Albert  Maltz  was  named 
by  the  Daily  Worker  article  as  one  of  the  main  speakers  at  the  event.  He 
was  to  share  the  speaking  platform  with  such  prominent  Communists 
as  Alexander  Trachtenberg  and  Michael  Gold. 


118  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  John  Reed  Clubs  were  openly  communistic  organizations  named 
in  honor  of  John  Reed,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Communist  Party  in 
the  United  States,  and  whose  ashes  were  interred  in  the  Kremlin  in 
Moscow.  The  Daily  Worker  for  February  10,  1934,  listed  Albert  Maltz 
as  a  speaker  at  a  John  Reed  Club  symposium  in  New  York  City. 

Other  Communist  individuals  have  been  defended  by  Albert  Maltz 
on  a  number  of  occasions.  Mr.  Maltz  is  a  member  of  the  Eisler  Defense 
Committee,  which  the  Communists  organized  after  Gerhart  Eisler,  an 
agent  of  the  Communist  International,  was  convicted  in  the  United 
States  courts  of  passport  fraud  and  contempt  of  Congress.  Mr.  Maltz' 
affiliation  with  the  organization  is  recorded  in  a  pamphlet  of  the  com- 
mittee, entitled  "Eisler  Hits  Back,"  page  15.  Mr.  Maltz  also  signed  an 
appeal  to  the  President  under  the  auspices  of  the  Citizens  Committee  to 
Free  Earl  Browder,  according  to  a  leaflet  of  the  organization.  Earl 
Browder  is  the  former  general  secretary  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the 
United  States.  The  committee  in  his  defense  was  cited  as  a  Communist 
organization  by  Attorney  General  Biddle  (Congressional  Record,  Sep- 
tember 24, 1942,  p.  7687)  and  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  March  29,  1944.  The  New  York  Times  for  October  9,  1944, 
page  12,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  a  signer  of  an  open  letter  sent  to  Governor 
Dewey  of  New  York  by  the  Schappes  Defense  Committee.  This  com- 
mittee worked  for  the  release  of  Morris  U.  Schappes,  an  avowed  Com- 
munist teacher  convicted  of  perjury  in  New  York  City,  and  the  committee 
was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-Amer- 
ican Activities  on  March  29,  1944.  The  Daily  Worker  for  December  19, 
1940,  page  5,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  signers  of  an  appeal  on 
behalf  of  Sam  Darcy,  a  Communist  organizer.  Mr.  Maltz'  defense  of 
Harry  Bridges  has  previously  been  referred  to.  Mr.  Bridges  led  the 
disastrous  San  Francisco  general  strike  of  1934  and  was  identified  as  a 
Communist  Party  member  by  the  Daily  Worker  itself. 

Albert  Maltz  has  been  associated  with  many  official  Communist 
publications.  He  has  written  for  the  Daily  Worker,  as  shown  by  the 
issues  of  the  publication  for  December  16,  1933;  September  17,  1934; 
and  December  21,  1935.  Mr.  Maltz  has  also  taken  an  interest  in  the 
Daily  Worker's  financial  problems.  The  publication  on  March  25,  1945, 
listed  Mr.  Maltz  as  a  member  of  a  committee  ' '  to  sponsor  support  for  the 
Daily  Worker  and  the  Worker"  (the  Sunday  edition).  The  article 
stated,  under  a  headline  reading,  "Leading  citizens  sponsor  financial 
aid  for  Worker,"  that  "The  committee  has  a  wide  representation  of 
people  who  in  their  daily  active  work  have  come  to  accept  the  Daily 
Worker  and  the  Worker  as  indispensable  journals  of  opinion  and 
action. "  Similar  information  is  carried  in  the  Daily  Worker  for  April  1, 
1945. 

New  Masses  is  an  official  weekly  magazine  of  the  Communist  Party. 
That  Albert  Maltz  has  been  a  contributor  to  New  Masses  is  proven  by 
the  issues  of  the  publication  for  December  15,  1936,  page  37 ;  January 
26,  1937,  page  25 ;  and  August  17,  1937,  page  16.  The  Western  Worker, 
an  official  Communist  publication,  announced  on  November  30,  1936, 
that  Albert  Maltz  would  be  among  the  contributors  to  New  Masses  when 
the  New  Masses'  twenty-fifth  anniversary  issue  was  put  out  on  Decem- 
ber 10,  1936.  The  Daily  Worker  for  October  7,  1938,  reported  that  an 
emergency  meeting  held  for  New  Masses  on  the  same  day  at  the  Man- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  119 

hattan  Opera  House  in  New  York  City  would  include  a  speech  by  Albert 
Maltz.  The  issue  of  New  Masses  for  April  2,  1940,  page  21,  listed 
Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  signers  of  a  New  Masses  letter  to  the  Presi- 
dent. Albert  Maltz  served  on  the  sponsoring  committee  of  a  morale  meet- 
ing for  Remain  Holland — which  the  New  Masses  held  at  Carnegie  Hall 
in  New  York  on  March  30,  1945.  This  wras  reported  in  the  Daily  Worker 
for  March  14,  1945,  and  New  Masses  for  April  16,  1945. 

New  Currents  is  a  weekly  magazine  in  the  English  language  dealing 
with  Jewish  matters.  It  has  the  official  approval  of  the  Jewish  Commis- 
sion of  the  Communist  Party  and  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist 
organization  by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  September 
2,  1947.  The  issue  of  New  Currents  for  March,  1944,  page  2,  lists  Albert 
Maltz  as  a  member  of  the  advisory  board  of  the  magazine. 

Mainstream  is  a  literary  magazine  which  has  been  prominently 
promoted  by  the  Communist  press  and  which  advertises  itself  in  the 
Daily  Worker  as  a  " Marxist  literary  quarterly."  The  Worker  for 
September  22,  1946,  lists  Albert  Maltz  as  a  member  of  the  editorial 
board  of  Mainstream. 

People's  World  is  the  official  west  coast  organ  of  the  Communist 
Party.  Albert  Maltz  was  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  entitled  ''Hollywood 
Forum"  which  was  held  in  Los  Angeles  on  April  9,  1946,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  People's  World,  according  to  the  Daily  Worker  for 
April  15,  1946,  page  11.  The  People's  World  of  July  26,  1944,  reported 
that  it  would  run  a  short-story  contest  between  August  1,  1944,  and 
February  1,  1945,  and  that  Albert  Maltz  would  be  one  of  the  judges 
of  the  contest.  The  People's  World  for  June  1,  1945,  said  it  was  running 
a  short-story  contest  and  that  Mr.  Maltz  was  serving  as  a  judge. 

Among  other  associations  with  the  Communist  press,  Albert  Maltz 
is  shown  to  have  served  on  the  editorial  council  of  Equality,  according 
to  issues  of  the  magazine  for  July,  1939,  June,  1940,  and  July,  1940. 
Equality,  which  appeared  from  May,  1939,  until  late  1940  consistently 
followed  the  Communist  Party  line  and  its  managing  editor  was  Abra- 
ham Chapman  who  has  been  identified  as  John  Arnold,  a  member  of  the 
New  York  State  Jewish  Euro  of  the  Communist  Party.  Albert  Maltz 
was  one  of  the  incorporators  of  Jewish  Survey,  according  to  records  of 
incorporation  of  New  York  State.  Jewish  Survey,  incorporated  in  1939 
and  dissolved  on  December  2,  1942,  was  run  by  writers  for  the  Com- 
munist press  such  as  Louis  Harap.  Contributors  included  David  Zas- 
lavsky  of  the  Moscow  Pravda  and  Max  Perlow  and  Albert  E.  Kahn, 
well-known  Communist  leaders.  Mr.  Maltz  was  a  contributor  to  Laisve, 
official  Communist  publication  in  the  Lithuanian  language  field,  accord- 
ing to  a  copy  of  the  paper  for  May  28,  1941.  Mr.  Maltz  also  contributed 
to  Neues  Deutschland  (New  Germany),  official  organ  of  the  Free  Ger- 
man Committee  of  Mexico,  which  had  its  headquarters  in  Moscow  and 
which  consisted  largely  of  Communist  refugees  like  Otto  Katz  and  Paul 
Merkel.  He  contributed  to  the  January,  1945,  issue  and  the  March  and 
April,  1946,  issues  of  Neues  Deutschland.  It  should  be  noted  that  it  is 
standard  practice  for  the  Daily  Worker  and  other  Communist  publica- 
tions to  accept  only  Communist  Party  members  for  official  positions 
on  the  publications.  It  need  scarcely  be  observed  that  contributors  to 
such  publications  are  required  to  follow  the  Communist  Party  line  in 
their  writings. 


120  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Official  Communist  publishing  houses  have  published  works  by 
Albert  Maltz.  Mr.  Maltz  is  listed  as  one  of  the  authors  in  an  Interna- 
tional Publishers  catalog,  undated,  and  also  in  a  catalog  issued  by  the 
Workers  Library  Publishers  in  1938.  International  Publishers  in  1935 
published  a  book  entitled  "Proletarian  Literature  in  the  United  States" 
which  included  one  of  Albert  Maltz'  short  stories.  The  Daily  Worker  for 
July  12,  1938,  announced  that  International  Publishers  was  issuing  a 
book  of  short  stories  by  Mr.  Maltz  entitled  "The  Way  Things  Are." 
The  Department  of  Justice  has  cited  International  Publishers  as  a  "pub- 
lishing agency  of  the  Communist  Party"  (brief  in  the  case  of  William 
Schneiderman,  p.  145 ) .  It  has  been  similarly  cited  by  the  Special  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  29,  1944. 

Official  Communist  sources  have  frequently  voiced  approval  of 
Albert  Maltz'  writings.  Communist  International,  the  official  organ  of 
the  Communist  International,  on  the  back  cover  of  its  May,  1938,  issue 
advertised  Mr.  Maltz'  book,  "The  Way  Things  Are,"  and  described  the 
book  as  "a  book  of  stirring  stories  of  the  class  struggle  in  the  United 
States. "  The  official  west  coast  Communist  organ,  the  People's  World,  on 
January  4,  1945,  page  5,  listed  Mr.  Maltz'  book,  "The  Cross  and  the 
Arrow,"  as  one  of  the  25  best  books  of  1944  and  the  reviewer  stated 
that :  ' '  With  this  novel  Maltz  earned  a  position  among  the  leading  fig- 
ures in  American  fiction  today."  The  Progressive  Book  Shop,  one  of 
a  nation-wide  chain  of  Communist  book  shops,  held  a  ' '  Meet  the  Author 
Party"  to  publicize  Maltz'  book,  "The  Cross  and  the  Arrow,"  accord- 
ing to  the  California  Eagle  for  October  5,  1944.  Albert  Maltz  himself 
testified  before  the  California  Legislative  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  October  13,  1944,  that  the  Progressive  Book  Shop  had 
sponsored  an  autographing  party  for  this  book  of  his,  "The  Cross  and 
the  Arrow"  was  made  a  selection  of  the  Book  Find  Club,  according  to 
Plain  Talk  for  May,  1947,  page  28.  The  Book  Find  Club  is  a  Communist 
version  of  the  book-of-the-month  clubs  and  promotes  the  writings  of 
authors  sympathetic  to  the  Communist  viewpoint.  The  Abraham  Lincoln 
School,  Chicago,  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  29,  1944,  and  has  been 
refused  support  by  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  in  Chicago  on  the 
grounds  of  ' '  Communistic  affiliations. ' '  The  Daily  Worker  for  April  21, 
1946,  announced  that  a  literary  criticism  seminar  of  the  Abraham  Lin- 
coln School  would  be  held  for  the  purpose  of  giving  writers,  critics,  and 
others  interested  in  evaluating  the  Marxist  criticism  of  literature  an 
opportunity  to  discuss  the  works  of  Albert  Maltz  and  others. 

The  Los  Angeles  Workers'  School  was  a  Communist  school  directed 
by  Eva  Shafran,  a  Communist  organizer ;  La  Rue  McCormick,  who  was 
a  Communist  candidate  for  California  State  Senator,  served  on  the 
board  of  directors  of  the  school.  Albert  Maltz  was  a  lecturer  at  the  school 
during  its  spring  and  summer  sessions  in  1943,  according  to  official 
pamphlets  of  the  school  and  also  the  issues  of  the  People's  World  for 
April  16,  1943,  page  5 ;  April  23,  1943,  page  5 ;  May  7,  1943,  page  5 ; 
May  13,  1943,  page  5 ;  May  21,  1943,  page  5 ;  and  July  14,  1943,  page  3. 

The  People 's  Educational  Center,  started  in  Los  Angeles  in  the  fall 
of  1943,  is  the  successor  to  the  Los  Angeles  Workers'  School.  It  was  cited 
as  a  Communist-front  organization  by  the  California  State  Legislative 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  121 

Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  and  records  show  that  the  center's 
staff  and  faculty  include  numerous  card-holding  members  of  the  Com- 
munist Party,  such  as  Carl  Winters,  Eva  Shafran,  Mildred  Raskin,  and 
Bruce  Minton.  The  People's  World  for  December  2,  1943,  reported  that 
the  People's  Educational  Association,  the  sponsoring  organization  for 
the  People's  Educational  Center,  met  during  the  previous  week  in  the 
Hotel  Hollywood  in  Los  Angeles  and  that  one  of  the  persons  representing 
the  association  at  the  meeting  was  Albert  Maltz.  The  same  article  said  Mr. 
Maltz  urged  the  association  to  establish  a  Hollywood  branch  of  the 
People's  Educational  Center  and  offered  for  the  use  of  such  a  branch  the 
League  of  American  Writers  School  at  1717  North  Vine  Street.  The 
Labor  Herald  for  June  1,  1945,  announced  that  a  bi-monthly  forum  by 
the  People's  Educational  Center  was  scheduled  to  begin  on  June  10, 
1945,  with  Albert  Maltz  leading  a  discussion  on  "What  to  Do  With 
Germany. ' ' 

The  Workers  Book  Shop,  50  East  Thirteenth  Street,  New  York  City, 
is  headquarters  of  a  chain  of  Communist  bookshops,  which  are  the  official 
outlets  for  Communist  literature  and  at  which  tickets  for  Communist 
Party  and  front  functions  customarily  are  sold.  The  New  York  Workers 
Book  Shop  put  out  a  pamphlet  in  1938  entitled  "Very  Urgent/'  which 
requested  money  for  the  Workers  Book  Shop  mural  fund.  Albert  Maltz 
was  listed  in  the  pamphlet  as  one  of  the  active  sponsors. 

Albert  Maltz  has  been  affiliated  with  numerous  organizations  which 
specialize  in  the  defense  of  Communists.  The  International  Labor  Defense 
has  been  described  as  the  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party  by  Attorney 
General  Biddle  and  has  been  cited  for  its  Communist  character  by  the 
Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities.  Prof.  John  Dewey 's  Com- 
mittee for  Cultural  Freedom,  Massachusetts  House  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities,  and  the  California  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities.  Equal  Justice  was  a  publication  of  the  International  Labor 
Defense.  Albert  Maltz  was  one  of  the  signers  of  an  open  letter  to  Attorney 
General  Biddle  which  appeared  in  Equal  Justice  for  the  spring  of  1942. 

The  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties,  which  special- 
ized in  defending  Communists  also,  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by 
the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  June  25,  1942, 
and  March  29, 1944.  Attorney  General  Biddle  also  cited  the  organization, 
pointing  out  that  it  had  defended  such  prominent  Communists  as  Sam 
Darcy  and  Robert  Wood,  party  secretaries  for  Pennsylvania  and  Okla- 
homa, respectively.  An  official  program  leaflet  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one 
of  the  sponsors  of  the  Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties  in  America, 
which  was  held  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  June  7  through  9,  1940,  and  out  of 
which  grew  the  organization,  the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional 
Liberties.  Albert  Maltz  was  listed  as  a  sponsor  of  the  National  Federation 
for  Constitutional  Liberties  on  a  letterhead  of  the  organization  dated 
November  6,  1940.  Mr.  Maltz  has  also  signed  appeals  in  behalf  of  the 
Communist  Party  and  individual  Communists  under  the  auspices  of  the 
National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties,  according  to  the  Daily 
Worker  for  December  19, 1940,  page  5,  and  July  19, 1942,  page  4. 

The  Greater  New  York  Emergency  Conference  on  Inalienable 
Rights  was  a  Communist-front  organization  specializing  in  the  defense 
of  Communists  and  closely  interlocked  with  the  National  Federation  for 
Constitutional  Liberties.  The  Inalienable  Rights  Conference  was  cited 


122  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

for  its  Communist  character  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  March  29,  1944,  and  by  Prof.  John  Dewey's  Committee  for 
Cultural  Freedom  in  April,  1940.  The  New  Leader  for  February  8,  1941, 
reports  that  Albert  Maltz  was  on  the  "Call"  of  the  Inalienable  Rights 
Conference  to  keep  the  Communist  Party  on  the  state  ballot  in  New  York. 
The  Civil  Rights  Congress  is  the  successor  of  the  International 
Labor  Defense,  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party.  The  House  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities,  in  a  report  on  September  2,  1947, 
described  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  as  "dedicated  not  to  the  broader 
issues  of  civil  liberties,  but  specifically  to  the  defense  of  individual  Com- 
munists and  the  Communist  Party."  This  congress  is  now  defending 
such  persons  as  Gerhart  Eisler,  agent  of  the  Communist  International, 
convicted  of  contempt  of  Congress.  A  letterhead  dated  May  11,  1946, 
shows  that  Albert  Maltz  is  a  public  sponsor  of  an  organization  entitled 
"Veterans  Against  Discrimination  of  Civil  Rights  Congress  of  New 
York, ' '  which  is  an  acknowledged  part  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress. 

The  Committee  for  Citizenship  Rights  was  avowedly  organized  to 
oppose  the  threatened  revocation  of  citizenship  of  William  Schneiderman, 
Communist  Party  organizer,  according  to  a  letter  of  the  organization 
dated  January  10,  1942.  It  was  cited  as  a  Communist-front  organization 
by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  29,  1944. 
The  same  letter  referred  to  above  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  an  endorser  of  the 
Committee  for  Citizenship  Rights. 

The  American  Committee  for  Protection  of  the  Foreign  Born,  which 
also  specializes  in  defending  Communists,  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front 
by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  June  25,  1942, 
and  March  29,  1944,  and  by  Prof.  John  Dewey's  Committee  for  Cultural 
Freedom  in  April,  1940.  An  undated  leaflet  of  the  organization  shows  that 
Albert  Maltz  served  on  the  board  of  directors  of  the  American  Com- 
mittee for  Protection  of  the  Foreign  Born.  The  organization  defended 
such  foreign-born  Communists  as  Gerhart  Eisler  and  Harry  Bridges. 

The  National  Committee  for  the  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners  and 
the  National  Committee  for  People's  Rights  were  cited  as  Communist 
fronts  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  June  25, 
1942,  and  March  29, 1944.  Attorney  General  Biddle  (in  the  Congressional 
Record,  September  24,  1942,  page  7686)  stated  that  the  "National  Com- 
mittee for  the  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners  is  substantially  equivalent  to 
International  Labor  Defense,  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party" ;  he  also 
pointed  out  that  the  organization  had  defended  such  Communists  as 
Earl  Browder  and  Angelo  Herndon.  "In  January,  1938,"  the  Attorney 
General  stated  further,  "its  (National  Committee  for  the  Defense  of 
Political  Prisoners)  name  was  changed  to  the  National  Committee  for 
People 's  Rights. ' '  Albert  Maltz  was  a  member  of  the  National  Committee 
for  the  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners,  according  to  a  list  submitted  by 
Joseph  S.  Gelders,  the  organization's  southern  representative,  in  testify- 
ing before  the  La  Follette  Committee  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  on  January 
14,  1937.  The  National  Committee  for  People's  Rights  listed  Albert 
Maltz  as  one  of  the  members  of  its  national  committee  who  was  eligible 
for  election  to  its  executive  committee,  according  to  a  mimeographed 
announcement  put  out  by  the  organization  in  November,  1941. 

International  Workers  Order  is  a  fraternal  organization  which 
Attorney  General  Biddle  cited  as  "one  of  the  strongest  Communist 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  123 

organizations."  (Congressional  Record,  September  24,  1942,  page  7688). 
It  was  also  cited  as  subversive  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  January  3, 1940,  and  June  25, 1942,  by  Prof.  John  Dewey's 
Committee  for  Cultural  Freedom  in  April,  1940,  and  by  the  California 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  1943.  New  Masses  for  August 
27, 1940,  page  21,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  sponsors  of  a  plays-for- 
children  contest,  sponsored  by  the  junior  section  of  the  International 
Workers  Order. 

Albert  Maltz  has  shown  an  active  interest  in  the  Soviet  Union.  The 
People's  World,  of  March  11,  1943,  carried  a  picture  of  Mr.  Maltz  and 
described  him  as  a  famous  American  writer  who  had  sent  the  following 
telegram  to  the  editors  of  National  Defense,  a  literary  magazine  in  Mos- 
cow: "  Please  use  my  literary  royalties  for  the  defense  of  the  Soviet 
Union.  Greetings.  Albert  Maltz."  The  article  reflects  that  royalties  were 
due  Maltz  in  Moscow  for  several  works. 

The  Daily  Worker  for  January  18,  1943,  has  an  article  entitled 
' '  Writers  of  the  World  Meet  in  the  Page  of  a  Soviet  Magazine, ' '  which 
points  out  that  Soviet  readers  are  obtaining  literature  of  American 
writers  through  a  monthly  magazine  published  by  the  State  Literary 
Publishing  House  and  that  one  of  the  American  writers  who  has  had 
articles  published  in  that  magazine  is  Albert  Maltz. 

The  Daily  Worker  for  April  28,  1938,  page  4,  reflects  that  Albert 
Maltz  was  a  signer  of  a  statement  by  the  American  Progressives  Defend- 
ing the  Moscow  Trials,  which  was  the  usual  name  affixed  to  a  series  of 
trials  then  being  held  in  the  Soviet  Union  for  numerous  opponents  of 
Dictator  Stalin.  It  has  been  established  that  these  trials  had  for  their  aim 
the  purging  of  all  political  enemies  of  Josef  Stalin. 

Soviet  Russia  Today  was  the  official  monthly  publication  of  the 
Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,  a  predecessor  of  the  National  Council  of 
American-Soviet  Friendship.  The  magazine  was  cited  as  a  Communist 
front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  June  25, 
1942,  and  March  29,  1944.  The  issue  of  Soviet  Russia  Today  for  Septem- 
ber, 1941,  page  30,  carried  the  name  of  Albert  Maltz  as  author  of  a  state- 
ment in  support  of  the  Soviet  Union.  The  Daily  Worker  for  September  3, 
1941,  in  an  article  entitled,  "Soviet  Victory  Vital  to  Preserve  Cultural 
Heritage,  Basic  Economic  Values,"  reported  that  Albert  Maltz  was  one 
of  a  number  of  persons  whose  statements  expressing  their  solidarity  with 
the  Soviet  Union  would  be  published  in  the  magazine,  Soviet  Russia 
Today. 

The  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  was  cited  as 
a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
on  March  29,  1944.  The  People's  World  for  October  23,  1943,  page  3, 
stated  that  Albert  Maltz  was  a  member  of  the  Hollywood  Motion  Picture 
Committee  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 

The  American  Russian  Institute,  which  was  founded  in  1926  as  an 
allied  clearing  house  for  "factual"  information  on  the  Soviet  Union, 
was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  in  a  report  of  June  12,  1947.  A  program  put  out  by  the  Amer- 
ican Russian  Institute  announces  a  premier  showing  of  * '  Turning  Point, ' ' 
a  Soviet  film,  on  January  3,  1947,  at  the  Sunset  Theater  in  Hollywood 
and  also  announces  that  Albert  Maltz  would  take  part  in  a  panel  discus- 
sion following  the  film  showing. 


124  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Many  Communist  front  organizations  which  supported  Soviet  for- 
eign policy  have  been  backed  by  Albert  Maltz.  The  American  League 
Against  War  and  Fascism  was  active  in  support  of  Soviet  foreign  policy 
against  the  democracies  between  1932  and  1937.  It  has  been  cited  by 
Attorney  General  Biddle  as  an  organization  seeking  "to  create  public 
sentiment  on  behalf  of  a  foreign  policy  adapted  to  the  interests  of  the 
Soviet  Union."  (Congressional  Record,  September  24, 1942.)  The  Special 
Committee  on  tin- American  Activities  cited  this  organization  as  sub- 
versive on  January  3,  1940,  and  March  29,  1944.  The  League  was  dedi- 
cated to  an  openly  treasonous  program.  Albert  Maltz  has  contributed 
to  Fight,  a  publication  put  out  by  the  executive  committee  of  the  Amer- 
ican League  Against  War  and  Fascism,  according  to  an  issue  of  Fight 
for  November,  1933,  pages  8  and  9. 

After  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact  was  signed  in  1939,  the  Communists 
established  the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  which  opposed  lend  lease, 
aid  to  Britain,  the  defense  program,  and  picketed  the  White  House.  It 
also  supported  a  number  of  strikes  in  defense  industries.  The  organ- 
ization was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  Attorney  General  Biddle,  by 
the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  and  by  the  California 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities.  An  official  program  listed  Albert 
Maltz  as  a  sponsor  of  a  meeting  held  by  the  American  Peace  Mobiliza- 
tion in  New  York  City  on  April  5  and  6,  1941. 

Among  the  Communist  fronts  that  sprang  up  when  the  Soviet  Union 
and  the  United  States  were  allies  in  a  war  against  fascism  was  the  Artists  ' 
Front  to  Win  the  War,  which  made  its  debut  at  a  mass  meeting  at  Car- 
negie Hall  in  New  York  City  on  October  16,  1942.  The  organization  was 
cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  March  29,  1944.  The  official  program  of  the  Artists'  Front 
to  Win  the  War  meeting  at  Carnegie  Hall  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of 
the  sponsors.  The  meeting  supported  the  then  current  Communist  line 
calling  for  a  second  front. 

The  Win  the  Peace  Conference  was  held  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  from 
April  5  to  7,  1946,  to  attack  American  foreign  policy.  It  was  repudiated 
by  a  number  of  noted  sponsors  and  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by 
the  House  Committee  on  Un- American  Activities  on  June  12,  1947,  and 
September  2, 1947.  The  conference  resulted  in  the  formation  of  an  organ- 
ization called  the  National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace.  Albert  Maltz 
was  a  sponsor  of  the  Win  the  Peace  Conference,  according  to  an  article 
in  the  Baltimore  Sunday  Sun  for  March  31,  1946.  Thus,  Mr.  Maltz  has 
publicly  avowed  his  allegiance  to  the  line  of  the  Communist  Party  during 
four  distinctly  divergent  periods. 

At  the  Seventh  World  Congress  of  the  Communist  International, 
held  in  Moscow  in  1935,  George  Dimitroff,  general  secretary,  called  upon 
all  affiliated  Communist  Parties  to  make  the  greatest  efforts  in  behalf 
of  the  campaign  of  the  Spanish  Communists  who  were  active  in  Spain's 
civil  war.  Among  the  projects  organized  by  the  American  Communists 
in  response  to  this  request  was  the  Theater  Committee  for  Defense  of 
the  Spanish  Kepublic. 

Communist  efforts  in  behalf  of  Spanish  Communists  continued  after 
the  civil  war  ended  in  1939.  Among  these  later  organizations  was  the 
Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  which  was  cited  for  its  Com- 
munist character  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  Iff  CALIFORNIA  125 

on  March  29,  1944,  and  by  Prof.  John  Dewey's  Committee  for  Cultural 
Freedom  in  April,  1940.  The  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  was  composed 
largely  of  Americans  fighting  on  the  side  of  the  Loyalists  in  Spain's 
civil  war.  Earl  Browder,  former  general  secretary  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  the  United  States,  testified  before  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  that  most  of  the  members  of  the  brigade  were 
Communists.  The  Daily  Worker  for  February  21,  1940,  listed  Albert 
Maltz  as  one  of  the  signers  of  a  protest  to  the  President,  which  was  spon- 
sored by  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade.  An  advertise- 
ment sponsored  by  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  and 
calling  for  a  break  in  American  relations  with  Spain,  appeared  both  in 
the  Los  Angeles  Daily  News  for  May  10,  1945,  and  the  New  York  Times 
for  March  3,  1945,  page  8.  The  advertisement  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one 
of  the  sponsors.  Albert  Maltz  is  also  listed  as  a  sponsor  on  a  letterhead 
of  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  dated  December  28, 
1946 ;  the  letter  referred  to  announces  the  opening  sale  of  tickets  for  a 
performance  to  be  held  at  the  Belasco  Theater  in  New  York  on  January 
19,  1947,  to  raise  funds  for  Republican  Spain.  A  press  release  issued  by 
the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  in  June,  1947,  requesting 
United  Nations  action  on  Franco 's  regime  in  Spain,  is  signed  by  a  num- 
ber of  sponsors,  including  Albert  Maltz. 

A  similar  organization  is  the  American  Committee  for  Spanish 
Freedom,  which  was  avowedly  organized  in  July,  1944,  to  fight  for  legis- 
lation ending  American  diplomatic  relations  with  Spain  and  supplying 
American  military  aid  for  a  Spanish  revolution.  Among  the  well-known 
Communists  in  the  leadership  of  the  organization  was  Allan  Chase, 
secretary,  who  is  a  former  Communist  Party  political  candidate.  The 
organization  has  worked  closely  with  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lin- 
coln Brigade.  A  letterhead  of  the  American  Committee  for  Spanish 
Freedom,  dated  January  21,  1946,  lists  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the 
organization's  sponsors.  In  an  undated  letterhead  of  the  Los  Angeles 
chapter  of  the  American  Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom,  put  out  in 
1945,  the  name  of  Albert  Maltz  again  appears. 

The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  which  has  worked  in 
cooperation  with  the  Spanish-aid  front  organizations  of  the  Communists, 
is  engaged  in  providing  transportation  and  support  for  international 
Communist  agents  such  as  Gerhart  Eisler,  who  was  recently  convicted 
of  passport  fraud.  The  organization  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by 
the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  29,  1944. 
It  was  also  cited  for  contempt  of  Congress  on  April  16,  1946,  and  its 
leaders  were  convicted  in  a  federal  court  on  June  26,  1947.  The  Daily 
Worker  for  August  12,  1943,  sets  forth  the  announcement  from  Dr. 
Edward  A.  Barsky,  chairman  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Com- 
mittee, that  a  scroll  of  greetings  to  Spanish  refugees  freed  from  concen- 
tration camps  in  north  Africa  had  been  signed  by  200  Americans.  The 
list  of  names  includes  that  of  Albert  Maltz.  A  letterhead,  dated  February 
26,  1947,  reflects  that  Albert  Maltz  served  as  a  national  sponsor  of  the 
Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  which  was  organized  by  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Refugee  Committee  to  further  its  purpose  of  aiding  international  Com- 
munist agents. 

The  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief  is  closely  associated 
with  the  American  Slav  Congress,  which  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front 


126  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

by  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  June  12,  1947. 
The  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief  is  headed  by  Zlatko 
Balokovic,  who  is  vice  president  of  the  American-Slav  Congress,  with 
headquarters  in  Moscow,  and  who  lectured  on  the  happiness  of  the 
Yugoslav  people  under  Communism  after  a  trip  to  that  country.  An 
article  in  the  Downtown  Shopping  News  of  Los  Angeles  for  February 
13,  1945,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  sponsors  of  the  Los  Angeles 
American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief. 

The  League  of  American  Writers  was  an  affiliate  of  the  Interna- 
tional Union  of  Revolutionary  Writers,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow, 
and  the  league  was  pledged  to  the  defense  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  the 
use  of  "art  as  an  instrument  of  the  class  struggle."  The  league  was 
cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  January  3,  1940,  June  25,  1942,  and  March  29,  1944. 
Attorney  General  Biddle  said  that  "the  overt  activities  of  the  League 
of  American  Writers  in  the  last  two  years  leave  little  doubt  of  its  Com- 
munist control"  (Congressional  Record,  September  24,  1942,  p.  7686). 
The  league  was  founded  at  a  Congress  of  American  Revolutionary 
Writers  held  April  26  through  28,  1935,  in  New  York  City.  The  record 
shows  that  Albert  Maltz  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  League  of 
American  Writers. 

Albert  Maltz  was  a  member  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  first 
writers'  congress  which  resulted  in  the  formation  of  the  League  of 
American  Writers  in  1935,  according  to  the  California  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  (1945  report,  p.  126). 

The  Bureau  of  Corporations,  Department  of  State  of  New  York, 
indicated  that  at  the  time  of  the  formal  incorporation  of  the  League  of 
American  Writers  on  July  13,  1939,  one  of  the  original  directors  to 
act  until  the  first  annual  meeting  was  Albert  Maltz,  whose  address  was 
given  as  3905  Forty-fourth  Street,  Sunnyside,  Long  Island,  N.  Y. 

Albert  Maltz  presented  a  reading  of  ' '  The  Working  Class  Theatre ' ' 
at  the  first  writers'  congress  in  1935,  according  to  the  Daily  Worker  for 
for  April  29,  1935,  pages  1  and  2. 

Albert  Maltz  was  described  as  "among  the  most  popular  authors 
in  the  Soviet  Union  today"  by  the  president  of  the  League  of  American 
Writers  at  the  opening  of  the  Third  American  Writers  Congress,  accord- 
ing to  Volume  6,  No.  1,  of  the  league 's  organ,  The  Bulletin.  Albert  Maltz 
was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  call  for  the  Third  American  Writers  Con- 
gress which  was  held  by  the  League  of  American  Writers  on  June  2,  3, 
and  4,  1939,  according  to  the  magazine,  Direction,  for  May-June,  1939, 
page  1.  The  official  program  of  the  Third  Writers  Congress  showed  that 
Mr.  Maltz  also  served  as  cochairman  of  the  arrangements  committee 
on  the  drama. 

The  Daily  Worker  for  March  14,  1941,  in  an  article  headed  "Writ- 
ers' League  plans  summer  conference,"  stated  that  the  League  of 
American  Writers  had  completed  plans  for  the  first  White  Mountain 
Writers  Conference,  August  18th  to  September  2d,  at  Jefferson,  N.  H., 
and  that  Albert  Maltz  would  be  included  among  the  lecturers.  The  New 
Masses  for  April  8,  1941,  page  26,  carried  the  same  information  about 
Mr.  Maltz. 

The  People's  World,  official  west  coast  Communist  newspaper,  on 
June  13,  1941,  announced  that  Albert  Maltz  had  been  chosen  vice  presi- 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  127 

dent  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  at  the  fourth  congress  of  the 
organization,  held  in  New  York,  June  6  through  8,  1941.  Mr.  Maltz  was 
also  listed  as  a  vice  president  of  the  organization  in  New  Masses,  June 
17,  1941,  page  9 ;  Daily  Worker,  September  14,  1942,  page  7 ;  and  Peo- 
ple 's  World,  September  23,  1942,  page  5.  The  writers'  congress  in  June 
of  1941  adopted  a  firm"  antiwar  stand,  according  to  the  Daily  Worker 
for  June  9,  1941.  This  was  still  during  the  period  of  the  Stalin-Hitler 
pact,  and  was  part  of  the  Communist  Party  line. 

The  People's  World  for  June  28,  1941,  carried  an  article  entitled, 
"Writers  Hear  Soviet  War  Against  Nazis  Lauded,"  which  described 
the  sixth  semiannual  meeting  of  the  Hollywood  Branch  of  the  League 
of  American  Writers.  Albert  Maltz  and  others  made  speeches  lauding 
the  Soviet  Union.  The  Nazis  had  turned  against  Russia  since  the  fourth 
writers'  congress  and  the  policies  of  the  League  of  American  Writers 
were  switched  accordingly.  This  is  further  borne  out  by  the  Daily 
Worker  of  July  24,  1941,  which  tells  how  the  League  of  American  Writ- 
ers, of  which  Maltz  is  vice  president,  pledged  "full  aid  to  Britain  and 
Soviet  Union"  and  the  Daily  Worker  of  December  10,  1941,  which  tells 
how  the  league,  in  which  Maltz  is  again  listed  as  vice  president,  has 
offered  the  service  of  its  members  in  the  war  against  the  Axis. 

The  People's  World  for  June  24,  1942,  described  a  writers'  work- 
shop conference  held  by  the  League  of  American  Writers.  The  article 
listed  Albert  Maltz  as  a  sponsor  of  the  League  of  American  Writers. 
The  article  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  a  sponsor  of  the  conference  and  said 
resolutions  adopted  by  the  conference  included  support  for  the  Com- 
munist Harry  Bridges  and  a  request  for  immediate  opening  of  a  second 
front  in  Europe. 

The  Daily  Worker  for  September  29,  1942,  in  an  article  entitled 
* '  Writers  Defend  Minority  Rights, ' '  reports  that  the  League  of  Ameri- 
can Writers  had  made  public  a  text  of  a  telegram  requesting  a  Demo- 
cratic candidate  for  Governor  in  the  State  of  New  York  to  state  his 
position  on  attacks  by  the  American  Legion  on  the  electoral  rights  of 
the  Communist  Party.  Albert  Maltz'  name  is  again  carried  as  an  officer 
of  the  league. 

Albert  Maltz  was  listed  as  president  of  the  west  coast  chapter  of 
the  League  of  American  Writers  in  a  pamphlet  advertising  courses  for 
the  fall  term  (1943)  of  the  League  of  American  Writers'  School  for 
Writers.  Maltz  wrote  the  foreword  to  the  pamphlet. 

An  undated  bulletin  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  listed 
Albert  Maltz  as  a  member  of  the  national  board  of  the  organization. 

Albert  Maltz  himself,  in  testimony  before  the  California  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities  on  October  13,  1944,  admitted  that  he  had 
been  and  still  was  national  vice  president  of  the  League  of  American 
Writers,  although  the  organization,  he  said,  was  not  functioning  at  the 
time  of  his  testimony.  He  also  admitted  that  he  was  president  of  the 
Hollywood  chapter  of  the  League  of  American  Writers. 

The  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  was  the  name  given  to  the 
Hollywood  League  of  American  Writers  after  the  League  of  American 
Writers  could  no  longer  conceal  its  Communist  domination.  The  original 
pledge  of  the  league  to  defend  the  Soviet  Union  and  to  use  "art  as  an 
instrument  of  the  class  struggle"  is  now  the  basis  upon  which  the 
policies  of  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  are  founded.  The  issue 


128  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

of  Variety  for  July  10,  1944,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  speakers 
at  a  meeting  of  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization,  held  July  7,  1944 ; 
at  this  meeting  the  mobilization  agreed  to  serve  as  a  story  department 
for  the  Overseas  Film  Branch  of  OWL  The  Guild  Bulletin,  official  organ 
of  the  Screen  Writers  Guild,  in  its  issue  No.  71,  dated  October  1,  1944, 
page  5,  announced  that  Albert  Maltz  was  one  of  the  Hollywood  Writers 
Mobilization  members  writing  scripts  for  OWI.  Variety  for  October  18, 
1944,  said  that  Albert  Maltz  would  serve  on  a  special  research  committee 
which  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  was  setting  up  to  investi- 
gate whether  the  California  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  had 
ignored  mandates  of  the  Legislature.  Albert  Maltz  personally  testified 
that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  when  he 
appeared  before  the  California  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
on  October  13,  1944. 

The  New  Theatre  was  the  official  monthly  magazine  of  the  League 
of  Workers  Theatres,  a  section  of  the  International  Union  of  Revolu- 
tionary  Theatre,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow.  The  league  was  used  to 
present  Communist  propaganda  plays  and  to  raise  funds  for  Communist 
purposes;  it  was  succeeded  in  January,  1935,  by  the  New  Theatre 
League,  which  had  similar  aims.  The  magazine,  New  Theatre,  was  cited 
as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activi- 
ties on  March  29,  1944.  The  New  Theatre  League  was  cited  for  its  Com- 
munist character  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
on  March  29,  1944,  and  by  Prof.  John  Dewey's  Committee  for  Cultural 
Freedom  in  April,  1940.  In  the  January,  1936,  issue  of  New  Theatre,  the 
statement,  "We  are  proud  that  among  those  who  have  associated  them- 
selves with  us  in  the  creation  of  the  New  Theatre  are : "  is  followed  by  a 
list  of  names  including  that  of  Albert  Maltz.  The  New  Theatre  League,  in 
a  press  release  dated  November  8, 1935,  stated  that  Albert  Maltz  had  been 
awarded  first  place  in  a  play  contest  for  a  one-act  antiwar  or  "anti- 
Fascist"  play,  sponsored  by  the  New  Theatre  League  and  the  American 
League  Against  War  and  Fascism  (which  organization  has  been  referred 
to  above).  Mr.  Maltz's  prize-winning  play  was  entitled  "Private  Hicks." 
This  play  was  praised  in  the  Daily  Worker  for  February  7,  1939,  page  7, 
which  stated  that  "Private  Hicks"  owed  its  start  to  the  New  Theatre 
League.  The  Daily  Worker  for  January  8,  1936,  page  3,  reported  that 
the  New  Theatre  League  was  producing  "The  Black  Pit,"  written  by 
Albert  Maltz.  The  New  Theatre  of  Philadelphia,  in  an  announcement 
distributed  by  that  organization  during  a  Paul  Robeson  concert  at  the 
Philadelphia  Academy  of  Music  on  March  7, 1941,  stated  that  the  theater 
organization  would  produce  "Zero  Hour,"  written  by  Albert  Maltz  and 
George  Sklar.  The  Daily  Worker  for  June  10,  1938,  page  7,  listed  Albert 
Maltz  as  a  guest  at  a  meeting  of  the  New  Theatre  League.  Mr.  Maltz  has 
contributed  to  New  Theatre  magazine,  according  to  the  issue  for  May 
1935,  page  8. 

The  Theatre  Union  was  one  of  the  affiliates  of  the  League  of  Workers 
Theatres,  which  in  turn  was  tied  to  the  Moscow-directed  International 
Union  of  the  Revolutionary  Theatre.  Theatre  Union  reflected  the  cur- 
rent line  of  the  Communist  Party  in  its  propaganda  and  was  used  to  raise 
funds  for  the  Communist  purposes.  A  leaflet  of  the  organization  listed 
Albert  Maltz  as  a  member  of  the  executive  board  of  the  Theatre  Union. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  129 

Frontier  Films  produced  and  distributed  pro-Communist  films, 
including  a  film  on  the  Communist-led  strike  at  the  Allis-Chalmers  plant 
in  Milwaukee.  The  organization  was  headed  by  the  following  contributors 
to  the  Communist  press :  Kyle  Crichton,  alias  Robert  Forsythe ;  Irving 
Lerner ;  Clifford  Odets ;  Edwin  Rolfe ;  and  George  Seldes.  It  was  cited  for 
its  Communist  character  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  March  29,  1944,  and  by  Prof.  John  Dewey's  Committee  for 
Cultural  Freedom  in  April,  1940.  The  Daily  Worker  for  April  6,  1937, 
page  9,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  a  staff  member  of  Frontier  Films. 

Actors  Laboratory  is  a  training  school  for  actors  in  Hollywood  whose 
officers  have  lengthy  records  of  Communist-front  activity  as  evidenced 
in  attached  reports;  such  officers  include  Roman  Bohnen,  chairman; 
Larry  Parks,  treasurer ;  Morris  Carnovsky,  Jules  Dassin,  Edward  Dmy- 
tryk,  members  of  the  executive  board.  The  organization  cooperated  with 
the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  which  has  been  described  above. 
The  issue  of  Variety  for  August  16,  1944,  carried  an  advertisement 
regarding  the  Actors  Laboratory  which  was  endorsed  by  30  individuals, 
including  Albert  Maltz. 

The  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and 
Professions  has  been  charged  with  being  Communist  dominated  by 
Harold  Ickes  and  other  liberals  who  previously  had  supported  it.  It  was 
cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  September  2,  1947.  A  leaflet  put  out  by  the  organization  in 
1945  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  sponsors  of  the  Independent 
Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions.  New  Masses 
for  March  13,  1945,  states  that  the  magazine,  Independent,  is  an  organ 
of  the  independent  Citizens  Committee  and  that  Albert  Maltz  is  one  of 
the  contributing  editors  to  the  publication. 

The  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and 
Professions  split  after  Harold  Ickes  and  other  liberals  condemned  the 
organization  as  Communist-dominated.  The  pro-Communist  section,  after 
the  split,  formed  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  The  Progressive 
Citizens  of  America  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  House  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  in  a  report  of  June  12, 1947.  The  Daily 
Worker  for  May  16,  1947,  page  11,  announced  that  the  manuscript  of 
Albert  Maltz's  novel,  "The  Cross  and  the  Arrow/'  would  be  auctioned 
off  on  May  18,  1947,  at  the  Hotel  Brevoort  in  New  York  City  for  the 
benefit  of  the  literary  division  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America. 
The  Daily  Worker  of  July  5,  1947,  page  11,  published  a  photo  of  Albert 
Maltz  with  the  announcement  that  Mr.  Maltz  would  participate  in  a  con- 
ference to  be  held  July  9  through  13,  1947,  in  the  Beverly  Hills  Hotel, 
Hollywood,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Hollywood  Arts,  Sciences,  and 
Professions  Council  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  The  Daily 
Worker  for  July  31,  1947,  page  11,  reprinted  part  of  a  speech  which  the 
newspaper  said  Albert  Maltz  had  given  ' '  recently ' '  in  Los  Angeles  at  a 
meeting  under  the  auspices  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America. 

The  American  Committee  of  Jewish  Writers,  Artists,  and  Scientists, 
Inc.,  was  a  smaller,  more  specialized  version  of  the  Independent  Citizens 
Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  which  has  been  pre- 
viously referred  to.  The  American  Committee  of  Jewish  Writers,  Artists, 
and  Scientists,  Inc.,  was  affiliated  with  the  Jewish  Anti-Fascists  Com- 
mittee of  the  Soviet  Union  and  it  also  published  a  magazine,  New  Cur- 

10— L-7088-D 


130  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

rents,  which  had  the  approval  of  the  Jewish  Commission  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  The  People's  World  for  June  29,  1944,  announced  that  a 
Hollywood  chapter  of  the  American  Committee  of  Jewish  Writers, 
Artists,  and  Scientists  was  being  organized  and  that  Albert  Maltz  was 
among  the  members  of  the  organizing  committee.  Albert  Maltz  was 
listed  as  a  member  of  the  advisory  board  of  New  Currents,  in  the  Decem- 
ber 1944  issue  of  the  publication. 

The  Jewish  People's  Fraternal  Order  is  an  affiliate  of  the  Inter- 
national "Workers'  Order,  a  Communist-front  organization  previously 
referred  to.  The  Jewish  People's  Fraternal  Order  is  headed  by  Albert  E. 
Kahn,  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party  in  New  York.  The 
People's  World  for  September  14,  1945,  carried  an  advertisement 
announcing  that  a  rally  would  be  held  on  September  15,  1945,  at  the 
Embassy  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  under  the  auspices  of  the  Jewish 
People 's  Fraternal  Order,  257  South  Spring  Street,  Los  Angeles.  Albert 
Maltz  was  announced  as  one  of  the  speakers.  The  People's  World  for 
September  5,  1947,  page  5,  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the  participants 
in  a  program  sponsored  by  the  Jewish  People's  Fraternal  Order  to  be 
held  September  7, 1947,  at  the  Philharmonic  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles. 

The  American  Youth  for  Democracy  is  the  official  successor  of  the 
Young  Communist  League.  It  has  been  the  subject  of  a  report  by  the 
House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  which  described  its  char- 
acter in  detail.  Its  * l  sinister  purposes ' '  have  been  denounced  by  the  Direc- 
tor of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  (Congressional  Record,  March 
24,  1947,  p.  A1298).  The  People's  World  for  December  1,  1944,  reflects 
that  Albert  Maltz  is  a  sponsor  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  A 
letter  of  the  organization  announcing  a  meeting  for  October  21,  1945,  in 
Los  Angeles  shows  that  Albert  Maltz  was  one  of  the  sponsors  of  the  meet- 
ing. A  leaflet  announcing  a  dinner  to  be  held  under  the  auspices  of  the 
American  Youth  for  Democracy  on  December  16, 1945,  at  the  Ambassador 
Hotel  in  Los  Angeles  records  the  name  of  Albert  Maltz  as  a  member  of  the 
dinner  committee. 

The  National  Committee  Against  Censorship  of  the  Theater  Arts 
was  formed  when  the  introduction  of  Communist  propaganda  themes  in 
federal  theater  projects  aroused  considerable  public  criticism  and  an 
investigation  in  Congress.  The  National  Committee  defended  such  Com- 
munist propaganda.  Represented  in  the  organization  were  the  Commu- 
nist Party  and  the  International  Labor  Defense,  the  Communist  Party's 
legal  arm.  Albert  Maltz  was  a  member  of  the  National  Committee  Against 
Censorship  of  the  Theater  Arts,  according  to  the  pamphlet  entitled 
"Censored." 

Book  and  Magazine  Guild  was  a  local  of  the  Communist- dominated 
United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of  America,  operating  in  the  book 
and  magazine  field.  The  Book  and  Magazine  Guild  interceded  in  behalf 
of  Morris  U.  Schappes,  an  avowed  Communist  teacher  convicted  of  per- 
jury in  New  York,  according  to  the  Daily  Worker  for  September  23, 1941, 
page  3.  A  pamphlet  put  out  by  the  Book  and  Magazine  Guild,  239  Fourth 
Avenue,  New  York  City,  dated  winter  1940,  and  entitled,  "Courses  for 
Publishing  Employes,"  listed  a  course,  "The  Writer  and  Organization," 
given  by  Albert  Maltz. 

Albert  Maltz  is  a  member  of  the  Screen  Writers  Guild,  according 
to  the  sworn  testimony  of  Emmet t  Lavery,  guild  president,  before  the 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  131 

California  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  (1947  report,  p.  283). 
The  Screen  Writers  Guild  participated  in  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobi- 
lization, an  organization  previously  referred  to.  John  Howard  Lawson, 
identified  by  the  Daily  Worker  for  August  23,  1937,  page  7,  as  a  Commu- 
nist Party  member,  is  a  leading  figure  in  the  Screen  Writers  Guild. 

The  National  Council  for  Public  Morale  was  headed  by  Arthur 
Upham  Pope,  the  official  American  biographer  of  the  Soviet  Union.  The 
Washington  Post  for  May  23,  1943,  states  that  Arthur  Upham  Pope  of 
the  National  Council  for  Public  Morale  had  made  public  an  open  letter 
to  the  President  requesting  war  on  Finland.  Albert  Maltz  was  reported  as 
one  of  the  signers  of  the  open  letter. 

The  People's  Institute  of  Applied  Religion  has  been  described  by 
the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  as  a  Communist  effort 
to  gain  a  foothold  in  the  South  by  exploiting  the  well-known  religious 
attachments  of  that  section  of  the  country.  The  organization  is  headed  by 
Claude  C.  Williams,  who  the  Daily  Worker  has  reported  was  discharged 
from  the  church  on  charges  of  Communism  in  1934.  An  undated  letter- 
head of  the  People's  Institute  of  Applied  Religion,  with  headquarters 
in  Birmingham,  Ala.,  lists  the  name  of  Albert  Maltz  among  its  sponsors. 

The  Daily  Worker  for  August  25,  1947,  page  11,  described  with 
acclaim  the  filming  of  the  new  movie,  " Naked  City,"  at  that  time  on  loca- 
tion in  New  York  City ;  the  newspaper  listed  Albert  Maltz  as  one  of  the 
writers  of  the  screen  play  for  the  movie. 

Albert  Maltz'  writings  in  the  Daily  Worker  have  also  reflected  his 
faithfulness  to  the  Communist  Party  line.  In  the  Daily  Worker  for 
December  16,  1933,  page  7,  Mr.  Maltz  and  playwright,  George  Sklar, 
with  whom  Mr.  Maltz  has  collaborated  in  writing  plays,  are  the  joint 
authors  of  an  article  entitled  "The  Need  for  a  Workers  Theater."  The 
article  calls  the  existing  Broadway  theater  "a  sterile  theater"  and  states : 

1  i  It 's  time  we  had  a  theater  which  will  reflect  the  fact  that  we  're  liv- 
ing in  a  certain  type  of  society,  a  society  gripped  by  the  most  severe  eco- 
nomic crisis  that  capitalism  has  known. "  The  article  pointed  out  that  the 
professional  bourgeois  theater  would  become  more  and  more  a  theater  of 
escape  as  ' '  the  class  struggle  deepens. ' '  It  then  goes  on  to  say :  '  *  This  is 
not  so  in  the  Soviet  Union.  We  see  there  an  interest  in  the  art  of  the  thea- 
ter such  as  the  world  has  never  known  before.  We  see  a  theatrical  center 
in  every  city,  in  every  factory,  in  every  village.  Why  ?  Because  the  Soviet 
theater  is  not  a  theater  of  the  privileged  class  but  the  theater  of  a  whole 
country,  of  a  whole  people.  And  it  is  a  vital  theater  because  it  belongs  to 
those  who  are  building  a  new  society  and  not  to  those  who  are  clinging  to 
a  dead  one.  The  future  of  the  theater  in  America  lies  in  the  creation  of  a 
workers '  theater. ' ' 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  FOR  YUGOSLAV  RELIEF 

This  Communist  front  group  is  organized  to  support  the  dictatorship 
of  the  Soviet  puppet  Tito.  It  is  headed  by  the  notorious  pro-Communist, 
pro-Soviet,  Louis  Adamic.  Zlatko  Balokovic  is  co-chairman.  Rockwell 
Kent,  Max  Bedacht,  Walter  B.  Cannon,  Jo  Davidson,  Mrs.  Elinor  S. 
Gimbel,  Johannes  Steel,  Dr.  Emmanuel  Chapman,  Mary  McLeod 
Bethune,  Lion  Feuchtwanger,  William  S.  Gailmor,  Marshall  Field,  Mrs. 
Edward  C.  Carter  and  Hugh  De  Lacy  are  among  the  national  pro-Com- 
munist figures  interested  in  the  American  Committee  for  Yugoslav  Relief. 


132  TIN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Local  branches  have  been  established  throughout  the  country. 

The  Los  Angeles  headquarters  of  the  American  Committee  for  Yugo- 
slav Relief  is  located  at  808  South  Vermont  Avenue,  Room  3,  telephone 
DRexel  1227,  according  to  the  organization 's  letterhead.  Judge  Lester  W. 
Roth  is  listed  as  the  chairman.  Lee  Bachelis  is  the  treasurer  and  Bonnie 
Claire  is  the  director  of  the  California  Division. 

The  committee  sponsors  include  Prof.  Thomas  Addis,  Howard  Bay, 
Maurice  Becker,  William  Rose  Benet,  Elmer  A.  Benson,  Miller  Brand, 
Anne  Burr,  Eddie  Cantor,  John  M.  Coffee,  Floyd  C.  Covington,  Joseph 
Curran,  Bishop  Ralph  S.  Cushman,  Helen  Gahagan  Douglas,  C.  M.  Dyk- 
stra,  Dr.  Leo  Eloesser,  Howard  Fast,  Waldo  Frank,  Leverett  L.  Gleason, 
William  Gropper,  Langston  Hughes,  Rex  Ingram,  George  Jessel,  Albert 
E.  Kahn,  Kenneth  MacGowan,  Albert  Maltz,  Dr.  Thomas  Mann,  Vito 
Marcantonio,  Dorothy  Parker,  Bishop  Edward  L.  Parsons,  Edward  G. 
Robinson,  Sydney  Roger,  Lisa  Sergio,  Gale  Sondergaard,  Maxwell  S. 
Stewart,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Walter  Wanger,  Harry  F. 
Ward,  Rabbi  J.  Max  Weis,  Orson  Welles,  and  Dr.  Henry  N.  Wieman. 

The  name,  Dalton  Trumbo,  will  be  found  on  the  letterheads  of  many 
Communist  front  organizations.  Louis  J.  Russell  testified  before  the 
Thomas  Committee  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  October  28,  1947,  that  Dalton 
Trumbo  is  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  and  that  the  Communist 
Party  card  for  1944,  issued  to  Dalton  Trumbo,  is  numbered  47187.  The 
address  of  Dalton  Trumbo,  given  on  the  card,  is  620  Beverly  Drive,  Bev- 
erly Hills,  California.  The  card  contained  a  notation  which  read  "New 
Card  issued  November  30,  1944. " 

Dalton  Trumbo 's  Communist  record,  as  set  forth  in  the  congressional 
report,  above  referred  to,  at  page  335,  checks  with  the  record  of  Dalton 
Trumbo  in  the  Senate  Committee 's  files.  The  record  is  as  follows : 

According  to  the  Hollywood  Reporter,  August  22,  1946,  well-known 
trade  publication  of  the  motion-picture  industry,  Dalton  Trumbo  was 
asked  if  he  was  the  holder  of  Communist  Party  Book  No.  36802.  The  com- 
mittee knows  of  no  denial  by  Mr.  Trumbo  of  this  fact.  He  has,  however, 
openly  endorsed  Communist  candidates,  Communist  legal  defendants, 
and  has  openly  cooperated  with  the  Communist  legal  defendants,  and  has 
openly  cooperated  with  the  Communist  Party  and  its  instruments. 
According  to  the  Los  Angeles  Times  of  November  2,  1942,  Mr.  Trumbo 
endorsed  Mrs.  La  Rue  McCormick,  Communist  candidate  for  State  Sen- 
ator. In  a  speech  quoted  in  the  Worker  of  June  22,  1947,  page  11  (maga- 
zine), Mr.  Trumbo  is  quoted  as  follows : 

' '  And  the  defense  of  the  rights  of  the  Communist  Party,  and  of 

all  real  or  alleged  Communists,  is  the  duty  not  only  of  liberals  and 

progressives,  but  all  men  and  women  who  have  love  for  their  country 

and  respect  for  its  Constitution." 

At  an  official  meeting  of  the  Communist  Party  featuring  as  its  chief 
speaker,  William  Z.  Foster,  Party  Chairman,  the  poem,  "Confessional," 
by  Dalton  Trumbo,  was  presented,  according  to  the  People's  World  of 
September  10,  1947,  page  4. 

In  April,  1940,  during  the  period  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact  when  the 
Communist  Party  was  actively  denouncing  President  Roosevelt  as  a 
war-monger,  and  agitating  against  lend-lease  and  the  defense  program, 
the  Daily  Worker  published  in  serial  form  Dalton  Trumbo 's  antiwar 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  133 

story  entitled  ' '  Johnny  Got  His  Gun. ' '  This  book  was  widely  sold  at  all 
Communist  Party  book  shops  and  also  extensively  circulated  at  meetings 
of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization.  A  synopsis  of  this  story  appeared 
in  the  People's  World  of  May  22,  1940,  page  8.  The  story  also  appeared 
serially  in  the  Daily  Worker  of  April,  1940.  Both  of  these  papers  are 
official  Communist  Party  organizations.  Mr.  Trumbo  has  been  a  con- 
tributor to  the  New  Masses,  official  Communist  Party  weekly  magazine, 
according  to  its  issues  of  April  15, 1941,  page  13,  and  September  26, 1944, 
page  28.  The  New  Masses  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  periodical  by 
Attorney  General  Biddle,  according  to  the  Congressional  Record  of  Sep- 
tember 24, 1942.  It  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  magazine  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  un-American  Activities  on  June  24,  1942,  and  March  29, 
1944.  According  to  the  People's  World  on  July  16,  1943,  Mr.  Trumbo 
was  a  member  of  a  committee  to  sell  paintings  at  an  auction  for  the  benefit 
of  the  New  Masses,  which  was  held  in  Hollywood.  Mainstream  is  a  Com- 
munist quarterly  magazine  specializing  in  the  literary  field.  It  is  being 
actively  promoted  by  the  official  Communist  press  at  the  present  time. 
Mr.  Trumbo  is  listed  in  the  winter  1947  issue  of  Mainstream  as  a  member 
of  its  editorial  board.  It  should  be  noted  in  this  connection  that  it  has  been 
a  long-standing  practice  for  Communist  publications  to  utilize  only 
Communists  as  staff  members  and  frequent  contributors. 

Mr.  Trumbo  has  made  it  a  practice  to  appear  in  defense  of  Com- 
munist cases.  He  defended  Harry  Bridges,  according  to  the  Los  Angeles 
Examiner  of  May  25,  1941.  Bridges  was  cited  as  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  by  the  Daily  Worker,  the  official  Communist  organ.  Mr. 
Trumbo  was  at  a  testimonial  dinner  in  behalf  of  Harry  Bridges  at  Park 
Manor  Hotel,  Los  Angeles,  on  April  12,  1941,  according  to  the  San  Die-go 
Labor  Union  Weekly  of  April  18,  1941.  Jesus  Hernandez  Tomas,  a  lead- 
ing Spanish  Communist,  was  barred  from  entry  to  this  country  by  the 
State  Department.  Dalton  Trumbo  enlisted  in  his  defense,  according  to 
the  People's  World  of  November  30,  1943.  Mr.  Trumbo  was  also  the 
author  of  a  pamphlet  entitled  "Harry  Bridges/'  which  was  written  for 
defense  purposes.  According  to  the  New  York  Times  of  December  22, 
1943,  page  40,  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a  signer  of  a  declaration  issued  by  the 
so-called  Reichstag  Fire  Trial  Anniversary  Committee  honoring  George 
Dimitrov,  former  general  secretary  of  the  Communist  International. 

The  American  Peace  Mobilization  was  organized  by  the  American 
Peace  Crusade.  Attorney  General  Biddle  has  stated  that:  "The  most 
conspicuous  activity  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  was  the  picket- 
ing of  the  White  House,  which  began  in  April,  1941,  in  protest  against 
lend-lease  and  the  entire  national  defense  program.  On  the  afternoon  of 
June  21,  1941,  he  (Frederick  V.  Field,  national  secretary)  suddenly 
called  off  the  picket  line  around  the  White  House"  (Congressional 
Record,  September  24,  1942).  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a  speaker  at  a  mass  meet- 
ing held  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Peace  Crusade  on  April  6, 
1940,  according  to  the  New  Masses  of  August  6,  1940,  page  22.  He  was  a 
speaker  at  a  peace  rally  at  the  Los  Angeles  Olympic  Auditorium  of  April 
6,  1940.  He  was  also  a  speaker  for  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  at 
the  Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  on  February  24, 1941.  Mr.  Trumbo 
was  the  author  of  a  skit  which  was  presented  at  a  meeting  of  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization  in  Los  Angeles  on  February  24,  1941. 


134  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  International  Workers  Order  has  been  cited  by  Attorney  Gen- 
eral Biddle  as  ''one  of  the  strongest  Communist  organizations"  (Con- 
gressional Record,  September  24,  1942).  This  organization  has  consist- 
ently supported  Communist  candidates,  the  Communist  press  and  Com- 
munist campaigns.  It  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  un-American  Activities  on  January  3,  1940,  and  June  25, 
1942.  According  to  the  People's  World  of  May  28,  1943,  page  3,  Mr. 
Trumbo  was  a  speaker  for  the  International  Workers  Order. 

The  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  according  to  the  official  state- 
ments of  its  leaders,  was  formerly  the  Young  Communist  League.  On 
April  17,  1947,  the  Committee  on  un-American  Activities  issued  a  report 
on  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy  in  which  it  called  upon  the 
governors  or  legislatures  of  the  various  states  and  the  administrative 
heads  of  the  colleges  and  universities  "to  thoroughly  expose  the  Com- 
munist connections  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy  as  well  as 
the  inimical  objectives  of  the  Communist  Party  in  America."  The  Con- 
gressional Record  of  March  24,  1947,  page  A-1298,  contains  a  statement 
made  by  the  Honorable  J.  Edgar  Hoover,  Director  of  the  Federal  Bureau 
of  Investigation,  in  which  he  spoke  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy 
as  the  organization  "which  conceals  the  evils  and  the  corruption  of 
American  Communism.  This  name  is  but  a  new  one  for  the  former 
Young  Communist  League.  It  reflects  all  the  sinister  purposes  of  the 
Communist'  Party  of  the  United  States.  It  employs  the  same  techniques 
and  has  the  same  objectives,  namely  the  conversion  of  our  haven  of 
liberty  and  freedom  to  worship  as  we  choose  to  a  godless,  totalitarian 
state  where  the  adversaries  of  democracy  can  do  as  they  please."  The 
American  Youth  for  Democracy  was  also  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by 
the  Special  Committee  on  un-American  Activities  in  the  report  of  March 
29,  1944.  According  to  the  letterhead  of  the  American  Youth  for 
Democracy  for  December  1,  1944,  Dalton  Trumbo  was  a  sponsor. 

The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  is  engaged  in  providing 
transportation  and  support  for  international  Communist  agents  such  as 
Gerhart  Eisler.  The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee  was  cited  for 
contempt  of  Congress  on  April  16,  1946,  and  its  members  were  convicted 
in  a  federal  court  on  June  27,  1947.  According  to  a  letterhead  dated 
February  26,  1946,  issued  by  the  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  of  the  Joint 
Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a  national  sponsor. 
Mr.  Trumbo  is  also  listed  as  a  sponsor  of  a  dinner  held  by  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee  at  the  Hotel  Astor  in  New  York  City  on 
October,  27,  1943,  according  to  its  printed  invitation. 

The  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties  has  been  cited 
by  Attorney  General  Biddle  as  part  of  the  "Communist  solar  system" 
and  he  stated  that  "The  defense  of  Communist  leaders  such  as  Sam 
Darcy  and  Robert  Wood,  party  secretaries  for  Pennsylvania  and  Okla- 
homa, have  been  major  efforts  of  the  federation"  (Congressional  Record, 
September  24,  1942).  This  organization  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist 
front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  un-American  Activities  on  June  25, 
1944,  and  March  29,  1944.  Mr.  Trumbo  signed  an  open  letter  published 
by  the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties  under  the  title 
of  "600  Prominent  Americans." 

The  Sleepy  Lagoon  Defense  Committee  was  an  auxiliary  of  the 
International  Labor  Defense,  properly  termed  by  Attorney  General 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  135 

Biddle  as  the  "  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party. "  According  to  a 
letterhead  of  this  defense  committee,  dated  August  9,  1944,  Mr.  Trumbo 
was  a  sponsor. 

The  League  of  American  Writers  was  the  American  affiliate  of  the 
International  Union  of  Revolutionary  Writers,  with  headquarters  in 
Moscow.  It  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Com- 
mittee on  un-American  Activities  on  January  3,  1940,  June  25,  1942, 
and  March  29,  1944.  It  has  also  been  cited  as  under  Communist  auspices 
by  Attorney  General  Biddle  in  the  Congressional  Record  of  September* 
24,  1942.  The  organization  has  been  pledged  to  the  defense  of  the  Soviet 
Union  and  "use  of  art  as  an  instrument  of  the  class  struggle."  The 
Daily  Worker  of  September  5,  1940,  page  7,  lists  Mr.  Trumbo  as  a 
member  of  the  League  of  American  Writers.  The  League  of  American 
Writers  held  a  conference  in  Hollywood  on  June  20-21,  1942.  According 
to  the  People's  World  of  June  10,  1942,  June  17,  1942,  Mr.  Trumbo  was 
head  of  one  of  its  speakers  panels.  According  to  People's  World  of 
March  31,  1943,  page  5,  Mr.  Trumbo  lectured  at  a  conference  sponsored 
by  the  West  Coast  Chapter  of  the  League  of  American  Writers,  during 
the  summer  of  1942  in  Hollywood.  He  was  also  a  contributor  to  a  maga- 
zine called  "Clipper"  published  by  the  League  of  American  Writers. 

The  Writers  Congress  held  on  October  1,  2,  3,  1943,  was  sponsored 
by  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization,  successor  to  the  Hollywood 
Branch  of  the  League  of  American  Writers,  which  has  been  cited  as  a 
Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
and  by  Attorney  General  Biddle  and  the  Committee  for  Cultural  Free- 
dom, headed  by  Prof.  John  Dewey.  Mr.  Trumbo  was  an  active  participant 
in  one  of  the  panels  of  the  Writers  Congress,  according  to  the  People's 
World  of  October  13,  1943,  page  5. 

The  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization  previously  known  as  the 
Hollywood  Chapter  of  the  League  of  American  Writers,  arranged  a 
series  of  forums  at  the  El  Patio  Theater  in  Hollywood,  beginning  Decem- 
ber 2,  1946.  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a  speaker  at  these  forums. 

The  Hollywood  Forum  was  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Daily 
People 's  World,  official  west  coast  organ  of  the  Communist  Party,  accord- 
ing to  the  Daily  Worker  of  April  15,  1946,  page  11.  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a 
speaker  at  a  forum  meeting  held  on  April  9,  1946. 

The  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee  was  the  successor  to  the 
Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  which  was  organized  by  Isaac  Romaine, 
alias  V.  J.  Jerome,  member  of  the  Central  Committee  of  the  Communist 
Party.  The  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  dissolved  during  the  time  of 
the  Stalin-Hitler  pact.  According  to  the  People's  World  of  August  3, 
1943,  page  38,  Mr.  Trumbo  made  a  collection  speech  in  behalf  of  the 
Hollywood  Democratic  Committee. 

The  Motion  Picture  Democratic  Committee  was  cited  as  a  Com- 
munist front  by  the  California  Joint  Fact-Finding  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  in  the  1943  report,  and  by  the  House  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities  on  September  2,  1947.  Melvyn  Douglas  and 
Philip  Dunne  resigned  from  the  executive  board  on  the  Motion  Picture 
Democratic  Committee  because  of  its  Communist  control.  According  to 
the  bulletin  of  the  Motion  Picture  Democratic  Committee,  dated  March 
26, 1940,  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a  speaker  at  its  meeting  held  on  April  6,  1940. 


136  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

His  subject  was  "America  Declares  Peace. "  This  meeting  was  held  dur- 
ing the  period  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact. 

According  to  the  Daily  Worker  of  October  7,  1942,  page  7,  Mr. 
Trumbo  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Artists '  Front  to  Win  the  War.  The  Artists ' 
Front  to  Win  the  War  was  an  organization  which  supported  the  then 
current  Communist  demand  for  a  second  front.  Many  of  its  sponsors 
were  writers  for  the  Communist  press  who  had  opposed  the  war  during 
the  Stalin-Hitler  pact,  such  as  Alvah  Bessie,  Angelo  Herndon,  Alfred 
Kreymborg,  Albert  Maltz,  and  Ruth  McKenney.  On  September  14,  1942, 
a  meeting  was  held  by  the  so-called  Citizens  for  Victory  Committee  at 
the  Philharmonic  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles.  Mr.  Trumbo  was  the  author 
of  a  six-page  article  entitled  "An  Open  Letter  to  American  People/' 
which  was  distributed  at  this  meeting,  urging  the  readers  to  petition  and 
wire  the  President  for  the  opening  of  a  second  front. 

Another  Communist  promoted  enterprise  was  the  so-called  Council 
for  Civic  Unity.  The  People's  World,  official  west  coast  Communist  organ, 
for  April  28,  1944,  mentioned  that  Dalton  Trumbo  made  a  collection 
speech  for  this  organization  which  netted  $3,000.  A  similar  group,  known 
as  the  Academic  and  Civil  Rights  Council,  mentions  Dalton  Trumbo  as 
a  speaker  in  the  People's  World  of  January  2,  1941.  Affiliated  with  the 
Council  for  Civic  Unity  were  the  following  Communist  groups :  Amer- 
ican Youth  for  Democracy,  formerly  known  as  the  Young  Communist 
League ;  Morning  Freiheit  Association,  supporting  the  Morning  Freiheit, 
Yiddish  organ  of  the  Communist  Party;  the  International  Workers 
Order,  and  other  organizations. 

Paul  Robeson,  who  has  a  long  record  of  Communist  affiliations,  was 
the  moving  spirit  in  what  was  known  as  American  Crusade  to  End 
Lynching  which  organized  a  pilgrimage  to  Washington,  D.  C.,  for  Sep- 
tember 23, 1946.  This  venture  was  actively  supported  by  the  Communist 
press.  Mr.  Trumbo  was  a  signer  of  the  call  for  this  pilgrimage,  which  was 
another  example  of  Communist  efforts  to  organize  mass  marches  and 
mass  demonstrations  on  capital  cities. 

According  to  the  People's  World  of  January  15,  1941,  page  5,  Mr. 
Trumbo  was  listed  as  a  speaker  at  a  banquet  sponsored  by  the  Northern 
California  Civil  Rights  Council,  held  at  Whitcomb  Hotel  in  San  Francisco 
on  January  18,  1941.  This  meeting  was  primarily  concerned  with  efforts 
to  defend  the  Communist  Party  and  Communist  cases.  Mr.  Trumbo  also 
took  part  in  a  series  of  meetings  held  about  May  10, 1942,  for  the  purpose 
of  launching  a  committee  to  free  Earl  Browder. 

According  to  the  program  of  a  members '  meeting  of  the  Hollywood 
Arts,  Sciences  and  Professional  Council,  of  September  17,  1947,  Mr. 
Trumbo  was  listed  as  a  speaker.  The  Hollywood  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Pro- 
fessional Council  is  a  branch  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America 
which  was  formed  by  the  left  wing  group  of  the  ICCASP  after  the  latter 
organization  was  dissolved  when  its  Communist  denominations  could  no 
longer  be  concealed. 

The  People 's  Daily  World,  official  Communist  Party  publication  on 
the  west  coast,  dated  May  2,  1947,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  one  of  the 
sponsors  of  the  Los  Angeles  Chapter  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress. 

The  Worker,  official  publication  of  the  Communist  Party,  dated 
September  22, 1946,  published  a  picture  of  the  editor  and  editorial  board 
of  a  new  magazine  entitled  "Mainstream,"  which  was  referred  to  as  a 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  137 

' '  Marxist  literary  magazine. ' '  Dalton  Trumbo,  whose  picture  appeared 
with  this  article,  was  stated  to  be  a  member  of  the  board  of  directors. 

A  circular  announcing  a  "People's  Rally  for  Peace, "  meeting  at 
the  Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  on  April  24,  1941,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as 
one  of  the  speakers.  The  purpose  of  this  meeting,  according  to  the  circular, 
was  to  urge  the  defeat  of  the  House  of  Representatives  bill  for  lend-lease. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  a  Communist  newspaper  for  the  west 
coast,  dated  July  15,  1941,  states  that  Trumbo  was  in  attendance  at  a 
meeting  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  held  at  the  Hollywood  Town 
Forum,  Hollywood,  California,  on  May  17,  1941. 

The  Daily  Worker,  dated  June  20,  1941,  listed  Trumbo  as  a  speaker 
at  a  Free  Speech  Rally  sponsored  by  the  Southern  California  Branch  of 
the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties  held  at  the  Embassy 
Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles,  June  18,  1941. 

The  Clipper,  official  magazine  of  the  League  of  American  Writers, 
described  above,  for  the  month  of  August,  1941,  stated  that  Dalton 
Trumbo  had  been  a  contributor  for  the  past  12  issues  of  this  magazine. 

A  circular  advertising  the  School  for  Writers  sponsored  by  the 
Hollywood  Chapter  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  for  the  1941-42 
term  mentioned  Dalton  Trumbo  as  a  lecturer. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  March  31,  1943,  in  an  article 
entitled  ' '  Young  Writers  Develop  Technique  in  Workshop,  ' '  stated  that 
Dalton  Trumbo  participated  in  the  writers  conference  held  during 
December,  1942,  under  the  slogan  "The  Pen  is  a  Sword,"  in  which 
beginners,  veteran  screen  writers,  novelists,  poets,  and  writers  in  every 
medium  discussed  just  how  each  writer  could  make  his  pen  a  weapon  for 
democracy.  The  article  further  stated  that  the  conference  was  called  by 
the  Writers  Workshop,  which  was  sponsored  by  the  League  of  American 
Writers. 

The  Screen  Writer,  the  official  publication  of  the  Screen  Writers 
Guild,  for  the  month  of  June,  1946,  published  an  edited  transcript  of  an 
informal  discussion  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  Hollywood  Writers 
Mobilization  between  the  noted  Russian  writer  Konstantin  Simonov  and 
members  of  the  Screen  Writers  Guild.  The  forum  was  presided  over  by 
Dalton  Trumbo. 

The  California  Eagle,  dated  March  7, 1946,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as 
one  of  the  sponsors  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  formerly  the 
Young  Communist  League,  dance  held  in  Los  Angeles  on  March  4,  1946, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  United  Electrical  Workers  who  were  on  strike.  This 
is  a  Communist-controlled  union. 

A  pamphlet  advertising  the  "Salute  to  Young  America"  program 
under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy  to  be  held  at 
the  Hotel  Hollywood,  Hollywood,  California,  on  December  1,  1944, 
listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  a  member  of  the  sponsoring  committee  and  Mrs. 
Trumbo  as  secretary  of  the  committee. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  December  5, 1944,  stated  that  Trumbo 
was  a  speaker  at  the  above  meeting. 

A  pamphlet  advertising  the  ' '  Youth  Conference ' '  under  sponsorship 
of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  scheduled  for  October  21,  1945, 
at  the  Los  Angeles  City  College,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  a  sponsor. 


138  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  printed  advertisement  announcing  a  "Welcome  Home,  Joe" 
dinner  sponsored  by  the  Los  Angeles  County  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, scheduled  to  be  held  December  16,  1945,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as 
one  of  the  dinner  committee  members.  This  meeting  was  advertised  to  be 
held  at  the  Ambassador  Hotel  in  Los  Angeles,  California. 

The  Daily  Worker,  dated  October  19,  1942,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as 
a  sponsor  of  a  dinner  under  the  auspices  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee  to  be  held  at  the  Astor  Hotel,  New  York  City,  on  October  27, 
1942.  This  organization  has  been  described  above. 

A  pamphlet  issued  by  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee, 
dated  October  21,  1944,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  one  of  the  national 
sponsors  of  this  organization. 

Letterheads  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  192  Lex- 
ington Avenue,  New  York  City,  obtained  for  the  years  1945,  and  1946, 
also  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  a  national  sponsor  of  this  organization. 

The  Daily  Worker,  dated  September  16,  1944,  in  an  article  entitled 
1  'Film  Front,"  lists  Dalton  Trumbo  as  being  affiliated  with  the  Holly- 
wood Democratic  Committee.  This  organization  has  been  described  above. 

The  Daily  Worker,  dated  November  22,  1944,  stated  that  Dalton 
Trumbo  was  elected  to  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Screen  Writers  Guild. 

The  Screen  Writer,  official  publication  of  the  Screen  Writers  Guild, 
in  the  1946  issues  reflected  that  Dalton  Trumbo  was  the  editor  of  the 
Screen  Writer. 

A  proposal  appeared  in  the  Screen  Writer,  edited  by  Dalton  Trumbo, 
July  issue,  1946,  for  an  American  Authors'  Authority.  According  to  this 
report,  the  authority  is  to  be  a  marketing  monopoly  which  will  copyrighl 
and  lease  to  users  all  writings  by  American  authors.  It  is  to  begin  with 
scripts  for  screen  and  radio  and  articles  for  magazines.  By  controlling 
this  lucrative  field,  the  authority  will  be  the  exclusive  agent  for  America  7s 
most  successful  writers. 

A  letterhead  for  the  People's  Educational  Center,  dated  January  11, 
1945,  announced  the  second  annual  meeting  of  the  People 's  Educational 
Center,  a  Communist  school,  at  the  Shoreham  Hotel,  Los  Angeles,  Cali- 
fornia, on  January  21,  1945.  The  announcement  listed  Dalton  Trumbo 
as  a  speaker  during  the  evening  session  on  the  subject,  "Role  of  the 
Motion  Picture  in  Shaping  the  Future. ' ' 

Page  33  of  the  report  of  the  California  State  Legislature's  Joint 
Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  dated  1947,  classi- 
fies the  People's  Educational  Center  as  a  Communist  front. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  July  22,  1946,  published  a  photo- 
graph of  Dalton  Trumbo  along  with  an  article  stating  that  Trumbo  would 
be  "an  inaugural  guest  speaker  Saturday  evening,  August  10,  1946,  at 
the  California  Labor  School  Summer  Term  for  White  Collar  and  Pro- 
fessional Workers  on  the  Monterey  Peninsula. "  The  article  further  stated 
that  reservations  would  be  accepted  at  the  California  Labor  School,  216 
Market  Street,  San  Francisco,  California. 

Page  101  of  the  report  of  the  California  State  Legislature's  Joint 
Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  dated  1947,  lists 
the  California  Labor  School  as  a  Communist  School. 

The  Daily  Variety,  a  Hollywood  trade  magazine,  for  the  month  of 
June,  1945,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  a  member  of  the  executive  council 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  139 

of  the  Hollywood  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences, 
and  Professions.  This  organization  has  been  described  above. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  official  Communist  Party  publication  on 
the  west  coast,  dated  May  2,  1947,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as  one  of  the 
sponsors  of  the  Los  Angeles  Chapter  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress. 

The  Civil  Rights  Congress  has  been  engaged  in  defending  Gerhart 
Eisler,  Comintern  agent,  and  Eugene  Dennis,  executive  secretary  of  the 
Communist  Party. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  March  20,  1946,  stated  that  Dalton 
Trumbo  was  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los 
Angeles,  California,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Mobilization  for  Democ- 
racy. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  April  5, 1946,  in  an  article  entitled 
"We  Are  With-Trumbo  Pledges  Every  Effort  on  Fight  of  Native  Fas- 
cists, ' '  comments  on  a  speech  by  Dalton  Trumbo  delivered  at  a  meeting 
of  the  Mobilization  for  Democrary  held  previously  in  Los  Angeles  in 
which  Trumbo  is  reported  to  have  outlined  several  undertakings  by  the 
United  States  Government,  such  as  Expedition  Muskox,  Bikini,  and  the 
policies  of  MacArthur  in  Japan,  all  of  which  Trumbo  interpreted  as  an 
indication  of  United  States  imperialism  and  the  work  of  Fascist  reaction 
in  the  United  States. 

The  California  Sentinel,  dated  May  8,  1947,  published  a  list  pur- 
ported to  be  the  official  list  of  the  officers  and  board  of  directors  of  the 
Southern  California  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  Dalton  Trumbo 
was  listed  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  directors. 

Page  236  of  the  report  of  the  California  State  Legislature's  Joint 
Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  dated  1947,  refers 
to  the  Los  Angeles  Chapter  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  as  a 
consolidation  of  the  National  Political  Action  Committee  and  the  Holly- 
wood Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Pro- 
fessions, which  are  referred  to  as  Communist  fronts. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  October  19,  1942,  listed  Dalton 
Trumbo  as  one  of  400  prominent  people  who  signed  an  open  letter  to 
President  Roosevelt  urging  the  United  States  to  sever  diplomatic  rela- 
tions with  Spain.  This  letter  was  made  public,  according  to  the  article, 
by  the  Council  for  Pan-American  Democracy  which  has  attacked  alleged 
American  imperialism. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  November  6, 1945,  carried  an  adver- 
tisement under  the  heading  "Break  relations  with  Spain,"  advising  that 
a  meeting  was  scheduled  for  the  Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles,  Cali- 
fornia, for  November  16,  1945,  at  which  Dalton  Trumbo  would  serve  as 
chairman.  The  meeting  was  said  to  be  under  the  auspices  of  the  American 
Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom.  This  was  part  of  the  Communist  cam- 
paign in  behalf  of  Loyalist  Spain  initiated  at  the  seventh  Congress  of  the 
Communist  International,  the  summer  of  1935. 

The  Daily  Worker,  dated  May  24,  1947,  listed  Dalton  Trumbo  as 
one  of  the  speakers  at  the  Artists  Fight  Back  meeting  sponsored  by  Mam- 
stream,  to  be  held  at  Manhattan  Center,  New  York  City,  on  June  11, 
1947.  The  article  stated  that  the  rally  would  give  the  answer  of  the  writers 
and  artists  to  the  "Un-American  Committee's"  attacks  on  democratic 
culture  in  America. 


140  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  New  York  World  Telegram,  dated  June  11,  1947,  listed  Dalton 
Trumbo  as  one  of  the  speakers  at  the  Artists  Fight  Back  rally  held  at 
Manhattan  Center,  New  York  City,  on  June  11, 1947. 

The  Worker,  dated  March  23,  1947,  published  a  write-up  on  the 
magazine  Mainstream  showing  the  table  of  contents  for  the  winter  edition, 
1946,  listing  Dalton  Trumbo  as  a  contributor  with  a  poem  entitled  ' '  Con- 
fessional. ' '  This  magazine  has  been  described  above. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  October  24,  1942,  listed  Dalton 
Trumbo  as  one  of  the  persons  who  endorsed  LaRue  McCormick  as  Com- 
munist Party  candidate  for  State  Senator  of  Los  Angeles  County. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  July  6,  1944,  announced  that  Dal- 
ton Trumbo  would  be  one  of  the  judges  of  a  short-story  contest  sponsored 
by  the  People's  Daily  World  to  run  from  August  1,  1944,  to  February 
1, 1945. 

The  People's  Daily  World,  dated  March  26,  1946,  listed  Dalton 
Trumbo  as  a  speaker  at  a  forum  held  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium  on 
April  8,  1946,  under  the  auspices  of  the  People's  Daily  World  entitled 
1  'Art — Weapon  of  the  People. "  A  photostatic  copy  of  this  publicity 
is  attached. 

Erick  Lionel  Pridinoff  testified  before  the  committee  at  its  Los 
Angeles  hearing  on  February  18,  1948.  Pridinoff  is  an  engineer,  and 
was  formerly  employed  by  the  United  States  Government  as  an  eco- 
nomic officer  at  the  American  Embassy  in  Belgrade,  Yugoslavia.  He 
testified  at  length  as  to  Communist  activities  in  Yugoslavia,  and  of  the 
terrorist  activities  utilized  by  the  Communists  in  taking  over  that  coun- 
try. Pridinoff  speaks  Russian  fluently  and  has  a  working  knowledge  of 
the  Yugoslav  language.  He  stated  that  he  had  traveled  about  20,000 
miles  throughout  the  country  and  had  met  many  Soviet  officers.  On 
occasion  he  had  had  conversations  with  officers  in  the  Soviet  secret  police. 
He  stated  that  some  of  these  officers  had  managed  to  break  away  from 
the  Soviet  government  and  had  found  their  way  into  Italy  and  into  the 
American  zone  in  Africa.  He  watched  the  Communist  dictatorship 
develop  in  Yugoslavia  and  chronicled  its  brutality,  strategy  and  activi- 
ties. He  stated  that  the  Communist  government  officially  stated  that ' '  all 
those  who  are  not  for  us  are  against  us,  and  we  must  do  away  with 
them.  We  must  exterminate  the  reactionary  rats." 

Mr.  Pridinoff 's  testimony  was  extremely  interesting  and  informa- 
tive and  the  committee  regrets  that  lack  of  space  prohibits  his  testimony 
from  being  published  fully  in  this  report. 

When  asked  whether  the  Yugoslav  government,  Tito,  or  Josef 
Stalin,  would  establish  a  committee  to  investigate  "  subversive  activi- 
ties in  their  countries,  or  would  they  just  shoot  the  suspects  and  investi- 
gate afterward, ' '  Mr.  Pridinoff  replied  as  follows : 

"In  fact  they  said  so.  This  is  an  interesting  fact.  One  of  the 
Ministers  for  Finance,  Mr.  Judevich,  said  in  the  Yugoslav  con- 
trolled press,  'When  you  see  a  person  who  is  in  opposition  to  our 
regime,  or  a  capitalist,  grab  him.  Don't  wait  for  justice.  Grab  him 
and  get  rid  of  him. '  An  official  in  Yugoslavia  said  so  and  the  official 
press  repeated  it.  So  you  can  figure  out  the  rest  of  it  yourself." 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  141 

AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  TO  AID  SOVIET  RUSSIA 

One  of  the  many  Communist  front  organizations  for  propagan- 
dizing in  behalf  of  the  Soviet  Union,  this  type  of  Communist  front  is 
among  the  earliest  instigated  by  the  Communist  International  and  its 
affiliated  Communist  Parties. 

The  American  Committee  to  Aid  Soviet  Russia  appears  to  be  active 
in  Los  Angeles  County  and  is  probably  a  committee  of  the  local  branch 
of  one  of  the  larger  Soviet  admiration  societies.  The  address  of  the 
committee  is  615  South  Virgil  Avenue,  Los  Angeles,  and  the  telephone 
number  is  FA  4290.  A  regular  meeting  of  the  organization  was 
announced  for  January  30,  1947,  at  8.30  p.m.  and  for  May  29,  1947,  at 
8.30  p.m.  at  the  committee's  headquarters  on  Virgil  Avenue. 

Minna  Rosenhouse  signs  one  notice  as  ' '  Corresponding  Secretary ' ' 
and  Sam  Gardner  signs  another  as  "Chairman." 


AMERICAN  COMMITTEE  TO  SAVE  REFUGEES 

This  is  a  Communist  front  operating  in  the  Communist  refugee 
field.  (See  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  Exiled  Wnters  Com- 
mittee, United  American  Spanish  Aid  Committee,  Spanish  Refugee 
Appeal,  etc.) 

Among  the  well  known  supporters  of  Communist-front  organiza- 
tions who  lent  their  names  to  the  American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees 
are  the  following :  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  Franz  Boas,  Franklin  Folsom, 
Annette  Rubinstein,  Margaret  Schlauch,  Peter  Shipka,  Edgar  Snow, 
Lillian  Hellman,  Kyle  Crichton  (alias  Robert  Forsythe),  William  E. 
Dodd,  Jr.,  Dan  Gillmor,  Dashiell  Hammett,  Corliss  Lamont,  Rockwell 
Kent,  Ruth  McKenney,  Clifford  Odets,  George  Seldes,  Herman  Shumlin, 
Henry  E.  Sigerist,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  Dudley  Nichols,  Adolph  Dehn, 
William  Gropper,  Joe  Jones,  Richard  Wright,  and  Lily  Turner. 

AMERICAN  COMMUNICATIONS  ASSOCIATION— CIO 

This  Congress  of  Industrial  Organization's  affiliate,  the  American 
Communications  Association,  has  been  Communist  dominated  from  the 
start.  Its  president,  Joseph  Selly,  endorsed  the  infamous  Communist 
front,  the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  as  did  the  organization's  vice 
president,  James  D.  Benson.  Josephine  Timms,  secretary-treasurer,  also 
supported  this  Communist  front  for  assistance  to  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact. 
Jack  Winocur,  secretary,  and  Mervyn  Rathborne  of  the  American  Com- 
munications Association,  also  endorsed  the  American  Peace  Mobiliza- 
tion. Daniel  Driesen,  international  representative  of  the  American 
Communications  Association,  was  affiliated  with  the  Communist  front, 
the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties,  as  was  the  organi- 
zation's  president,  Joseph  P.  Selly.  Mervyn  Rathborne  was  affiliated 
with  the  Communist  front  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy. 

(See  previous  Committee  Reports  and  index  of  this  Report). 

AMERICAN  FEDERATED  RUSSIAN  FAMINE  RELIEF  COMMITTEE 

This  front  came  into  being  during  the  middle  of  September,  1921, 
upon  the  initiative  of  the  American  representative  of  the  Russian  Red 


142  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Cross,  acting  under  mandate  from  its  general  headquarters  in  Moscow, 
through  D.  H.  Dubrowsky. 

The  provisional  executive  committee  of  this  organization  included 
the  following  individuals  connected  with  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia : 
Allan  S.  Broms,  A.  Bittleman,  Jacob  W.  Hartman,  Ludwig  Lore,  and 
Louis  Engdahl. 

According  to  Dubrowsky,  this  committee  actually  endeavored  to 
send  substantial  relief  to  Russia  but  was  sabotaged  by  the  Friends  of 
Soviet  Russia,  whose  methods  he  described  as  follows :  ' '  My  own  under- 
standing was  that  possibly  90  cents  of  each  and  every  dollar  collected 
went  to  the  Communist  Party,  with  the  relief  be  damned. ' ' 

AMERICAN  FRIENDS  OF  THE  CHINESE  PEOPLE 

This  red  front  falls  under  the  general  heading  of  Pro-Communist 
Chinese  Front  organizations.  The  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese 
People  was  organized  to  support  the  Chinese  Communist  thrust  against 
the  National  Chinese  Government.  Closely  cooperating  with  this  Com- 
munist group  were  Theatre  Arts  Committee,  League  of  Women  Shop- 
pers, American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  Medical  Bureau  for 
Spain,  Progressive  Women's  Council,  International  Workers  Order, 
Workers  Alliance,  and  the  International  Labor  Defense. 

The  Communist  International  has  always  been  deeply  interested  in 
developments  in  China.  It  looks  upon  the  revolutionary  movement  in 
China  as  an  ally  of  the  Russian  revolution  and  a  bulwark  against  attack 
upon  the  Soviet  Union.  Manuilsky  declared  that  "revolutionary  China 
*  *  *  can  become,  in  alliance  with  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  the  greatest  world 
factor  in  far  eastern  politics  *  *  *  In  alliance  with  the  world  proletariat, 
with  its  vanguard — the  Communist  world  party,  China  shall  and  will 
become  the  guardian  of  peace,  the  fighter  against  imperialist  wars  on 
the  Pacific. " 

The  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States  together  with  its  various 
auxiliary  front  organizations,  in  carrying  out  the  line  laid  down  by 
the  Communist  International  on  China,  has  passed  through  various  stages 
in  accordance  with  the  variations  in  the  relations  between  the  Soviet 
Union  and  the  Government  of  China.  These  activities,  while  proclaimed 
as  being  in  behalf  of  the  Chinese  people,  were  at  all  times  dictated  by 
the  current  exigencies  of  Soviet  diplomacy. 

From  1924  to  1927  there  existed  a  period  of  cooperation  between 
the  Kuomintang  under  Chiang  Kai-shek  and  the  Communist  Interna- 
tional. The  official  organ  of  the  Communist  International  for  February 
28,  1927,  established  the  current  line : 

' '  In  order  to  mobilize  all  the  reserves  of  the  international  revo- 
lutionary movement,  it  is  necessary  to  carry  out,  with  the  speed 
commensurate  with  the  exceptional  importance  of  the  matter,  the 
united  front  under  the  slogan  *  Hands  Off  China'  *  *  *." 

Following  this  directive  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States 
launched  a  flood  of ' '  Hands  Off  China ' '  committees.  The  Fourth  National 
Convention  of  the  Communist  Party  held  in  Chicago,  August  21-30, 
1925,  announced  that  "a  large  number  of  'Hands  Off  China'  meetings" 
had  been  held  throughout  the  country  and  that  "a  special  feature  of 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  143 

these  meetings"  was  the  Communist  maneuver  in  connecting  them  with 
"the  slogan  'Stand  by  Soviet  Eussia!'  : 

Heading  the  "Hands  off  China"  movement  was  Manuel  Gomez, 
secretary  of  the  All- America  Anti-Imperialist  League.  Gomez  was  a 
delegate  to  the  Sixth  Congress  of  the  Communist  International  and  a 
member  of  the  central  executive  committee  of  the  Communist  Party  of 
the  United  States. 

After  Chiang  Kai-shek's  attack  upon  the  Communist  Party  of 
China  in  1927,  there  was  little  activity  for  a  few  years  by  American 
Communist  fronts  in  behalf  of  China.  Subsidiary  to  the  Trade  Union 
Unity  League  was  the  Committee  to  Aid  Chinese  Trade  Unions,  headed 
by  Robert  W.  Dunn,  secretary,  96  Fifth  Avenue,  Room  314,  New  York 
City,  located  in  the  same  building  as  the  Trade  Union  Unity  League. 

The  national  executive  committee  of  the  International  Labor  Defense 
called  upon  its  members  to  rouse  "the  whole  organization  in  support 
of  the  oppressed  masses,  especially  in  aid  of  the  rising  revolutionary 
struggles  in  the  colonial  and  semicolonial  countries,"  such  as  China 
(Labor  Defender,  September,  1930).  The  relief  aspect  was  heavily 
stressed  in  order  to  elicit  the  most  sympathetic  response. 

The  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People  was  launched  January  4,  1933, 
to  specialize  in  work  in  the  Chinese  field.  In  January,  1934,  the  magazine 
China  Today  made  its  first  appearance.  The  word  "American"  was 
added  to  the  organization's  name  in  1935  as  part  of  the  general  stream- 
lining process  during  the  Popular  Front  period.  J.  W.  Phillips,  Hansu 
Chan,  and  Frederick  Spencer,  were  co-editors  of  China  Today. 

Waldo  Frank  laid  down  the  current  Communist  line  in  the  Decem- 
ber, 1934,  issue  of  China  Today,  protesting  "against  American  and  Euro- 
pean aid  for  Chiang  Kai-shek."  The  united  front  of  the  democracies 
against  the  Fascist  aggressors,  adopted  by  the  Communist  International 
after  1935,  saw  the  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People  in  a  typical 
Communist  * '  about  face. ' '  China  Today  now  started  screaming  for  ' '  col- 
lective security"  and  declared  that  "neutrality  leads  straight  to  war" 
and  deplored  the  * '  twilight  of  isolation. ' ' 

This  period  was  marked  by  friendliness  between  the  government  of 
Chiang  Kai-shek  and  the  Communists.  The  February,  1939,  issue  of 
China  Today  published  an  article  entitled  ' '  Two  Fathers  of  Their  Coun- 
tries, ' '  dealing  with  George  Washington  and  Chiang  Kai-shek. 

The  Stalin-Hitler  pact  in  August,  1939,  was  the  signal  for  another 
reversal  of  Communist  policy  in  its  Chinese  fronts.  The  American  Friends 
of  the  Chinese  People  and  its  collaborating  organizations  became  vigor- 
ously anti-war,  isolationist  and  anti-administration. 

The  Washington  Committee  for  Aid  to  China  (Washington,  D.  C.) 
followed  the  line  laid  down  by  the  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese 
People.  China  Aid  News,  the  official  organ  of  the  Washington  Committee 
to  Aid  China,  in  reporting  the  speech  of  Frederick  V.  Field,  stated : 

"Mr.  Field,  editor  of  Amerasia,  charged  that  American  interest 
had  been  indistinguishable  from  the  interest  of  a  strong  imperialist 
power.  *  *  *  Field  urged  aid  to  China  and  the  withdrawal  of  aid 
from  England.  *  *  *  In  conclusion  he  proposed  *  *  full  coop- 
eration with  the  Soviet  Union. ' ' 


144  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

In  China  Today  for  May,  1941,  T.  A.  Bisson  wrote : 

"In  concluding  this  agreement  with  Japan,  as  in  its  earlier 
pact  with  Germany,  the  Soviet  Union  joins  neither  of  the  opposing 
coalitions  into  which  the  world  has  been  divided.  *  *  *  The  Soviet- 
German  pact  of  August,  1939,  was  a  logical  result  of  the  course 
taken  by  British  diplomacy  in  Europe  during  the  immediately  pre- 
ceding years.  Similarly,  the  Soviet-Japanese  pact  of  April,  1941,  is 
the  logical  outcome  of  British  and  American  policy  in  the  Far  East 
since  1937.  *  *  *  The  Soviet  Union  chose  to  stay  out  of  what  is 
considered  an  imperialist  war. ' ' 

In  April  of  1941  the  Communists  adopted  a  new  attitude  toward 
Chiang  Kai-shek,  raising  the  cry  of  national  unity  in  China.  Chiang  had 
formed  an  "Anti-Communist  Northwest  Military  Council. "  Other  Com- 
munist front  organizations  joined  the  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese 
People  in  its  campaign  of  pressure  upon  the  Chinese  Government. 

Following  Hitler's  invasion  of  Russia  in  June,  1941,  the  American 
Friends  of  the  Chinese  People  followed  the  other  Communist  fronts  in 
an  about-face  in  favor  of  war. 

A  leaflet  in  the  files  of  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  in  California  states,  in  part : 

"Who  are  the  American  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People?  They 
are  all  those  Americans,  of  diverse  racial  and  national  origins  and 
of  various  political  affiliations,  who  see  that  our  duty  to  Americanism 
is  a  duty  to  the  people  of  China  in  their  present  need.  The  organ- 
ization was  begun  in  this  country  in  1932,  with  headquarters  in 
New  York.  It  now  has  branches  in  Chicago,  Los  Angeles,  and  Phila- 
delphia, as  well  as  in  San  Francisco. 

"It  is  international  in  character  in  that  similar  organizations 
exist  in  other  countries,  although  there  is  no  organizational  con- 
nection between  the  national  groups.  Thus,  there  is,  in  England,  the 
English  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People;  in  Canada,  the  Canadian 
Friends  of  the  Chinese  People ;  in  Mexico,  the  Mexican  Friends  of 
the  Chinese  People,  and  in  France,  the  French  Friends  of  the  Chi- 
nese People. 

' '  The  San  Francisco  Branch  was  set  up  formally  in  a  meeting 
at  the  Far  East  Cafe,  December  10, 1937,  when  officers  were  elected, 
and  the  group  lost  no  time  in  setting  into  motion  detailed  plans  for 
the  realization  of  their  objectives. ' ' 

The  sponsors  of  the  San  Francisco  branch  of  the  American  Friends 
of  the  Chinese  People  are  listed  as  follows :  Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  Albert 
Bender,  Samuel  Boardman,  Prof.  Robert  Brady,  Prof.  Arthur  G. 
Brodeur,  Dr.  Adelaide  Brown,  Beniamino  Buf ano,  Mrs.  Selah  Chamber- 
lain, Prof.  Haakon  M.  Chevalier,  Prof.  Ralph  Chaney,  Dr.  Margaret 
Chung,  Dr.  Collin  Dong,  Dr.  Ludwig  A.  Emge,  Dr.  Harold  Faber,  Prof. 
Harold  M.  Fisher,  Mrs.  Mortimer  Fleishhacker,  Jr.,  B.  S.  Fong,  Mrs. 
Lawrence  Harris,  Rev.  Herrick  Lane,  Thomas  Lew,  Rev.  Lee  S.  Hong, 
Dean  C.  N.  Lewis,  Miss  Elizabeth  Livermore,  Mrs.  Horatio  Livermore, 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Howard  Markel,  Dr.  Bertha  Monroe,  Mrs.  Mark  McDonald, 
Prof.  J.  R.  Oppenheimer,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Silas  Palmer,  Bishop  Edward  L. 
Parsons,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bruce  Porter,  Prof.  Max  Radin,  Dr.  Aurelia 
Reinhardt,  Lee  F.  Randolph,  Prof.  Frank  M.  Russell,  Prof.  Chic  Pelsha, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  145 

Miss  Else  Schilling,  Prof.  John  S.  P.  Tatlock,  Dr.  B.  B.  Towne,  Rev. 
Dillon  W.  Throckmorton,  Prof.  B.  C.  Wong,  Rev.  Daniel  G.  C.  Wu,  Mrs. 
Warren  Gregory,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Russell  Selfridge,  Mrs.  James  Ellis 
Tucker,  and  Mrs.  Edwin  R.  Sheldon.  Prof.  Alexander  Kaun  is  listed  as 
the  San  Francisco  branch  chairman. 

The  San  Francisco  headquarters  is  listed  as  628  Montgomery  Street, 
Room  431,  telephone  EXbrook  5961. 

AMERICAN  FRIENDS  OF  CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

This  front  organization  became  active  in  June  of  1944.  Its  head- 
quarters is  located  at  8  West  40th  Street  in  New  York  City,  and  the 
organization  is  under  the  leadership  of  William  J.  Schieffelin.  It  has  a 
connecting  link  with  various  other  alien  Communist  fronts  through  Dr. 
Frank  Kingdon. 

AMERICAN  FRIENDS  OF  THE  SOVIET  UNION 

(See  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union.) 

AMERICAN  FUND  FOR  PUBLIC  SERVICE 

This  fund  was  established  by  Charles  Garland,  the  son  of  James  A. 
Garland.  He  established  the  fund  in  1922  with  $900,000.  The  fund  grew 
to  $2,000,000. 

Among  the  board  of  directors  who  handed  out  the  money  to  left- 
wing  organizations  are  Sidney  Hillman,  Roger  N.  Baldwin,  William  Z. 
Foster,  Lewis  Gannett,  James  Weldon  Johnson,  Robert  Morss  Lovett, 
Scott  Nearing,  Mary  E.  McDowell,  Judah  L.  Magnes,  Norman  Thomas, 
Harry  F.  Ward,  Morris  Ernest,  and  Walter  Nelles. 

Some  of  the  beneficiaries  of  the  American  Fund  for  Public  Service 
are  as  follows :  the  Daily  Worker,  New  Masses,  Vanguard  Press,  Feder- 
ated Press,  Russian  Reconstruction  Farms,  International  Labor  Defense, 
Commonwealth  College,  International  Publishers,  Workers  Library  Pub- 
lishers, Young  Worker's  League  (the  Young  Communist  League,  now 
American  Youth  for  Democracy),  All- America  Anti-Imperialist  League, 
Trade  Union  Unity  League,  Labor  Research  Association,  Novymir, 
League  for  Mutual  Aid,  and  Manumit  School. 

AMERICAN  JEWISH  CONGRESS 

On  the  national  level  this  organization  has  enjoyed  a  clean  bill  of 
health.  In  1936  the  American  Jewish  Congress  and  the  World  Jewish 
Congress  refused  to  admit  to  their  organizations  such  Communist- 
dominated  groups  as  the  International  Workers  Order  and  the  Icor. 
This  refusal  gave  rise  to  the  Communist  inspired  and  dominated  Jewish 
People's  Committee. 

In  California,  and  particularly  in  the  Southern  California  Division, 
there  has  apparently  been  a  quiet  Communist  infiltration  into  the  Amer- 
ican Jewish  Congress.  The  laudable  efforts  to  screen  Communists  on  the 
national  level  has  not  been  noticeable  in  the  organization's  activities  in 
Southern  California. 

Rabbi  Franklin  Cohn,  Pacific  Coast  Vice  President  of  the  American 
Jewish  Congress,  addressing  the  Southern  California  regional  convention 

11— L-7088-D 


146  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

of  the  organization  in  the  Biltmore  Hotel  (February  7  and  8,  1948), 
declared:  "If  the  United  States  Government  continues  to  fight  the 
United  Nations'  decision  on  Palestine  by  back-door  methods,  then  I  am 
afraid  that  in  two  months.'  time  the  United  Nations  will  have  gone  the 
way  of  the  League  of  Nations. ' ' 

Resolutions  adopted  by  this  convention  of  the  American  Jewish 
Congress  indicates  the  organizations '  adherence  to  the  Communist  Party 
line.  The  convention  went  on  record  against  loyalty  checks  for  federal 
and  governmental  employees  and  called  for  the  abolition  of  the  Thomas 
Congressional  Committee  and  the  Tenney  State  Legislative  Committee 
investigating  un-American  Activities. 

Dr.  Stephen  S.  Wise  is  the  National  President  of  the  American 
Jewish  Congress.  He  has  a  long  record  of  Communist  front  affiliations. 
Harry  Bauman  is  the  Chairman  of  the  Administrative  Committee.  Max 
P.  Ponder,  is  treasurer,  Paul  D.  Gatov,  financial  secretary,  and  Mrs. 
Paul  D.  Gatov  is  the  secretary.  Judge  Ben  Eosenthal  is  the  president  of 
the  Southern  California  Division.  The  vice  presidents  are  Alfred  L. 
Buckman,  Max  Lipin,  Mrs.  Fred  C.  Pollock,  Myer  Pransky,  and  Mrs. 
Monte  Salvin.  Mrs.  Fred  C.  Pollock  is  the  president  of  the  Women's 
Division ;  Beatrice  Fishier,  president  of  the  Youth  Division,  and  Myer 
Pransky,  president  of  the  Men's  Division.  Dr.  Max  Nussbaum  is  the 
President  of  the  Pacific  Coast  Region,  and  Mel  Springer  is  the  Executive 
Director. 

The  convention  committee  for  the  February  7  and  8, 1948  meet  is  as 
follows:  Max  Lipin,  Chairman;  Bella  Bruch,  Secretary;  and  Freda 
Colen,  Henry  Corby,  Beatrice  Fishier,  Jean  Freeman,  Paul  Gatov,  Elsie 
Jacobson,  Morris  Leibovitz,  Evelyn  Robbins,  Herschel  Rosenthal,  Aaron 
Rothblatt,  Carl  Weiner,  and  Mannie  Williams,  Commit ee  Members. 

Among  those  who  participated  in  the  convention  are  the  following : 
Daniel  G.  Marshall,  Loren  Miller,  Mrs.  Fred  C.  Pollock,  William  Strong, 
Marguerite  Weiss,  Nita  Blackwell,  Leon  Clifton,  Eleanor  Grennard, 
Charles  J.  Katz,  Milton  Tyre,  Philip  Connelly,  Mrs.  Emanuel  Kotkin, 
Dr.  Franklin  Fearing,  Jaime  Gonzalez-Monroy,  Fred  Herzberg,  Mrs. 
Milton  Harris,  Wellesley  Aron,  Rabbi  Jehudah  M.  Cohen,  and  Mrs. 
Phyllis  Ziffren. 

The  notorious  Communist  fellow-traveler,  Carey  Me  Williams,  spoke 
under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Jewish  Congress  February  16,  1948, 
before  the  San  Fernando  Valley  Chapter. 

Chapter  chairman  of  the  American  Jewish  Committee  in  the  files 
of  the  Senate  Committee  include  the  following:  Mrs.  Ed  Harris,  Mrs 
Freda  Colen,  Mrs.  Joseph  Glass,  Mrs.  Dora  Katkin,  Mrs.  Jack  Drum, 
Mrs.  Joseph  Dixon,  Mrs.  Ann  Loewer,  Mrs.  Marci  Adelman,  Mrs.  Leon 
Brod,  Mrs.  Flor  Diamond,  Mrs.  Bessie  Goldstein,  Mrs.  Jack  Notrica,  Mrs. 
Bess  Goldman,  Mrs.  Sydney  Cutler,  Mrs.  Ira  Lesser,  Morris  Abraham, 
and  Alfred  Buckman. 

The  mailing  lists  of  Communists  fronts  in  Southern  California,  taken 
from  a  master  list  in  the  possession  of  the  Communist  Party,  include  the 
above  list  of  Chapter  chairman  of  the  American  Jewish  Committee. 

Dr.  Stephen  S.  Wise  has  been  identified  with  the  following  Com- 
munist front  organizations:  Allied  Voters  Against  Coudert,  American 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  147 

Friends  of  Spanish  Democracy,  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democ- 
racy, Boycott  Japanese  Goods  Conference,  Russian  War  Relief,  Com- 
mittee for  a  Boycott  Against  Japanese  Aggression,  Committee  to  Save 
Spain  and  China,  Coordinating  Committee  to  Lift  the  Embargo,  Con- 
ference on  Pan  American  Democracy,  China  Today  Mass  Meeting. 
National  Reception  Committee  to  the  Russian  Delegation,  New  York 
Tom  Mooney  Committee,  and  the  Medical  Bureau  to  Aid  Spanish 
Democracy. 

Judge  Ben  Rosenthal  of  the  Municipal  Court  of  Los  Angeles  is  a 
former  Assemblyman  who  has  supported  many  Communist-front  causes. 
In  1940  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Communist  Aubrey  Grossman  (at  that  time 
in  Stockton  defending  individuals  who  were  being  tried  for  contempt  of 
the  Yorty  Committee  investigating  subversive  activities  in  the  State 
Relief  Administration)  attacking  the  Yorty  Committee  as  an  instrument 
for  ' '  smearing ' '  Governor  Olson  and  ' '  busting  trade  unions. ' '  The  West- 
ern Worker  (now  the  People's  Daily  World),  for  July  1,  1937,  lists 
Rosenthal  as  a  sponsor  of  the  Los  Angeles  Friends  of  the  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  Battalion.  The  same  Communist  paper  for  October 
14,  1937,  reports  Rosenthal  working  for  the  repeal  of  the  Criminal 
Syndicalism  Act.  People's  Daily  World  for  January  1,  1938,  lists  Rosen- 
thai  as  an  endorser  of  the  successor  to  the  Western  Worker,  the  People's 
Daily  World.  In  1939  he  appears  on  the  letterhead  of  the  Harry  Bridges 
Defense  Committee  as  a  sponsor.  The  People's  Daily  World  for  August 
30,  1941,  lists  Rosenthal  as  a  sponsor  for  a  state-wide  conference  on 
civil  rights  in  San  Francisco,  September  27, 1941,  to  protest  the  ' '  Tenney 
Committee"  and  the  "Tenney  Bill  Outlawing  the  Communist  Party." 
In  1947  Rosenthal  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Olympic  Auditorium  manage- 
ment protesting  the  management's  refusal  to  rent  its  building  to  the 
Communist  Party  for  a  William  Z.  Foster  rally. 

Rabbi  Max  Nussbaum  has  been  associated  with  a  number  of  Com- 
munist causes.  He  sponsored  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy's 
(Young  Communist  League)  "Salute  to  Young  America"  dinner  at 
the  Ambassador  Hotel  in  Los  Angeles,  December  16,  1945,  and  presented 
an  award  to  Frank  Sinatra  at  the  '  *  Welcome  Home  Joe ' '  dinner  on  the 
occasion  of  the  second  anniversary  of  the  same  Communist  organization. 
He  was  a  speaker  at  the  Communist  Down  Town  Forum,  September  4, 
1944.  He  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Communist  Citizens  Committee  to  Aid 
Locked-Out  Hearst  Employees  in  1946. 

Daniel  G.  Marshall  is  the  chairman  of  the  Catholic  Inter-Racial 
Council.  He  was  vice  chairman  of  the  Southern  California  Committee  for 
State  FEPC.  He  spoke  under  the  auspices  of  the  Progressive  Citizens 
of  America,  1947.  He  was  listed  on  the  letterhead  of  the  Citizens  Com- 
mittee to  Aid  Locked-Out  Hearst  Employees.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Communist  inspired  and  dominated  National  Lawyers  Guild. 

Loren  Miller  is  a  Los  Angeles  negro  attorney.  He  formerly  wrote 
for  the  Communist  publication,  New  Masses.  He  was  formerly  associated 
with  the  Communist  John  Reed  Club  of  Hollywood.  He  attended  the 
Western  Writers  Congress  in  1936.  He  was  a  member  of  the  executive 
board  of  the  Los  Angeles  Chapter  of  the  National  Lawyers  Guild.  In 
1941  he  was  one  of  the  sponsors  for  a  state-wide  conference  on  civil  rights 
in  San  Francisco  to  protest  the  ' '  Tenney  Committee ' '  and  the  ' '  Tenney 


148  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Bill  Outlawing  the  Communist  Party. ' '  He  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Ameri- 
can Youth  Congress  in  1935  at  the  organization  meeting  held  under  the 
name  of  the  Southern  California  Youth  Congress,  together  with  Leo 
Gallagher,  Sam  Darcy,  Dr.  Herbert  Alexander,  and  Prof.  S.  M.  Wixman. 
(Holther  Report,  p.  58).  Miller  was  a  member  of  the  National  Negro 
Congress,  together  with  Tom  Mooney,  Matt  Crawford,  Langston  Hughes, 
and  Myra  Page.  He  is  a  member  of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Pro- 
gressive Citizens  of  America,  and  the  Hollywood  Arts,  Sciences  and  Pro- 
fessions Council  of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  conference  on 
"thought  control,"  July  9  to  13,  1947.  ("Thought  control"  is  the  Com- 
munist line  to  combat  exposure  of  Communist  activity.)  Miller  also 
served  on  a  committee  of  the  Communist  front,  Mobilization  for  Democ- 
racy. 

Leon  Clifton  was  a  speaker  in  October  of  1947  at  a  meeting  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Communist  newsletter  In  Fact,  written  and  published 
by  George  Seldes. 

Eleanor  Grennard  is  the  wife  of  Elliot  Grennard,  contributor  to  the 
Communist  New  Masses,  and  former  music  editor  and  critic  for  Bill- 
board. Eleanor  Grennard  was  a  member  of  Federal  Workers  Local  No. 
245,  CIO.  In  1946  she  was  employed  by  the  Office  of  Price  Administra- 
tion at  1031  South  Broadway  in  Los  Angeles  and  was  an  organizer  for 
the  CIO  Public  Employees  Union,  which  included  the  federal  workers. 
The  Grennard  automobile  has  been  checked  by  committee  investigators 
at  the  Danish  Auditorium  (July,  1945)  during  the  Southern  District 
Communist  Political  Association  Convention  and  at  the  Los  Angeles 
County  Communist  Party  convention  held  at  Park  Manor,  2200  West 
Seventh  Street,  Los  Angeles,  September,  1945.  Both  Eleanor  and  Elliot 
Grennard  were  transfered  to  the  Los  Angeles  County  Communist  Party 
in  October,  1945,  from  a  New  York  Communist  Party  unit  in  New  York. 
Elliot  Grennard  was  an  instructor  at  the  Communist  Party's  Peoples 
Educational  Center  for  the  winter  term  of  1947. 

The  Communist  record  of  Charles  J.  Katz  is  too  long  to  be  repro- 
duced here.  The  reader  is  referred  to  the  former  reports  of  the  Legisla- 
tive Committees  on  un-American  Activities  and  to  the  index  of  this 
report. 

Milton  S.  Tyre  is  an  attorney  and  a  member  of  the  Communist  firm 
headed  by  Communist  Leo  Gallagher.  On  May  18,  1942,  Tyre  signed  a 
telegram  addressed  to  President  Roosevelt  congratulating  him  for 
releasing  Earl  Browder,  Secretary  General  of  the  Communist  Party  of 
the  United  States.  During  1944  Tyre  was  a  guest  lecturer  on  "Wartime 
Trade  Union  Problems"  at  the  Communist  Party's  People's  Educa- 
tional Center.  He  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Communist  front,  the  American 
Committee  for  Spanish  Freedom.  On  March  5,  1945,  Tyre  addressed  the 
Communist  Downtown  Forum.  During  1947  he  was  an  instructor  at  the 
People's  Educational  Center.  In  March  of  1947  Tyre  appeared  as  an 
attorney  for  a  radio  group  of  Communists  and  Communist  fellow- 
travelers  before  the  Federal  Radio  Commissioner.  Tj^re  opposed  the 
continuation  of  the  Tenney  Committee  in  June  of  1947. 

Philip  M.  Connelly's  long  record  of  supporting  Communist  causes 
is  detailed  in  former  committee  reports  and  throughout  this  report. 
(See  index.) 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  149 

Franklin  Fearing  has  carried  on  a  rather  frenzied  activity  in  sup- 
port of  Communist  causes.  The  reader  is  referred  to  the  index  of  this 
report  and  to  previous  legislative  committee  reports. 

Rabbi  Jehudah  M.  Cohen  is  listed  on  the  letterhead  of  the  Committee 
to  Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out  of  War  as  a  sponsor  in  1940.  This 
Communist  front  was  one  of  the  organizations  created  for  the  purpose 
of  assisting  Hitler  during  his  pact  with  Stalin. 

Aaron  Rothblatt  signed  a  Communist  Party  petition  to  participate 
in  the  primary  election  in  Los  Angeles  for  August  28,  1934.  He  gave  his 
address  as  1244  Tremaine  Avenue,  Los  Angeles.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Los  Angeles  Emergency  Committee  to  Aid  the  Strikers  (Hollywood 
Independent  Citizens  Committee  on  the  Arts,  Sciences  and  Profes- 
sions). Rothblatt  sponsored  the  "Salute  to  Young  America"  dinner 
given  by  American  Youth  for  Democracy  (Young  Communist  League) 
December  16,  1945,  at  the  Ambassador  Hotel  in  Los  Angeles. 

Miss  Marguerite  R.  Weiss,  legislative  chairman  of  the  Women 's 
Division  of  the  American  Jewish  Congress,  spoke  on  the  evening  of 
February  7,  1948,  in  the  panel  on  " Legislative  Action."  Miss  Weiss 
declared  that  the  goal  of  the  American  Jewish  Congress  was  that  of  a 
political  action  group  to  fight  "anti-racial  attitudes"  and  for  a  fair 
employment  act.  She  stated  that  the  Legislative  Committees  investigating 
un-American  activities  in  California  and  the  nation  must  be  abolished. 
She  condemned  the  "Tenneys  and  the  Thomas'  "  and  County  loyalty 
checks. 

Miss  Nita  Blackwell,  former  secretary  of  the  National  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Colored  People  also  spoke.  She  stated  that  the 
150,000  Negroes  who  had  recently  come  to  Los  Angeles  were  being 
"crowded  into  filthy  ghettos"  and  that  there  had  been  numerous  com- 
plaints of  "police  brutality  and  cruelty  toward  minorities." 

Milton  S.  Tyre  of  the  National  Lawyer's  Guild  utilized  most  of  his 
energy  in  attacking  the  committees  investigating  un-American  activities, 
following  the  Communist  Party  line  in  referring  to  the  Washington 
Committee  as  the  "  Rankin-Thomas  Committee."  He  stated  that  such 
committees  were  the  Jews'  greatest  threat  and  that  such  committees 
operate  by  "intimidation."  He  stated  that  the  purpose  of  both  the 
Thomas  and  Tenney  Committee  is  to  create  a  black-list. 

The  officers  elected  for  1948  are  as  follows :  Judge  Ben  Rosenthal, 
Chairman ;  Mrs.  Murray  Vruch,  Louis  Colen,  Alfred  L.  Buckman,  Max 
Lipin,  Mrs.  Fred  C.  Pollock,  Meyer  Pransky,  and  Miss  Marguerite  Weiss, 
Vice  Presidents;  Victor  Menacker,  Treasurer;  Paul  D.  Gatov,  Financial 
Secretary ;  and  Mrs.  Paul  D.  Gatov,  Secretary. 

AMERICAN  LEAGUE  AGAINST  WAR  AND  FASCISM 

(See  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy.) 

AMERICAN  LEAGUE  FOR  PEACE  AND  DEMOCRACY 

This  Communist  organization  has  been  frequently  referred  to  in 
the  committee's  previous  reports. 

The  Amsterdam  World  Congress  Against  War  was  held  in  Holland 
in  August,  1932,  under  the  direction  of  the  Communist  International. 
The  well-known  French  Communist  Henri  Barbusse  chairmaned  the 


150  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

conference.  (This  meeting  is  sometimes  referred  to  as  the  World  Con- 
gress Against  War.) 

The  American  Committee  for  Struggle  Against  War  was  a  direct 
result  of  the  Amsterdam  Congress. 

A  National  Organizing  Committee  of  the  First  United  States  Con- 
gress Against  War  met  throughout  the  summer  of  1933  and  planned 
the  transition  from  the  American  Committee  for  Struggle  Against  War 
to  the  United  States  Congress  Against  War  and  the  American  League 
Against  War  and  Fascism.  The  United  States  Congress  Against  War 
was  held  in  New  York  City  September  29  to  October  1,  1933.  The  Ameri- 
can League  Against  War  and  Fascism  was  founded  at  the  United  States 
Congress  Against  War. 

The  Peoples  Congress  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  meeting  in  Pitts- 
burgh in  November  1937,  spawned  the  American  League  for  Peace  and 
Democracy.  It  is  significant  that  the  Canadian  League  Against  War  and 
Fascism  almost  simultaneously  became  the  Canadian  League  for  Peace 
and  Democracy. 

The  Communist  International  magazine  for  January,  1933,  page  78, 
declares:  "Our  most  successful  application  of  the  United  Front  has 
been  in  the  antiwar  and  anti-Fascism  movement.  We  led  a  highly  suc- 
cessful U.  S.  Congress  Against  War  *  *  *  which  brought  together  2,616 
delegates  from  all  over  the  country.  *  *  *  The  Congress  set  up  a 
permanent  organization  on  '  federative  basis  called  the  American  League 
Against  War  and  Fascism'." 

The  antiwar  aspect  of  Communist  front  organizations  is  effective 
bait  for  peace-loving  Americans.  Many  good  intentioned  Americans 
were  " involved "  in  the  "peace"  and  "democracy"  fronts,  accepting 
the  purported  objectives  at  face  value.  Although  the  chairman  of  the 
Senate  Committee  never  joined  the  American  League  for  Peace  and 
Democracy,  he  was  elected  notwithstanding,  to  the  National  Executive 
Board.  Under  date  of  October  28,  1939,  Chairman  Tenney  wrote  to  the 
secretary  of  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  in  part, 
as  follows: 

«*  *  *  Recent  developments  have  convinced  me  that  the  Com- 
munists in  America  are  using  such  organizations  as  the  league  solely 
for  the  purpose  of  translating  the  foreign  policy  of  Russia  into  action 
in  our  country,  and  in  most  cases  the  peace  they  desire  is  determined 
by  the  foreign  office  in  Moscow.  I  am  likewise  convinced  that  these 
people,  in  their  vociferous  cry  for  democracy,  use  these  processes  to 
the  end  that  democracy  shall  be  destroyed. ' ' 

The  Stalin-Hitler  pact  brought  sudden  exposure  and  consternation 
to  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  as  it  did  to  many 
other  Communist  fronts  and  it  went  out  of  existence  in  February  of 
1940.  Its  hard-bitten  Communists  and  fellow-travelers  carried  on,  how- 
ever, in  such  new  fronts  as  the  Committee  to  Defend  America  by  Keep- 
ing Out  of  War,  the  Emergency  Peace  Mobilization,  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization,  and  the  American  People's  Mobilization. 

The  American  Peace  Mobilization  is  the  name  given  to  this  front 
by  the  Emergency  Peace  Mobilization  at  its  Labor  Day  week-end  meeting 
held  in  Chicago  in  1940.  It  was  founded  to  give  expression  to  the  Com- 
munist line  on  foreign  policy  which  grew  out  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  151 

It  will  be  recalled  that  the  American  Communists  changed  overnight 
on  June  22,  1941,  from  extreme  isolationists  to  equally  extreme  "war- 
mongers" when  the  news  broke  that  Hitler  had  double-crossed  Stalin 
by  invading  Russia. 

During  its  existence  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy 
organized  subsidiary  groups  such  as  the  China  Aid  Council,  the  National 
People  Committee  Against  Hearst,  and  the  Refugee  Scholarship  and 
Peace  Campaign. 

Among  those  who  have  been  prominent  in  the  American  League 
for  Peace  and  Democracy  and  its  subsidiary  organizations  are  Francis 
J.  McConnell,  Reinhold  Niebuhr,  Reid  Robinson,  Frederick  L.  Schuman, 
James  Waterman  Wise,  Catherine  Bauer,  Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  John 
D.  Butkovich,  James  B.  Carey,  Joseph  Curran,  Sherman  H.  Dalrymple, 
Max  Lerner,  Paul  Robeson,  S.  Stephenson  Smith,  Channing  H.  Tobias, 
and  A.  F.  Whitney. 

Others  who  have  been  affiliated  in  one  capacity  or  another  with  the 
American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  or  one  or  more  of  its  sub- 
sidiary organizations,  are  as  follows :  Roger  Baldwin,  William  Dodd,  Jr., 
Jules  Garfield,  Sam  Jaffe,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Tookie  Hunter,  Margaret 
Waller,  Den  Davis,  Jr.,  William  Gropper,  Louis  B.  Boudin,  Max  R. 
Cohen,  Granville  Hicks,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  T.  A.  Bisson,  Charles  J. 
Hendley,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  John  H.  Melish,  Benjamin  Busch,  Mrs. 
Corliss  Lamont,  Eleanor  Brannan,  Harry  F.  Ward,  Ann  McNear,  Jane 
Swanhuyser,  Henry  N.  Wienman,  Lewis  Alan  Berne,  Ben  Gold,  Muriel 
Draper,  Abram  Flaxer,  Frances  Farmer,  Alain  Locke,  Leane  Zugsmith, 
Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Wanda  Gag,  Lewis  Mumford,  Vito  Marcantonio, 
Kyle  Crichton,  Rex  Ingram,  Philip  Loeb,  Ella  Winter,  Anton  Refregier, 
Robert  W.  Dunn,  Earl  Browder,  Rockwell  Kent,  Yasuo  Kuniyoshi, 
Kenneth  Born,  Charles  W.  Burton,  Sophinisba  Breckinridge,  Alfred 
Kamin,  Harvey  0  'Connor,  Paul  Rosenthal,  Oliver  Haskell,  Edgar  Snow, 
Dr.  Frank  Baker,  Frank  Graham,  Eduard  C.  Lindeman,  Rev.  A.  Clayton 
Powell,  Jr.,  A.  Philip  Randolph,  Mrs.  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Dr.  Max 
Yergan,  Anna  H.  Rubir,  Mrs.  Victor  I.  Berger,  Margaret  Forsyth, 
Sherwood  Anderson,  Melvyn  Douglas,  Prof,  Franz  Boas,  Congressman 
John  M.  Coffee,  Jerome  Davis,  John  P.  Davis,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Miguel 
Garriga,  Donald  Henderson,  Joseph  P.  Lash,  David  Lasser,  Lewis 
Merrill,  Morris  Muster,  Samuel  Ornitz,  Mervyn  Rathborne,  Viola 
Brothers  Shore,  Nancy  Cox,  Jane  Field,  Ruth  Wanger,  Otto  Weber,  Dr. 
Henry  E.  Sigerist,  Gertrude  Steele,  Mrs.  Foley  Grossman,  Morris  Katz, 
Charles  Preston,  Aaron  Wool,  Russell  Thayer,  Regina  Rakoczy,  Dorothy 
McConnell,  Alice  Barrows,  Sophia  Pressman,  Edward  Huberman,  Israel 
Amter,  Katherine  Terrill,  Malcolm  Cowley,  Elmer  Rice,  Prof.  Robert 
Brady,  Joseph  Cadden,  Rev.  Dale  DeWitt,  Clarence  Hathaway,  Robert 
W.  Kenny,  Harry  C.  Lamberton,  Prof.  Oliver  Larkin,  Mrs.  Samuel 
Ornitz,  Prof.  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  Herman  Shumlin.  Morris  Watson, 
Harry  Graham  Baiter,  John  Stapp,  George  A.  Coe,  A.  A.  Heller,  Ella 
Reeve  Bloor,  Joseph  R.  Brodsky,  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Joseph  Freeman, 
Lillian  Furness,  Joseph  Gardner,  Kate  Crane  Gartz,  Michael  Gold, 
Joshua  Kunitz,  Corliss  Lamont,  Lincoln  Steffens,  Bruce  Bliven,  Prof.  H. 
P.  Fairchild,  Clarence  Hathaway,  Carol  King,  Freda  Kirchwey,  Prof. 
Colston  E.  Warne,  Frank  Spencer,  Rev.  Guy  Emery  Shipler,  Helen  R. 


152  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Bryan,  Caroline  O'Day,  Lillian  Hellman,  Rabbi  Michael  Alper,  Rabbi 
Samuel  M.  Cohen,  Katherine  Mclnerny,  and  Frank  Tuttle. 

The  Los  Angeles  branch  of  the  American  League  for  Peace  and 
Democracy  held  a  congress  December  10th  and  llth,  1938,  at  the  Royal 
Palms  Hotel,  360  South  Westlake,  Los  Angeles.  This  "congress"  was 
endorsed  by  Salomon  de  la  Selva,  Hugh  Wilkins,  Prof.  Harry  Steinmetz, 
Dr.  Eric  Beecroft,  Augustus  Hawkins,  Prof.  George  M.  Day,  Viola 
Brothers  Shore,  Kate  Crane  Gartz,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Dudley 
Nichols,  Cedric  Belfrage,  Roy  Donnelly,  Mrs.  Jessie  Terry,  Ella  Winter, 
Samson  Lindauer,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Guy  Endore,  Melvyn  Douglas, 
Don  Healy,  Rabbi  Jacob  Kohn,  Rev.  Floyd  J.  Seaman,  Rev.  E.  P.  Ryland, 
Floyd  Covington,  Amelia  Richie,  Harry  Graham  Baiter,  Prof.  George  H. 
Coe,  Irving  Pichel,  Samuel  Ornitz,  and  Judge  Robert  W.  Kenny. 

Samson  A.  Lindauer,  who  was  affiliated  with  the  American  League 
for  Peace  and  Democracy,  is  the  president  of  the  Los  Angeles  City 
Civil  Service  Commission.  His  Communist  sympathies  are  indicated  by 
his  attack  on  the  Los  Angeles  County  Board  of  Supervisors'  ordinance 
in  reference  to  loyalty  check  for  Los  Angeles  County  employees. 

Samuel  Ornitz,  whose  name  appears  as  an  endorser  of  the  American 
League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  has  a  long  Communist  record.  Louis 
J.  Russell  testified  before  the  Thomas  Committee  in  Washington,  D.  C., 
October  29,  1947,  that  Samuel  Ornitz  held  Communist  Party  Card  No. 
47181  in  1944.  Russell  further  testified  that  the  card  contained  a  notation 
"1944,  Card  No.  41826."  The  address  appearing  on  the  card  was  1044 
South  Redondo,  Los  Angeles.  A  further  notation  stated  that  "New  Card 
issued  on  December  2,  1944." 

Samuel  Ornitz '  record  appears  at  page  406  of  the  Thomas  Committee 
Report  and  corroborates  the  information  contained  in  the  Senate  Fact- 
Finding  Committee's  files.  It  is  as  follows: 

There  is  no  evidence  of  any  open  admission  of  Communist  Party 
membership  by  Samuel  Ornitz.  However,  Rena  M.  Vala,  a  former  member 
of  the  Communist  Party,  has  cited  Samuel  Ornitz  as  a  fellow  member  in 
her  affidavit  dated  November  23,  1942,  according  to  the  1943  report  of 
the  California  Joint  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities. 
Miss  Vale  said  that  in  1935  "Samuel  Ornitz  identified  himself  to  me  as 
a  Communist  Party  member  and  discussed  at  considerable  length  the 
intentions  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Hollywood  and  especially  in  rela- 
tion to  the  motion-picture  industry"  (p. 123). 

Testimony  of  Ivan  Francis  Cox,  former  member  of  the  Communist 
Party,  before  the  California  Superior  Court  on  December  8,  1937, 
reflects  also  that  Samuel  Ornitz  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party. 
The  California  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  has 
listed  Samuel  Ornitz  as  a  financial  contributor  to  the  Communist  Party 
as  of  August  15,  and  September  11, 1940,  according  to  testimony  received 
in  that  committee.  Testimony  presented  by  George  Oliver  Bertholon. 
former  member  of  the  Communist  Party  and  Young  Communist  League, 
before  an  executive  session  of  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  (vol.  3,  p.  1161,  executive  hearings)  reflects  that  Mrs.  Samuel 
(Sadie)  Ornitz  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  and  that  her  son, 
Donald  Raymond  Ornitz,  was  a  member  of  the  Young  Communist  League. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  153 

According  to  Communist  standards,  party  members  are  not  sup- 
posed to  have  even  personal  relations  with  those  who  are  hostile  to  the 
party. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  September  14,  1932,  page  1,  listed  Samuel 
Ornitz  as  a  signer  of  "A  Call  for  Support  of  the  Communist  Party 
Candidates  for  President  and  Vice  President,  William  Z.  Foster  and 
James  W.  Ford/ ' 

In  a  pamphlet  entitled  ' '  Culture  and  the  Crisis, ' '  on  page  32,  Samuel 
Ornitz  is  again  listed  as  a  member  of  the  League  of  Professional  Groups 
for  Foster  and  Ford.  In  the  presidential  campaign  of  1936,  an  official 
letterhead  of  the  Committee  of  Professional  Groups  for  Browder  and 
Ford,  dated  September  24,  1936,  carries  the  name  of  Samuel  Ornitz  as 
a  member.  Earl  Browder  was  at  that  time  Communist  candidate  for 
President  and  James  Ford  was  the  Communist  candidate  for  Vice  Presi- 
dent. The  Daily  Worker  on  March  5,  1941,  page  2,  carried  a  statement 
directed  to  President  Roosevelt  in  defense  of  the  Communist  Party. 
Samuel  Ornitz  is  shown  as  a  signer  of  this  statement. 

Leo  Gallagher  has  been  a  candidate  for  Secretary  of  State  and  other 
offices  on  the  Communist  Party  ticket  in  California.  Samuel  Ornitz  is 
shown  as  an  active  participant  in  a  dinner  in  behalf  of  Leo  Gallagher, 
according  to  the  People's  World  of  June  4,  1941.  This  was  during  the 
period  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  June  25,  1936,  page  2,  lists  Tom  Mooney  as  a 
member  of  the  honorary  presidium  of  the  Communist  Party.  His  case 
was  the  center  of  world-wide  Communist  agitation.  The  Daily  Worker 
of  March  23,  1933,  lists  Samuel  Ornitz  as  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  in  behalf 
of  Tom  Mooney  held  in  San  Francisco.  The  testimony  presented  in  a 
California  court  on  October  3,  1940,  reflects  that  Mr.  Ornitz  wrote  the 
dramatic  skit  for  this  case. 

The  People's  World  for  April  3,  1945,  contained  an  article  headed 
"Memorial  started  for  Eva  Shafran — Education  Foundation  will  serve 
Los  Angeles  labor,  progressives."  The  article  stated  that  "Plans  for  the 
organization  of  an  Eva  Shafran  Educational  Foundation  as  the  best 
means  of  honoring  Eva  Shafran  and  carrying  on  the  work  of  progres- 
sive education  to  which  she  devoted  her  life  were  made  public  here  today. 
Samuel  Ornitz,  noted  writer  and  lecturer,  is  chairman  of  the  foundation. " 
Eva  Shafran  was  a  well-known  member  of  the  Communist  Party. 

The  People's  Daily  World  is  the  official  west  coast  organ  of  the 
Communist  Party.  In  its  issue  of  July  9,  1943,  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  as  one 
who  "enthusiastically  sponsored  and  endorsed  a  call  for  a  fund  drive," 
in  behalf  of  this  paper.  This  Communist  paper  organized  what  was 
known  as  the  Hollywood  Forum,  held  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium  dur- 
ing the  week  of  April  2,  1946,  according  to  People's  World,  March  26, 
1946.  Ornitz  was  a  speaker  of  this  forum. 

The  workers  bookshops  are  part  of  a  chain  of  official  Communist 
book  shops  scattered  all  over  the  country.  According  to  the  Daily  Worker 
of  August  28,  1934,  Mr.  Ornitz'  works  have  been  on  sale  at  the  Workers 
Bookshops  in  San  Francisco.  It  should  be  noted,  at  this  point,  that  Com- 
munist book  shops  do  not  promote  hostile  literature.  At  this  time,  Mr. 
Ornitz  was  a  signer  of  a  protest  to  the  Governor  of  California  and  the 
Mayor  of  San  Francisco,  in  defense  of  the  Workers  Bookshops,  according 
to  the  Daily  Worker  for  August  28, 1934,  page  5. 


154  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy  was  formed  by  the 
Communist  Party  prior  to  the  period  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact.  Accord- 
ing to  former  Attorney  General  Biddle,  this  organization  was  "estab- 
lished in  the  United  States  in  an  effort  to  create  public  sentiment  in  behalf 
of  a  foreign  policy  adapted  to  the  interest  of  the  Soviet  Union"  (Con- 
gressional Record,  September  24,  1942).  At  that  time  this  policy  called 
for  the  support  of  the  democracies  against  the  Fascist  aggressors  in  line 
with  current  Communist  policies.  This  organization  was  also  cited  as  a 
Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
on  January  3,  1940,  June  25,  1942,  and  March  29,  1944.  A  letterhead 
dated  January  6-8, 1939,  of  the  American  Congress  for  Peace  and  Democ- 
racy, organized  by  the  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy, 
shows  Mr.  Ornitz  as  an  endorser. 

Mr.  Ornitz  was  also  a  speaker  for  the  Los  Angeles  branch  of  this 
organization  at  a  meeting  held  on  September  28, 1938,  at  the  Los  Angeles 
Trinity  Auditorium.  According  to  the  People's  World  of  July  8,  1938, 
page  1,  he  was  scheduled  to  speak  at  another  Los  Angeles  meeting  of  this 
organization  in  behalf  of  Spanish  refugees.  The  People's  World  of  Sep- 
tember 27,  1938,  also  lists  him  as  a  speaker  for  the  American  League  for 
Peace  and  Democracy  in  Los  Angeles. 

The  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy  was  succeeded  by 
the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  after  the  signing  of  the  Stalin-Hitler 
pact.  According  to  former  Attorney  General  Biddle,  this  organization 
was  engaged  in  "  picketing  the  White  House,  which  began  in  April,  1941, 
in  protest  against  lend-lease  and  the  entire  national  defense  program. 
This  picket  line  was  suddenly  called  off  on  the  afternoon  of  June  21, 
1941,  when  Hitler  was  opening  his  attack  on  the  Soviet  Union"  (Con- 
gressional Record,  September  24,  1942). 

This  organization  has  also  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the 
Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  March  29,  1944. 
According  to  the  Daily  Worker  of  April  24,  1941,  page  7,  Mr.  Ornitz  was 
a  leader  of  this  organization.  The  American  Peace  Mobilization  launched 
what  it  called  the  American  Peace  Crusade.  According  to  the  New 
Masses  of  August  6,  1940,  page  23,  Mr.  Ornitz  was  the  head  of  a 
Speakers '  School  of  the  Hollywood  Peace  Forum,  in  connection  with  this 
crusade.  Again  the  People's  World  of  April  19,  1940,  lists  Mr.  Ornitz  as 
a  speaker  at  the  Hollywood  Peace  Forum.  This  meeting  was  sponsored  by 
the  Hollywood  League  for  Democratic  Action,  under  the  title  ' '  Can  Our 
Ballots  Stop  Bullets?"  He  is  also  listed  by  the  People's  World  of  July  3, 
1940,  as  a  speaker  at  the  Hollywood  Peace  Forum  with  Herbert  Biberman 
at  the  Embassy  Auditorium.  Both  Biberman  and  Ornitz  were  leading 
members  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization.  On  June  8,  1940,  Mr. 
Ornitz  was  a  speaker  of  a  so-called  peace  assembly,  held  on  the  steps  of 
the  Los  Angeles  City  Hall,  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization  and  the  American  Peace  Crusade.  Mr.  Ornitz  also  spoke  at 
the  Hollywood  Peace  Forum,  held  at  the  First  Unitarian  Church  at  Los 
Angeles  on  May  31,  1940. 

He  was  also  a  speaker  and  a  committee  member  of  the  American 
Peace  Crusade  meeting  held  at  Los  Angeles  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium, 
on  June  21,  1940.  He  presented  a  radio  address  over  Station  KFVD,  on 
June  5,  1940,  to  supplement  the  campaign  of  the  American  Peace 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  155 

Mobilization.  He  spoke  at  the  Hollywood  Town  Meeting  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Hollywood  Peace  Forum  on  June  21,  1940.  He  also  sent 
greetings  to  the  meeting  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  held  in 
Chicago,  August  31  to  September  2,  1940.  Mr.  Ornitz  was  a  member  of 
the  resolutions  committee  at  the  Chicago  meeting  of  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization. 

The  People's  World  of  January  23,  1940,  page  5,  and  February  8, 
1940,  page  5,  lists  him  as  the  speaker  at  various  so-called  peace  meetings 
held  in  Hollywood  and  Los  Angeles. 

Samuel  Ornitz  himself  admitted  he  helped  organize  the  American 
Peace  Crusade,  according  to  an  article  by  Ornitz  appearing  in  the  New 
Masses  for  August  27,  1940,  page  12. 

The  antiwar  stand  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  was  dras- 
tically altered  when  Hitler  attacked  the  Soviet  Union  on  June  22,  1941. 
The  People's  World  dated  July  7,  1941,  page  3,  quoted  Tom  Cullen, 
executive  secretary  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  as  saying: 
"The  invasion  of  the  Soviet  Union  has  altered  the  character  of  the 
present  war  *  *  *."  The  newspaper  also  stated  that  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization  would  hold  a  mass  meeting  on  July  14,  1941,  at 
the  Philharmonic  Auditorium  at  which  the  new  policy  of  the  APM 
and  a  program  to  aid  the  defeat  of  Hitlerism  would  be  presented.  That 
Samuel  Ornitz  went  along  with  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  in  its 
sudden  twist  is  evidenced  by  the  same  newspaper  article  which  stated 
that  Ornitz  would  be  one  of  the  speakers  at  the  aforementioned  mass 
meeting. 

The  International  Labor  Defense,  American  section  of  the  Inter- 
national Red  Aid,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow,  has  been  cited  by  former 
Attorney  General  Biddle  as  the  "legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party " 
(Congressional  Record,  September  24,  1942). 

It  has  been  cited  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activi- 
ties as  a  Communist  front  on  June  25,  1942,  and  March  29, 1944. 

Its  chief  interest  was  the  defense  of  Communist  cases.  According 
to  a  1937  letterhead  of  the  International  Labor  Defense,  Mr.  Ornitz 
was  a  member  of  its  advisory  board.  He  was  also  a  member  of  its  national 
committee.  Equal  Justice,  official  organ  of  the  International  Labor 
Defense,  for  May,  1940,  page  7,  carries  the  greetings  of  Samuel  Ornitz. 

Closely  associated  with  the  International  Labor  Defense,  and 
similar  in  its  purposes,  was  the  National  Committee  for  the  Defense 
of  Political  Prisoners.  This  organization  has  been  cited  by  Attorney 
General  Biddle  as  "substantially  equivalent  to  International  Labor 
Defense,  the  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party. " 

It  has  defended  such  prominent  Communists  as  Angelo  Herndon, 
William  Schneiderman,  and  Earl  Browder  (Congressional  Record, 
September  24,  1942).  It  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the 
Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  June  25,  1942,  and 
March  29,  1944.  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  as  a  member  of  this  committee  on 
its  letterhead  dated  October  31,  1935. 

The  National  Committee  for  People 's  Rights  was  a  successor  organ- 
ization to  the  National  Committee  for  the  Defense  of  Political  Prisoners. 
According  to  Attorney  General  Biddle,  "In  January,  1938,  the  name 


156  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

was  changed  to  the  National  Committee  for  People's  Rights"  (Con- 
gressional Record,  September  24,  1942).  This  committee  has  been  cited 
as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activi- 
ties on  March  29,  1944,  and  June  25,  1942.  According  to  the  official 
organ  of  the  National  Committee  for  People's  Rights,  entitled  "News 
You  Don't  Get, "  for  November  15, 1938,  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  as  a  member. 

The  criminal  syndicalism  laws  of  the  various  states  have  been  bit- 
terly fought  by  the  Communist  Party  because  they  are  directed  chiefly 
against  their  machinations.  According  to  the  New  Masses,  of  December 
1931,  page  30,  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  as  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  held  at  the 
Star  Casino  in  New  York,  on  December  6,  1931,  to  fight  the  "vicious 
criminal-syndicalism  law  of  Kentucky." 

The  campaign  in  behalf  of  the  Scottsboro  boys  was  conducted  chiefly 
by  the  International  Labor  Defense,  described  above.  According  to  the 
Western  Worker,  official  Communist  organ  of  July  13,  1936,  Mr.  Ornitz 
was  a  participant  at  a  benefit  in  behalf  of  the  campaign  for  the  Scotts- 
boro boys,  who  had  previously  been  convicted.  This  benefit  affair  was  held 
at  Club  Alabama  in  Los  Angeles. 

World-wide  condemnation  accompanied  the  so-called  Moscow  trials, 
which  were  used  by  the  Soviet  Regime  to  eliminate  all  its  critics.  These 
trials  were  universally  held  to  be  a  travesty  of  justice.  According  to  Soviet 
Russia  Today,  of  March,  1937,  pages  14  and  15,  Mr.  Ornitz  was  a  signer 
of  an  open  letter  to  American  liberals,  defending  these  trials.  A  similar 
statement  appeared  in  the  Daily  Worker  of  April  28, 1938,  page  4,  as  "A 
Statement  of  American  Progressives  on  the  Moscow  Trials." 

Mr.  Ornitz  again  was  listed  as  a  signer. 

Leon  Trotsky  was  a  Soviet  official  who  broke  with  Stalin  and  sought 
asylum  in  Mexico.  According  to  the  Western  Worker,  a  west-coast  edition 
of  the  Daily  Worker,  dated  March  1,  1937,  Samuel  Ornitz  was  one  of  the 
51  persons  who  signed  an  open  letter  criticizing  the  American  Committee 
for  the  Defense  of  Trotsky.  The  open  letter  also  denounced  demands  for 
investigation  of  the  Russian  "purge"  trial  as  political  interference  in 
the  internal  affairs  of  the  Soviet  Union  with  hostile  intent. 

International  Literature  is  the  official  organ  of  the  International 
Union  of  Revolutionary  Writers,  which  had  its  headquarters  in  Moscow. 
International  Literature,  No.  7,  dated  July,  1938,  page  105,  listed  a  group 
of  individuals  who  were  signers  to  a  "Statement  of  American  Intel- 
lectuals." 

The  statement  voiced  approval  of  the  attempt  of  the  Soviet  Union  to 
preserve  and  extend  its  gains  and  strength  by  the  then  recent  Moscow 
trials,  and  it  supported  efforts  of  the  Soviet  Union  to  "free  itself  from 
insidious  internal  dangers."  Samuel  Ornitz  was  listed  as  one  of  the 
signers  of  this  statement. 

In  August,  1943,  a  committee  was  organized  for  a  reception  for  Prof. 
S.  Michoels  and  Col.  I.  Feffer,  members  of  the  first  official  Soviet  Jewish 
delegation  to  the  United  States.  According  to  the  Peoples  World  of 
August  9,  1943,  page  3,  Samuel  Ornitz  was  a  member  of  the  national 
reception  committee  for  these  men. 

New  Masses  is  an  official  Communist  weekly  which  has  been  cited  as 
a  Communist  periodical  by  former  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  157 

(Congressional  Eecord,  September  24,  1942).  It  was  also  cited  as  a  Com- 
munist magazine  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
on  June  24,  1942,  and  March  29,  1944.  Samuel  Ornitz  has  contributed  to 
New  Masses,  as  evidenced  by  the  issues  of  the  publication  dated  Decem- 
ber 1931,  page  4;  October  1931,  page  3;  August  27,  1940,  page  12;  and 
August  12,  1941,  page  19.  It  is  an  accepted  Communist  practice  to  limit 
the  use  of  the  columns  of  its  publications  to  persons  who  toe  the  party  line. 

The  Zukas-SCMWA  Committee  was  organized  in  defense  of  B. 
Joseph  Zukas,  who  was  a  Communist  leader  of  the  State,  County,  and 
Municipal  Workers  in  the  California  Relief  Administration,  whose  activ- 
ities were  under  investigation  by  a  California  State  Assembly  committee 
in  1940.  According  to  the  letterhead  of  this  committee,  dated  July  15, 
1940,  Mr.  Ornitz  was  a  sponsor. 

The  Morning  Freiheit  is  the  official  Communist  organ  in  the  Jewish 
language.  The  Peoples  World  of  October  18, 1943,  page  3,  lists  Mr.  Ornitz 
as  vice  chairman  of  the  Los  Angeles  Chapter  of  the  Morning  Freiheit 
Association. 

The  Peoples  World  for  April  16,  1947,  reported  that  Paul  Novick, 
Editor-in-Chief  of  the  Morning  Freiheit,  New  York  City,  would  speak 
on  April  19, 1947,  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium,  Ninth  and  Grand  Streets, 
in  celebration  of  the  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  Freiheit.  The  article 
further  stated  that  Samuel  Ornitz,  "President  of  the  Freiheit  Asso- 
ciation, Los  Angeles,"  and  Harry  Daniels,  Legislative  Director  of  the 
Communist  Party,  would  also  speak  at  the  celebration. 

Acting  in  accordance  with  the  instructions  of  the  Seventh  Congress 
of  the  Communist  International  issued  in  the  summer  of  1935,  the  Com- 
munist Party  conducted  an  -active  campaign  in  behalf  of  the  Spanish 
Communists  during  the  Spanish  Civil  War.  At  a  meeting  held  at  the 
Shrine  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  on  February  24,  1937,  Mr.  Ornitz 
contributed  toward  a  fund  in  support  of  these  efforts. 

The  Abraham  Lincoln  Battalion  (Brigade)  was  a  military  organi- 
zation recruited  by  the  Communist  Party  for  the  purpose  of  giving  mili- 
tary aid  to  the  Spanish  Communists. 

Earl'Browder,  former  Executive  Secretary  of  the  Communist  Party 
has  admitted  that  60  percent  of  its  corps  were  members  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  by  the  Peoples  World  of  July  19, 1938, 
as  a  speaker  for  an  organization  known  as  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade. 

The  Peoples  World  of  July  30,  1938,  page  3,  lists  him  as  a  speaker 
in  honor  of  Harry  Hynes  and  Virgil  Rhetta,  who  were  both  members  of 
the  Communist  Party,  killed  in  action  with  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Bat- 
talion. The  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  cited  as  a  Com- 
munist front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on 
March  29,  1944,  as  is  also  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  or  Battalion. 
The  League  of  American  Writers  was  the  American  affiliate  of  the 
International  Union  of  Revolutionary  Writers,  with  headquarters  in 
Moscow.  It  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  on  January  3,  1940,  June  25,  1942, 
and  March  29,  1944. 

It  has  also  been  cited  as  under  Communist  auspices  by  Attorney- 
General  Biddle  in  the  Congressional  Eecord  of  September  24,  1942. 


158  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  organization  has  been  pledged  to  the  defense  of  the  Soviet  Union 
and  "use  of  art  as  an  instrument  of  the  class  struggle. "  Mr.  Ornitz  is 
listed  by  the  Daily  Worker  of  January  18,  1935,  page  5,  as  a  signer  of 
the  call  for  the  Congress  of  American  Revolutionary  Writers,  which 
founded  the  League  of  American  Writers. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  September  14,  1942,  page  7,  lists  Mr.  Ornitz 
as  a  signer  of  a  statement  issued  by  the  League  of  American  Writers 
demanding  the  opening  of  a  second  front.  This  statement  was  issued 
after  Hitler's  attack  on  Stalin  and  the  change  of  the  Communist  Party 
line  from  antiwar  to  prowar. 

Samuel  Ornitz  also  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  call  to  the  fourth 
congress,  held  by  the  League  of  American  Writers  in  New  York  City, 
June  6-8,  1941. 

The  Writers  Congress  held  October  1,  2,  3,  1943,  was  organized 
by  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization,  as  successor  to  the  Hollywood 
Chapter  of  the  League  of  American  Writers.  On  the  official  program  of 
the  Writers  Congress,  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  as  a  member  of  the  panel  of 
minority  groups. 

The  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  was  founded  as  a  frankly  pro- 
Communist  group  as  a  result  of  a  split  in  the  Independent  Citizens 
Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions,  after  Harold  L.  Ickes 
and  other  liberals  had  condemned  the  Independent  Citizens  Committee 
as  Communist  dominated.  Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  by  the  Daily  Worker  of 
July  5,  1947,  page  11,  as  a  participant  in  the  conference  of  the  Holly- 
wood Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions  Council  of  the  Progressive  Citizens 
of  America.  The  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  has  been  cited  by  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  as  a  Communist  front  in  its  report 
on  June  12,  1947. 

The  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  was  founded  by  Isaac  Romaine, 
alias  V.  J.  Jerome,  member  of  the  Central  Committee  of  the  Communist 
Party.  It  was  dissolved  upon  the  signing  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact.  Accord- 
ing to  the  Hollywood  Now  of  June  16,  1939,  official  organ  of  the  League, 
Mr.  Ornitz  is  listed  as  a  member  who  was  active  since  the  organization 
was  founded.  According  to  the  People's  World  of  August  11,  1938,  page 
1,  he  was  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  which  founded  the  organization.  Holly- 
wood Now  of  September  28, 1938,  again  lists  him  as  a  speaker. 

The  International  Workers  Order  was  cited  by  Attorney  General 
Biddle  as  "one  of  the  strongest  Communist  organizations "  (Congres- 
sional Record,  September  24,  1942).  The  Special  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities  has  cited  this  organization  as  a  Communist  front 
on  January  3,  1940,  and  June  25,  1942.  The  organization  has  actively 
supported  Communist  campaigns,  candidates,  and  the  Communist  Party 
press. 

On  February  4,  1940,  Mr.  Ornitz  was  the  principal  speaker  at  a 
meeting  of  the  International  Workers  Order,  held  at  972  North  Hobart 
Boulevard,  Los  Angeles. 

Again,  the  People's  World  of  June  4,  1943,  page  2,  lists  him  as  a 
speaker  under  the  auspices  of  the  Franz  Boas  Lodge  of  the  International 
Workers  Order  in  Los  Angeles.  The  People's  World  of  November  16, 
1943,  page  2,  mentions  Mr.  Ornitz  as  a  speaker  at  a  meeting  held  on 
November  22,  1943,  at  Carpenters  Hall,  5164  Santa  Monica  Boulevard, 
Los  Angeles. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  159 

The  Hollywood  League  for  Democratic  Action  cooperated  with  the 
Hollywood  Peace  Forum  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  Wilshire-Ebell  Audi- 
torium on  May  3, 1940.  Mr.  Ornitz  was  a  speaker.  The  Hollywood  League 
for  Democratic  Action  was  the  predecessor  of  the  Hollywood  branch  of 
the  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Pro- 
fessions, which  is  *  lentioned  above. 

The  American  Student  Union  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front 
by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  January  3, 1940, 
June  25, 1942,  and  March  29, 1944.  The  Rapp-Coudert  committee  investi- 
gating Communist  activities  in  the  New  York  public  schools  has  cited  this 
as  an  organization  ' '  for  transmitting  the  aims  and  programs  of  which  the 
Young  Communist  League  is  the  initiating  and  projecting  element." 

Mr.  Ornitz  was  one  of  the  principal  instructors  of  the  American 
Student  Union  camp  held  in  the  San  Bernardino  Mountains  from 
August  18  to  25,  1940. 

The  Workers  International  Relief  was  an  international  organiza- 
tion, with  headquarters  in  Moscow,  which  raised  funds  for  Communist- 
led  strikes  and  campaigns  throughout  the  world.  It  was  closely  associated 
with  the  International  Labor  Defense.  According  to  the  Daily  Worker 
of  May  8,  1934,  Mr.  Ornitz  was  the  chairman  of  an  open-forum  meeting, 
held  in  Los  Angeles  on  April  15,  1934,  in  behalf  of  the  Workers  Inter- 
national Relief. 

According  to  People's  World  of  January  21,  1940,  Mr.  Ornitz  was 
a  sponsor  for  the  Conference  for  Democratic  Action  held  at  Fresno, 
California.  This  organization  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by 
the  California  Joint  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
in  its  report  for  1943,  page  91.  It  is  closely  linked  to  the  Hollywood 
League  for  Democratic  Action  cited  above. 

Actors  Laboratory  is  a  training  school  for  actors  in  Hollywood 
whose  officers  have  lengthy  records  of  Communist-front  activity  as 
evidenced  in  attached  reports;  such  officers  include  Roman  Bohnen, 
chairman;  Larry  Parks,  treasurer;  Morris  Carnovsky,  Jules  Dassin', 
Edward  Dmytryk,  members  of  the  executive  board. 

The  organization  cooperated  with  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobiliza- 
tion which  has  been  described  above.  An  undated  leaflet  of  the  Actors 
Laboratory  Theatre,  entitled  "An  Evening  for  the  Lab."  lists  Samuel 
Ornitz  and  his  wife  as  ' '  audience  sponsors. ' ' 

The  Motion  Picture  Artists  Committee  was  an  affiliate  of  the  North 
American  Committee  to  Aid  Spanish  Democracy,  which  was  also  part 
of  the  campaign  to  aid  Spanish  Communists.  The  North  American  Com- 
mittee was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  on  January  3,  1940,  and  March  29,  1944,  and 
by  Prof.  John  Dewey's  Committee  for  Cultural  Freedom  in  April,  1940. 
The  Motion  Picture  Artists  Committee  was  led  by  William  Gropper, 
well-known  cartoonist  for  the  Communist  press,  and  Kyle  Crichton, 
alias  Robert  Forsythe,  a  frequent  contributor  to  New  Masses.  Samuel 
Ornitz  was  a  member  of  the  Motion  Picture  Artists  Committee,  according 
to  Who's  Who  in  America,  volume  20  (1938-39,  page  1904). 


160  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

AMERICAN  PEACE  CRUSADE 

The  American  Peace  Crusade  was  organized  by  the  Communists  in 
California  in  preparation  for  the  national  gathering,  which  became 
known  as  the  American  Peace  Mobilization.  Its  purpose  was  the  creation 
of  an  organization  to  put  the  terms  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  into  effect 
in  the  United  States. 

Kate  Crane-Gartz,  wealthy  benefactor  of  Communist  causes,  sent 
a  letter  to  President  Roosevelt  on  May  18,  1940,  protesting  against  the 
building  of  more  warships.  Her  letter  was  reprinted  by  the  Pasadena 
Council,  American  Peace  Crusade,  Ralph  Cheney,  coordinator,  urging 
cooperation. 

On  June  8,  1940,  the  American  Peace  Crusade  held  a  meeting  on 
the  steps  of  the  City  Hall  in  Los  Angeles,  after  which  an  estimated 
crowd  of  around  20,000  marched  to  the  Olympic  Auditorium.  The  follow- 
ing Communist  front  organizations  and  individuals  sponsored  this  meet- 
ing :  Los  Angeles  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations,  Industrial  Union 
Council,  the  California  Youth  Legislature,  the  Hollywood  Peace  Forum, 
Labor's  Non-Partisan  League,  the  National  League  Conference,  Work- 
ers '  Alliance  of  America,  Joseph  Curran  for  the  National  Maritime  Union, 
Theodore  Dreiser,  Jack  McMichael  for  the  American  Youth  Congress, 
Louis  Goldblatt,  secretary  of  the  California  State  Congress  of  Industrial 
Organizations  Industrial  Union  Council,  and  Herbert  Biberman. 

The  American  Peace  Crusade  denounced  the  Burke- Wadsworth 
conscription  bill  as  marking  * '  military  rule,  the  end  of  free  speech ' '  and 
'  *  some  of  the  things  fascism  means. ' ' 

The  official  organ  of  the  American  Peace  Crusade  was  the  Age  of 
Treason. 

A  leaflet  of  the  American  Peace  Crusade  entitled  " Think  Clearly!" 
listed  the  officers  of  the  organization  as  Herbert  Biberman,  Carey  Me  Wil- 
liams, Mrs.  Mary  Aidlin,  Maynard  Hamilton,  Dr.  Morris  Feder,  Rev.  Carl 
Allen,  Herb  Sorrell,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Mrs.  Lee  Bachelis,  Rev.  Hamil- 
ton Boswell,  Don  Healey  and  Ernest  Dawson. 

The  frenzy  with  which  the  Communists  attempted  to  organize  the 
American  Peace  Crusade  is  indicated  by  the  following  mimeographed 
leaflet : 

"Information  for  Peace  Crusaders 

"(1)  The  one  big  job  for  every  Peace  Crusader  during  the 
coming  nine  days  is  to  help  organize  the  first  meeting  of  the  County 
Crusade  Council.  This  meeting  will  be  held  on  Tuesday,  June  18th, 
at  8  p.m.  at  the  First  Unitarian  Church,  2936  W.  Eighth  Street  (near 
Vermont). 

1 '  (2)  First  of  all,  we  have  the  task  of  getting  all  possible  organi- 
zations to  elect  delegates  to  the  Council  meeting.  All  types  of  organi- 
zations— trade-union,  cultural,  fraternal,  church,  sport,  Negro, 
youth,  women,  veterans,  Mexican,  etc. — should  elect  delegates.  Each 
city-wide  operation  and  each  local  or  branch  of  that  organization, 
should  be  urged  to  elect  from  one  to  three  delegates,  depending  on 
its  size.  (Enclosed  is  a  copy  of  a  call  for  delegates  to  the  County 
Council  meeting.  This  call  should  be  brought  on  the  floor  of  every 
organization  possible. ) 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  161 

11  (3)  The  second  main  task  for  the  coming  nine  days  is  to  start 
as  many  Crusade  Clubs  as  possible.  Starting  such  a  club  is  simple. 
It  merely  requires  that  you  get  together  five  or  more  of  your  shop 
mates,  or  fellow  employees,  or  friends,  or  relatives,  or  neighbors, 
who  agree  to  work  for  the  cause  of  peace  along  the  lines  of  the 
American  Peace  Crusade.  Each  club  set  up  is  entitled  to  send  one 
delegate  to  the  County  Council. 

"All  Crusaders  receiving  this  kit  are  requested  to  attend  this 
first  meeting  of  the  County  Council  on  June  18th. 

"  (4)  At  the  first  meeting  of  your  Crusade  Club,  it  is  suggested 
that  you  discuss  the  principles  of  the  Crusade  and  ways  and  means 
of  promoting  the  growth  of  the  Crusade.  This  should  revolve  around 
the  questions  of  securing  affiliations  of  organizations  and  the  build- 
ing of  additional  clubs. 

"  (5)  The  program,  principles  and  organizational  rules  of  the 
American  Peace  Crusade  will  be  discussed  and  voted  upon  at  the 
County  Council  meeting  on  the  18th.  It  is  the  tentative  plan  of  the 
Crusade  to  issue  weekly  or  bi-weekly  small  pamphlets  and  folders 
for  wide  public  distribution.  Various  phases  of  peace  activity  and 
campaigns  will  be  undertaken  regularly. 

"  (6)  Be  sure  to  be  present  at  the  County  Council  meeting.  Be 
sure  to  have  your  Crusade  Club  or  organization  represented.  Come 
prepared  to  take  part  in  the  discussion  and  contribute  your  sug- 
gestions. ' ' 

Captains  were  appointed  for  Southern  California  assembly  districts. 
A  mimeographed  list  in  the  possession  of  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  reveals  that  the  following  individuals 
were  appointed  to  coordinate  the  activities  of  the  American  Peace  Cru- 
sade clubs  in  the  indicated  Assembly  Districts:  Frank  Beyea,  43d; 
Kaphael  Konigsberg,  44th ;  R.  Osland,  45th ;  Ralph  Cheyney,  47th ;  Dena 
Peterson,  49th;  Rev.  Carl  Allen,  51st;  Dr.  Morris  Feder,  52d;  Celia 
Wilby,  53d ;  Lillian  MacKay,  54th ;  James  L.  Meachen,  55th ;  Calvert  S. 
Wilson,  56th ;  Jean  Sackheim,  57th ;  Cecile  Spiegel,  58th ;  Sidney  Melin- 
koff,  59th ;  Alice  Fisher,  60th ;  Ernest  Dawson,  61st ;  Willia  Mae  Lewis, 
62d ;  Malcolm  Caldwell,  63d ;  Jude  Sollins,  64th ;  Eleanor  Holmer,  65th ; 
Alice  Elconin,  66th  ;  Clara  Towne,  67th;  Chester  Jordan,  68th  and  Delay 
Bennett,  70th  and  71st. 

AMERICAN  PEACE  MOBILIZATION 

One  of  the  boldest  and  most  flagrant  of  all  Communist  fronts,  the 
American  Peace  Mobilization,  was  organized  for  the  purpose  of  support- 
ing Soviet  Russia  during  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact.  This  was  the  period 
August,  1939,  to  the  invasion  of  the  Ukraine  by  Hitler's  panzer  divisions 
in  June  of  1941.  While  Hitler  and  Stalin  were  joined  in  a  partnership- 
looting  of  Europe,  the  Communists  in  the  United  States,  working  through 
the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  did  everything  within  their  power  to 
keep  the  United  States  from  arming  and  assisting  Great  Britain.  In  one 


12— L-7088-D 


162  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN   CALIFORNIA 

of  its  official  statements,  issued  in  March,  1941,  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization  declared : 

"But  even  if  we  don't  approve  of  England's  war,  isn't  her  side 
still  preferable  to  Hitler's;  and  isn't  it  better  to  fight  and  beat 
Hitler  with  England  than  without  her?  No.  An  English  victory 
will  result  in  the  same  sort  of  imperialist,  anti-democratic  peace  as 
will  a  Nazi  victory. ' ' 

At  the  time  of  the  issuance  of  the  foregoing  statement,  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization  was  engaged  in  picketing  the  White  House.  Its  pickets 
carried  placards  which  denounced  the  President  as  a  warmonger  and  a 
tool  of  Wall  Street.  There  were  also  placards  wrhich  denounced  lend- 
lease,  and  others  which  described  the  war  as  an  imperialist  conflict,  etc. 
Young  Communist  members  continuously  passed  out  leaflets  at  UCLA 
and  the  University  of  California  at  Berkeley  calling  upon  the  students 
to  resist  conscription,  lend-lease  and  to  keep  out  of  "the  British 
Imperialist  War. ' ' 

On  the  very  day  that  Hitler  attacked  Russia,  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization  withdrew  its  pickets  from  the  White  House.  The  organiza- 
tion itself  was  promptly  disbanded,  and  its  erstwhile  adherents  became 
vociferous  American  patriots  demanding  an  immediate  entrance  of  the 
United  States  into  the  war. 

The  American  Peace  Mobilization  carried  on  part  of  its  agitation 
with  songs.  The  chorus  of  one  is  illustrative : 

* '  Oh  Franklin  Roosevelt  told  the  people  how  he  felt ; 

We  damn  near  believed  what  he  said. 
He  said,  I  hate  war  and  so  does  Eleanor, 

But  we  won 't  be  safe  'till  everybody 's  dead. ' ' 

The  Daily  Worker  for  September  3,  1940,  carried  a  list  of  the 
permanent  officers  elected  September  2, 1940,  to  lead  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization.  The  Rev.  John  B.  Thompson  of  Oklahoma  was  elected 
chairman.  Reid  Robinson,  President  of  the  Mine,  Mill  and  Smelter  Work- 
ers, CIO;  Paul  Robeson,  Negro  baritone;  Congressman  Vito  Marcan- 
tonio  of  New  York  State ;  Jack  McMichael,  Chairman  of  the  American 
Youth  Congress;  Theodore  Dreiser,  novelist;  Katherine  Terrell,  Execu- 
tive Secretary  of  the  Institute  for  Pacific  Relations,  and  Frederic  Field, 
Secretary  of  the  Institute  for  Pacific  Relations,  were  elected  vice  chair- 
men. 

The  following  were  elected  to  the  National  Council  of  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization :  Prof.  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  Howard  Bay,  Marc 
Blitzstein,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Harry  Van  Arsdale,  James  Carey, 
Hugh  Delacy,  Herbert  Biberman,  Joseph  Cadden,  Dr.  Walter  Neff, 
George  Marshall,  Elmer  Felhaber,  John  P.  Davis,  Harvey  O'Connor, 
Morris  Watson,  Rev.  Owen  Knox,  Leonard  Goldsmith,  Gerald  Harris,  Sr., 
Carl  Swanson,  Grace  Makepeace,  Herbert  Long,  Howard  Lee,  Donald 
Henderson,  Rev.  Chad.  W'ilson,  Virgil  Mason,  Henry  Donaghue,  Mervyn 
Rathbone,  Charles  Doraine,  Pearl  Hart,  Abram  Flaxer,  Rabbi  Moses, 
Revels  Cayton,  Joseph  Curran,  John  DeBoer,  Dr.  Max  Yergan,  Millen 
Brand,  Carl  Sandburg,  Richard  Wright,  Langston  Hughes,  Carey 
Me  Williams,  Earl  Robinson,  Rev.  Frank  Smith,  Charles  E.  Gley,  J.  P. 
Merrill,  George  Nelson,  Michael  Quill,  Dr.  Abraham  Cronbach,  George  S. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  163 

Murphy,  Charles  Fine,  Cortney  Ward,  Clinton  Clark,  Bella  Dodd,  Rev. 
Owen  Whitfield,  Manual  Lucas,  Virgil  0  'Connor,  Grant  Oakes,  William 
Hixson,  Norman  McKibben,  Enoch  Price,  Prof.  Franz  Boas,  Mrs.  Mar- 
garet Gayle,  Oscar  Ameringer,  William  Ross,  William  Harrison,  Clifford 
0  'Brien,  Phillip  Connelly,  Meyer  Adelman,  Louis  Berne,  George  Seldes, 
Charles  Digg,  Saul  Brunin,  and  Aline  Davis  Hayes. 

Among  the  sponsors  of  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  are  the 
following:  Rev.  Malcolm  Dobbs,  Dashiell  Hammett,  William  Gropper, 
Rockwell  Kent,  Albert  Maltz,  Ruth  McKenney,  Anna  M.  W.  Penny- 
packer,  Louis  Weinstock,  Millen  Brand,  William  E.  Dodd,  Jr.,  Muriel 
Draper,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Canada  Lee,  Howard  Lee,  Bruce  Minton, 
Paul  Strand,  Meyer  Adelman,  Frank  C.  Brancroft,  Michael  Blankfort, 
Warren  K.  Billings,  Joseph  P.  Cadden,  Dora  Jones,  Alex  North,  Artie 
Shaw,  Joe  Van  Nordstrant,  and  Mrs.  Alice  H.  Ware. 

Among  the  Calif ornians  sponsoring  this  most  blatant  and  obvious 
Communist  front  are  the  following :  Dr.  T.  Addis,  Stanford  University 
School  of  Medicine;  Louise  Bransten  of  the  Communist  Civil  Rights 
Council  of  Northern  California;  Phillip  M.  Connelly,  California  State 
Industrial  Council ;  V.  J.  Conner,  editor  of  the  Southern  News  Almanac, 
Los  Angeles;  Charles  Garry,  National  Lawyers  Guild,  San  Francisco; 
Rev.  Emil  Meyer,  San  Jose ;  John  0  'Donnell,  assistant  secretary,  Marine 
Cooks  and  Stewards  Association,  San  Francisco ;  Henry  Schmidt,  presi- 
dent, International  Longshoremen  Workers  Union,  Local  1-10,  San 
Francisco;  Rev.  Dillon  W.  Throckmorton,  Trinity  Methodist  Church, 
Bakersfield;  John  Wagner,  Piledrivers  and  Bridge  Builders  Local  34, 
A.  F.  L.,  San  Francisco,  and  Prof.  F.  W.  Weymouth,  Department  of 
Physiology,  Stanford  University,  Palo  Alto. 

On  April  6,  1940,  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  held  a  meeting 
in  New  York  City  and  688  of  the  delegates  present  signed  a  petition 
demanding  the  release  of  Earl  Browder,  Secretary  General  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  who  had  been  convicted  of  passport  fraud  and  was  then 
serving  his  sentence  in  a  United  States  penitentiary.  The  petition  read : 
* '  We,  the  undersigned,  are  shocked  at  the  severe  sentence  which 
has  been  meted  out  to  Earl  Russell  Browder  on  a  trivial  technical 
violation  of  the  passport  law.  The  severity  of  this  sentence  bears 
out  the  fact  that  this  is  a  case  of  extreme  political  persecution, 
because   of  Earl  Browder 's  position   on  the  war.   He  has  been 
victimized  as  the  first  major  war  prisoner  in  the  same  way  as  Eugene 
V.  Debs  was  made  the  first  labor  prisoner  of  World  War  I. 

"We  protest  this  shameful  persecution  and  demand  the  imme- 
diate freedom  of  Earl  Browder. ' ' 

The  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  was  faithfully  followed  by  the  Communists 
in  the  United  States.  While  the  American  Peace  Mobilization  pursued  its 
continuous  agitation,  Communist  dominated  CIO  unions  conducted  a 
wave  of  strikes  in  all  plants  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  planes  and 
instruments  of  war  and  defense.  That  these  activities  were  directed  from 
Moscow  there  can  be  no  doubt.  The  New  York  Times  for  March  27,  1940, 
carried  the  following  item: 

"Moscow,  March  26  (AP) — The  magazine  Communist  Inter- 
nationale said  today  that  the  working  classes  of  the  United  States 


164  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

and  Canada  should  unite  more  closely  to  keep  the  United  States  out 
of  war  'and  to  drag  Canada  from  it.'  " 

This  struggle  against  ' i imperialistic  war"  conducted  by  Great 
Britain,  the  paper  said, ' '  should  be  expressed  in  traditional  mass  strikes. ' ' 
The  letterhead  of  the  Los  Angeles  branch  of  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization  listed  its  headquarters  at  603-04  Delta  Building,  426  South 
Spring  Street  and  gave  the  phone  number  as  Michigan  2092.  Rev.  John 
B.  Thompson  is  listed  as  National  Chairman  and  Frederick  V.  Field 
as  the  National  Executive  Secretary.  The  Los  Angeles  chairman  is 
Herbert  Biberman  and  Tom  Cullen,  a  veteran  Communist  fronter,  is 
listed  as  executive  secretary.  The  Los  Angeles  Executive  Board  was 
composed  of  John  Stapp,  Richard  S.  Otto,  Sam  Houston  Allen,  Rev. 
Herbert  L.  Herberts,  Rev.  Carl  Allen,  Evelyn  Vinton,  William  Dohan, 
Rosendo  Rivera,  Glenda  Sullivan,  Anna  Manus,  George  Brownstem, 
Al  Lockett  and  Nell  Mansfield. 

A  mimeographed  letter  signed  by  Tom  Cullen  under  the  date  of 
May  26, 1941  is  as  follows : 

' '  Dear  Friend :  By  the  time  you  receive  this  letter  President 
Roosevelt  may  have  delivered  his  Fireside  Chat.  We  have  had  no 
sneak  preview  of  Roosevelt's  speech  and  yet  we  can  tell  you  the  full 
import  of  it. 

' '  Whatever  Roosevelt  says  tomorrow  night  will  push  the  nation 
that  much  further  into  war.  It  may  be  outright  convoys  or  it  may 
be  'patrols'  to  protect  'freedom  of  the  seas.'  However  Roosevelt 
phrases  it,  it  means  your  life  and  my  life,  and  the  lives  of  millions 
of  us,  unless  we  organize  to  fight  back  now.  A  complete  answer 
to  President  Roosevelt's  war  speech  will  ~be  given  ~by  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization  at  a  mass  meeting  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium, 
Thursday,  May  29,  at  8  p.m.  Roosevelt  will  be  challenged  by  such 
outstanding  speakers  as  Herbert  Biberman,  Norman  Byrne,  and 
Bill  Elconin  of^the  CIO  Electrical  Workers'  Union. 

"In  addition,  there  will  be  presented  for  the  first  time,  a  new 
one  act  play,  titled,  'With  a  Banker  On  My  Knee,'  written  about 
the  draft  camps  here  in  California. 

"Admission  is  only  20  cents,  so  come  and  bring  a  carload  of 
neighbors.  Proceeds  will  be  earmarked  for  use  in  an  outdoor  demon- 
stration planned  for  the  near  future. ' ' 

Herbert  Joseph  Biberman  has  a  long  Communist  record.  He  is  one 
of  the  recalcitrant  witnesses  who  refused  to  testify  before  the  Thomas 
Committee  in  the  fall  of  1947.  Lewis  J.  Russell  testified  before  the 
Thomas  Committee  that  Herbert  Biberman  held  card  47267  of  the 
Communist  Party  in  1944.  His  address  was  given  as  3259  Deronda 
Drive,  Los  Angeles.  Mr.  Russell  stated  that  the  card  contained  a  state- 
ment "New  Card  issued  on  December  10,  1944"  and  that  another  nota- 
tion read;  "1944  Card  No.  46844." 

The  Communist  record  of  Herbert  Biberman  begins  on  page  415  of 
the  congressional  report  above  referred  to.  It  fully  corroborates  the 
information  contained  in  the  files  of  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Commit- 
tee on  Un-American  Activities,  and  is  as  follows : 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  165 

The  People's  Educational  Center  was  founded  and  is  conducted 
by  leading  members  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Los  Angeles  and  Holly- 
wood. It  is  the  successor  to  the  Communist  Los  Angeles  Workers  School, 
which  participated  in  the  founding  and  development  of  the  People's 
Educational  Center. 

The  People's  World  of  January  13, 1944,  page  4,  states  that  Herbert 
Biberman  was  on  the  staff  of  the  People's  Educational  Center  during 
that  year,  and  according  to  the  summer  1945  catalog  of  that  school,  he 
was  listed  as  a  lecturer.  His  biography  included  therein  states  that  he 
spent  "6  months  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  studying  the  Soviet  theater."  The 
People's  World  is  the  official  west  coast  organ  of  the  Communist  Party. 
Herbert  Biberman 's  affiliation  with  the  People's  Educational  Center 
during  the  year  1947  is  shown  in  Variety,  June  30,  1947,  page  10. 

In  an  exhibit  presented  before  the  Special  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities  during  the  public  hearings  (vol.  14,  p.  8585), 
Herbert  Biberman 's  name  appears  as  a  sponsor  of  a  testimonial  dinner 
to  Leo  Gallagher.  In  1938  Leo  Gallagher  was  the  Communist  Party 
candidate  for  the  office  of  secretary  of  state  in  California.  The  dinner 
was  held  on  June  2,  1941,  in  Los  Angeles. 

Mr.  Biberman  has  written  for  the  New  Masses,  the  official  weekly 
magazine  of  the  Communist  Party  which  was  described  as  a  "Commu- 
nist Periodical"  by  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  in  the  Congres- 
sional Record  of  September  24, 1942,  page  7688.  His  contributions  appear 
in  the  issues  of  August  20,  1940,  page  8 ;  June  17,  1941,  page  17 ;  July  8, 
1941,  page  26 ;  and  July  29,  1941,  page  16. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  September  3,  1940,  page  4,  which  is  the  official 
organ  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States,  named  Herbert 
Biberman  as  a  member  of  the  National  Council  of  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization,  and  his  name  appears  as  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Call  to 
the  American  People's  Meeting  which  was  held  in  New  York  City, 
April  5-6,  1941. 

The  proceedings  of  the  first  convention,  November  30 — December 
1,  1940,  page  4,  also  lists  his  name  as  the  honorary  chairman  of  the 
Los  Angeles  Branch  of  the  organization.  The  American  Peace  Mobili- 
zation will  be  remembered  as  the  organization  which  picketed  the  White 
House  during  the  time  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact.  On  the  day  that  Hitler 
attacked  Russia,  the  pickets  were  withdrawn  from  the  White  House. 
According  to  New  Masses  of  August  6,  1940,  page  22,  Herbert  Biberman 
was  the  temporary  chairman  and  speaker  at  an  April  6,  1940,  mass 
meeting  of  the  American  Peace  Crusade,  which  was  the  forerunner  of 
the  American  Peace  Mobilization  in  California. 

He  was  also  listed  as  an  officer  of  the  American  Peace  Crusade  in 
the  leaflet,  "We,  the  People  of  the  United  States,  Will  Keep  Out  of 
War, ' '  published  by  that  organization.  According  to  the  Daily  Worker 
of  April  21,  1941,  page  7,  Herbert  Biberman  was  a  leader  of  the  Amer- 
ican Peace  Crusade  which  aided  in  the  formation  of  the  American  Peace 
Mobilization.  The  Emergency  Peace  Mobilization  was  held  on  August 
31  to  September  2,  1940,  in  Chicago,  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  the 
American  Peace  Mobilization. 

Mr.  Biberman  is  listed  on  a  program  leaflet  of  June  7,  1940,  page  4, 
and  a  letterhead  of  June  3,  1940,  as  a  member  of  the  provisional  com- 
mittee of  the  Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties  in  America  which 


166  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-Amer- 
ican Activities  in  the  report  of  March  29,  1944. 

The  Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties  in  America  was  the 
predecessor  to  the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional  Liberties,  an 
organization  noted  for  its  defense  of  Communists.  A  letterhead  of  the 
latter  organization  lists  Mr.  Biberman  as  a  sponsor. 

In  addition  to  being  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  the  report  of  June  25,  1942, 
and  March  29,  1944,  and  by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
in  the  report  of  June  12,  1947,  the  National  Federation  for  Constitu- 
tional Liberties  was  cited  by  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  in  these 
words:  "The  defenses  of  Communist  leaders  such  as  Sam  Darcy  and 
Robert  Wood,  party  secretaries  for  Pennsylvania  and  Oklahoma,  have 
been  major  efforts  of  the  federation"  (Congressional  Record,  Sept.  24, 
1942,  p.  7687). 

The  American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees  was  a  part  of  the  Com- 
munist campaign  for  Loyalist  Spain,  and  it  provided  transportation  and 
support  for  international  Communist  agents  such  as  Gerhart  Eisler. 
An  undated  folder,  "For  the  Rescue  of  Refugees,"  lists  the  name  of 
Herbert  Biberman  as  a  signer  of  a  pro-Soviet  statement  of  this  organiza- 
tion. The  American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees  was  also  cited  as  a 
Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
in  report  1311,  March  29,  1944. 

The  Communist  International  at  its  seventh  congress  which  was 
held  in  Moscow  in  1935,  instructed  the  various  Communist  Parties  to 
assist  in  the  Spanish  Communist  cause.  The  Communist  Party  of  the 
United  States,  in  response  to  these  orders,  set  up  a  Spanish-aid  campaign 
and  formed  organizations  to  accomplish  this  task. 

One  of  these  was  the  North  American  Committee  to  Aid  Spanish 
Democracy,  which  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  in  reports  of  January  3,  1940,  and 
March  29,  1944,  as  well  as  by  the  Committee  for  Cultural  Freedom, 
Professor  Dewey,  chairman,  April,  1940.  Herbert  Biberman  was  listed 
as  a  member  of  the  local  sponsoring  committee  for  the  North  American 
Committee  to  Aid  Spanish  Democracy  in  a  letterhead  of  that  committee. 

The  Daily  Worker  of  August  17,  1937,  page  3,  reveals  that  Herbert 
Biberman  was  a  sponsor  of  a  benefit  for  Spanish  Loyalist  children,  and 
another  Daily  Worker,  that  of  September  17,  1937,  page  9,  shows  that 
he  was  a  contributor  to  an  ambulance  for  Loyalist  Spain.  Both  of  these 
projects  were  in  accordance  with  the  orders  of  the  Communist  Inter- 
national. 

The  first  congress  of  Mexican  and  Spanish-American  Peoples, 
which  was  supported  by  Latin-American  Communist  Parties,  was  cited 
as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activi- 
ties in  the  report  of  March  29, 1944,  and  by  the  Committee  on  Un-Ameri- 
can Activities  in  the  report  of  September  2,  1947.  A  mimeographed 
release,  dated  March  24-26,  1939,  lists  Mr.  Biberman  as  a  signer  of  the 
call  to  the  congress. 

The  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee,  which  succeeded  the  Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi  League,  was  organized  by  Isaac  Romaine,  also  known 
as  V.  J.  Jerome,  a  member  of  the  central  committee  of  the  Communist 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  167 

Party.  Mr.  Biberman's  connection  with  this  organization  is  shown  by 
an  official  ballot,  dated  July  26,  1944,  on  which  his  name  appeared  as  a 
candidate  for  office  in  that  organization. 

The  Communist  press  has  given  its  support  to  a  petition  for  the 
pardon  of  Festus  Coleman,  of  which  Mr.  Biberman  was  a  signer,  accord- 
ing to  the  People's  World,  October  16,  1942,  page  2. 

According  to  tha  Daily  Worker,  September  14,  1942,  page  7,  and 
People's  World,  September  23,  1942,  page  5,  Herbert  Biberman  was  a 
signer  of  a  statement  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  in  behalf  of 
a  second  front.  The  League  of  American  Writers  had  been  pledged  to 
defend  the  Soviet  Union  and  "use  of  art  as  an  instrument  of  the  class 
struggle. ' '  The  Clipper,  a  publication  of  the  league,  lists  Herbert  Biber- 
man as  a  contributor  in  its  August,  1941,  copy,  page  31.  It  was  affiliated 
with  the  International  Union  of  Revolutionary  Writers,  with  head- 
quarters in  Moscow  and  has  been  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the 
Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  on  three  occasions.  (See 
committee  reports,  January  3,  1940,  June  15,  1942,  and  March  29, 1944.) 
Also,  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  has  said  that  * '  the  overt  activities 
of  the  League  of  American  Writers  in  the  last  two  years  leave  little  doubt 
of  its  Communist  control"  (Congressional  Record,  September  24,  1942, 
p.  7686). 

The  New  Theatre  of  July,  1936,  page  14,  contains  an  article  by  Mr. 
Biberman.  New  Theatre  was  the  official  organ  of  the  League  of  Workers 
Theatres,  an  affiliate  of  the  International  Union  of  Revolutionary  The- 
atres, with  headquarters  in  Moscow,  and  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front 
by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  report  1311, 
March  29,  1944.  The  Associated  Film  Audiences,  which  merged  with 
Films  for  Democracy  to  form  Film  Audiences  for  Democracy,  was 
organized  for  the  purpose  of  gaining  the  support  of  audiences  for  pro- 
Communist  films.  During  the  time  of  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact  it  was  anti- 
war in  conformance  with  the  Communist  Party  line.  Mr.  Biberman  was 
a  member  of  the  executive  board  of  Associated  Film  Audiences,  accord- 
ing to  Film  Survey,  May,  1939,  page  4. 

A  letterhead,  dated  February  2,  1944,  lists  Herbert  Biberman  as  a 
national  board  member  of  the  Jewish  People's  Committee,  which  was 
headed  by  William  Weiner,  Reuben  Salzman,  Joseph  R.  Brodsky,  and 
other  leading  Communists.  In  the  report  of  March  29,  1944,  the  Special 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  cited  the  Jewish  People's  Com- 
mittee as  a  Communist  front. 

Mr.  Biberman's  affiliation  with  the  Consumers  Union  is  shown  by 
the  Consumers  Union  Reports,  December,  1938,  page  15,  to  which  he  was 
a  contributor.  The  Consumers  Union  was  led  by  Arthur  Kallet,  alias 
Edward  Adams,  a  staff  writer  for  the  Daily  Worker.  The  Special  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities  cited  it  as  a  Communist  front  in  the 
report  of  March  29,  1944. 

Herbert  Biberman's  name  appears  on  a  letterhead  of  February  24, 
1940,  as  a  sponsor  of  the  Hollywood  League  for  Democratic  Action,  the 
predecessor  of  the  Hollywood  branch  of  the  Independent  Citizens  Com- 
mittee of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions.  The  issue  of  Communism 
within  the  Independent  Citizens  Committee  resulted  in  the  dissolution 
of  the  organization  and  the  resignation  of  Harold  L.  Ickes  and  other 


168  UN-AMERTCAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

liberals.  The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  cited  the  Hollywood 
League  for  Democratic  Action  as  a  front  organization  defending  Com- 
munists in  the  report  of  June  12, 1947.  It  was  also  cited  by  the  Committee 
for  Cultural  Freedom,  Prof.  John  Dewey,  chairman,  April,  1940. 

According  to  evidence  submitted  to  the  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  during  the  public  headings  (vol.  1,  p.  569), 
Herbert  Biberman  was  a  member  of  the  executive  board  of  the  Motion 
Picture  Artists  Committee,  affiliated  with  the  North  American  Com- 
mittee to  Aid  Spanish  Democracy. 

The  Motion  Picture  Artists  Committee  was  headed  by  William 
Gropper,  Kyle  Crichton,  also  known  as  Kobert  Forsythe,  and  other 
writers  for  the  Communist  press.  The  North  American  Committee  to  Aid 
Spanish  Democracy,  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  the  reports  of  January  3, 1940, 
and  March  29,  1944,  and  by  the  Committee  for  Cultural  Freedom,  Prof. 
John  Dewey,  chairman,  April,  1940. 

The  Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Pro- 
fessions split  after  Harold  Ickes  and  other  liberals  condemned  the  organi- 
zation as  Communist  dominated.  The  pro-Communist  section,  after  the 
split,  formed  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America.  The  Progressive  Citi- 
zens of  America  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  House  Committee 
on  Un-American  Activities  in  a  report  of  June  12,  1947.  The  official  bal- 
lot of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  dated  September  17,  1947, 
lists  Herbert  Biberman  as  candidate  for  the  executive  board. 

AMERICAN  PEOPLE'S  FUND 

Frederick  Vanderbilt  Field  is  the  head  of  this  front.  It  was  organ- 
ized by  Field  as  a  repository  for  funds  to  be  distributed  to  Communist 
enterprises.  Helen  R.  Bryan  is  the  Treasurer  of  the  American  People's 
Fund. 

This  Communist  financial  organization  has  paid  out  large  sums  of 
money  to  the  following  Communist  and  Communist-front  organizations : 
National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship,  Southern  Conference 
for  Human  Welfare,  Council  for  Pan- American  Democracy,  School  for 
Democracy  (now  the  Jefferson  School  of  Social  Science),  Allied  Labor 
News,  National  Negro  Congress,  American  Committee  for  Protection 
of  Foreign  Born,  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  American  Rus- 
sian Institute,  American  Council  Institute  for  Pacific  Relations,  Council 
on  African  Affairs,  Russian  War  Relief,  Committee  for  the  Care  of 
Young  Children  in  War  Time,  Farm  Research,  and  National  Council 
of  Negro  Youth. 

AMERICAN  RELIEF  FOR  GREEK  DEMOCRACY 

The  headquarters  of  this  Communist  front  is  located  at  111  West 
42d  Street  in  New  York  City.  (This  is  the  same  address  as  the  Com- 
mittee for  a  Democratic  Eastern  Policy.)  The  organization  is  headed  by 
Robert  St.  John  and  Nicholas  Cheronis.  Vice  chairmen  are  Mrs.  Frank 
Gervasi  and  John  Vassos.  Costa  Couveras  is  the  secretary.  Among  the 
sponsors  are  Zlatko  Balokovic,  Elmer  Benson,  Hugh  De  Lacey,  Henrietta 
Buckmaster,  Abram  Flaxer,  Betty  Field  (wife  of  Frederick  V.  Field), 
Hugo  Gellert,  Mrs.  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  William  Gropper,  Langston 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  169 

Hughes,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  Rockwell  Kent,  Albert  Maltz,  Vito  Marcan- 
tonio,  William  H.  Melish,  Clifford  Odets,  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  and 
Harry  F.  Ward.  Eighteen  of  the  sponsors  of  the  American  Relief  for 
Greek  Democracy  are  either  directors  or  sponsors  of  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship.  Seventeen  are  sponsors  of  the  Committee 
for  a  Democratic  Far  Eastern  Policy. 

AMERICAN^.USSIAN  INSTITUTE 

Throughout  the  life  of  the  Communist  movement  in  the  United 
States  the  Communist  Party  has  maintained  front  organizations  and  con- 
ducted enterprises  for  the  sole  purpose  of  carrying  on  propaganda  on 
behalf  of  the  Soviet  Union.  Some  of  the  more  important  of  these  fronts 
and  enterprises  have  been  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia,  Friends  of  the  Soviet 
Union,  Soviet  Russia  Today,  Russian  Reconstruction  Farms,  Open  Letter 
for  Closer  Co-operation  With  the  Soviet  Union,  Golden  Book  of  Amer- 
ican Friendship  With  the  Soviet  Union,  Trade  Union  National  Commit- 
tee for  Russian  Relief,  American  Federated  Russian  Famine  Relief  Com- 
mittee, Russian  War  Relief,  Statement  by  American  Progressives  on  the 
Moscow  Trials,  Open  Letter  to  American  Liberals,  and  the  American  Rus- 
sian Institute  for  Cultural  Relations  with  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  American  Russian  Institute  interlocks  in  many  ways  with  the 
American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations.  This  is  strongly  indicated  by  the 
official  organ  of  the  group,  the  American  Review  on  the  Soviet  Union,  pre- 
viously published  as  the  American  Quarterly  on  the  Soviet  Union.  Among 
its  board  of  directors  are  Edward  C.  Carter,  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  John 
A.  Kingsbury,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Henry  E.  Sigerist,  and  Vilhjalmur 
Stefansson  (American  Quarterly  on  the  Soviet  Union,  January,  1930). 

According  to  its  folder  prospectus,  distributed  freely  at  meetings  of 
the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  the  American  Russian  Institute  was 
founded  in  1926  as  the  clearing  house  for  "factual"  information  on  the 
Soviet  Union.  It  calls  itself  ' '  nonpolitical ' '  and  ' '  American. ' ' 

It  "arranges  language  courses,  lectures,  dinners  and  film  showings" 
and  permits  the  free  use  of  its  library  containing  an  index  of  ' '  10  Soviet 
newspapers." 

The  semiofficial  status  of  the  American  Russian  Institute  is  estab- 
lished by  certain  outstanding  facts :  (1)  The  description  appearing  in  the 
August,  1941,  issue  of  the  American  Review  on  the  Soviet  Union  (back 
cover  inside)  declares  that  "it  aims  to  serve  as  an  authoritative  clearing 
house  for  factual  information  concerning  the  Soviet  Union."  (2)  The 
April,  1940,  issue  of  the  American  Quarterly  on  the  Soviet  Union  (inside 
cover)  declares  that  the  American  Russian  Institute  furnishes  informa- 
tion to  the  Soviet  Union,  which  means  to  the  Soviet  Government,  since 
there  are  no  private  agencies.  (3)  Without  official  contacts,  the  writers 
for  the  organs  of  the  American  Russian  Institute  could  not  have  access 
to  the  various  sources  of  information  in  the  Soviet  Union. 

Basil  Bass,  Aaron  Bodansky,  Edward  C.  Carter,  Samuel  H.  Cross, 
Mortimer  Graves,  William  W.  Lancaster,  Robert  S.  Lynd,  Arthur  Upham 
Pope,  Henry  E.  Sigerist,  Ernest  J.  Simmons,  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson, 
Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  and  Harriet  L.  Moore  constituted  the  board  of  direc- 
tors of  the  American  Russian  Institute  at  the  close  of  World  War  II. 


170  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  letterhead  of  the  American  Russian  Institute  in  the  files  of  the  Sen- 
ate committee  under  date  of  July  14,  1938,  carries  the  following  names 
as  constituting  the  Board  of  Directors:  Mrs.  Kathleen  Barnes,  Aaron 
Bodansky,  Edward  C.  Carter,  Mrs.  Ethel  Clyde,  Louis  Connick,  George 
S.  Counts,  William  0.  Field,  Jr.,  Lewis  Gannett,  Mortimer  Graves,  Wil- 
liam S.  Graves,  Alcan  Hirsch,  John  A.  Kingsbury,  Mary  van  Kleeck,  Wil- 
liam W.  Lancaster,  William  Lescaze,  William  Allan  Neilson,  Mrs.  George 
F.  Porter,  Raymond  Robins,  Geroid  T.  Robinson,  John  Rothschild,  Mrs. 
Richard  B.  Scandrett,  Jr.,  Whitney  Seymour,  Henry  E.  Sigerist,  Lee 
Simonson,  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  Graham  R.  Taylor,  Allen  Wardwell, 
Maurice  Wertheim,  and  Mrs.  Efrem  Zimbalist.  Harriet  Moore  is  listed 
as  editor  and  Virginia  Burdick  as  executive  secretary. 

A  leaflet  in  the  files  of  the  Senate  Committee  reveals  that  the  follow- 
ing are  the  directors  in  Southern  California :  Dr.  David  Appleman,  Alvah 
Bessie,  Edmund  W.  Cooke,  Dr.  George  M.  Day,  Dr.  Clyde  K.  Emery, 
Thomas  L.  Harris,  Constantin  C.  Korneff,  Dr.  E.  Wilson  Lyon,  Jerome 
W.  MacNair,  Lewis  Milestone,  Corinne  A.  Seeds,  Dr.  Harold  U.  Sverdrup, 
Clara  R.  Walden,  and  Michael  A.  Walden.  Mrs.  Belle  Dubnoff  is  listed  as 
the  executive  secretary  and  Dr.  Francis  M.  Pottenger  as  the  chairman. 

Another  leaflet  lists  the  Board  of  Directors  for  Southern  California 
as  follows :  Judge  Stanley  Moffatt  (chairman),  Mrs.  Belle  Dubnoff  (exec- 
utive secretary),  Jerome  W.  MacNair  (treasurer),  Dr.  David  Apple- 
man, Thelma  Boardman,  Prof.  George  M.  Day,  Dr.  Clyde  K.  Emery,  Lion 
Feuchtwanger,  Sam  Gardner,  Dr.  T.  Percival  Gerson,  Dr.  Sanford  Gold- 
ner,  Kate  Greenschpoon,  Howard  Koch,  Constantin  C.  Korneff,  Lewis 
Milestone,  Dr.  Helen  Hall  Moreland,  Lawrence  Morton,  Dr.  F.  M.  Pot- 
tenger, Anne  C.  Rosen,  and  Corinne  A.  Seeds. 

The  Southern  California  headquarters  is  located  at  6618J  Sunset 
Boulevard,  Hollywood.  The  telephone  number  is  GRanite  4179. 

On  December  7  and  8, 1945,  a  Conference  on  American-Russian  Cul- 
tural Exchange  was  held  at  the  University  of  California,  Los  Angeles 
Campus,  sponsored  by  Phi  Beta  Kappa  Alumni  in  Southern  California 
with  Eta  Chapter  Phi  Beta  Kappa  (U.  C.  L.  A.)  and  Sigma  Xi  Society 
(U.  C.L.A.). 

The  panel  speakers  and  other  participants  of  the  conference  included 
many  well  known  Communist  Party-liners.  Among  them  were  Dr.  Frank- 
lin Fearing,  John  Howard  Lawson,  J.  Leyda,  Kenneth  McGowan,  Wil- 
liam E.  Oliver,  William  Dieterle,  and  Dr.  Harry  Hoijer.  Dr.  Clarence  A. 
Dykstra  made  several  addresses.  Dr.  Thomas  Mann  also  actively  partici- 
pated. 

Holland  Roberts  spoke  on  "The  Need  of  the  Hour — American- 
Russian  Understanding"  and  "Philosophy  of  Education  in  the  Soviet 
Union."  Holland  Roberts  (see  committee's  1947  report)  is  connected  with 
the  Communist  Party's  California  Labor  School  in  San  Francisco  and  is 
the  President  of  the  Communist  American  Russian  Institute  in  San  Fran- 
cisco. 

Another  speaker  was  Dr.  George  M.  Day,  Secretary-treasurer  of  Phi 
Beta  Kappa  Alumni.  Dr.  Day  lived  in  Russia  for  10  years  before  and 
during  the  World  War  and  has  revisited  Russia  frequently  since  the  revo- 
lution. The  People's  Daily  World  for  November  11, 1937,  reports  Dr.  Day 
speaking  at  a  mass  meeting  of  the  American  Russian  Institute  in  Los 
Angeles. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  171 

Dr.  Percy  L.  Davis,  Superintendent  of  Schools,  Santa  Monica,  spoke 
at  one  of  the  panels  and  said,  in  substance,  that  the  Chambers  of  Com- 
merce, Rotary  Clubs,  and  the  American  Legion  exercise  too  much  control 
over  the  public  schools.  He  believed  that  members  of  these  organizations 
were  convinced  that  Sovietism  means  Communism  and  that  Communism 
means  labor  trouble. 

While  there  undoubtedly  were  a  number  of  ' l  innocents '  \  caught  in 
the  conference,  a  check  of  the  index  of  this  report  and  the  committee's 
previous  reports  will  indicate  the  Communist  inspiration  and  guidance  of 
the  affair.  Those  who  were  listed  on  the  program  as  participating  include 
the  following:  Dr.  David  E.  Henley,  Dr.  Clarence  A.  Dykstra,  Holland 
Roberts,  Dr.  James  W.  McBain,  Mr.  Stepan  Apresian  (Vice  Consul 
U.  S.  S.  R.  San  Francisco),  Dr.  Thomas  Mann,  Dr.  F.  M.  Pottenger 
(American  Russian  Institute),  Dr.  J.  Agins,  Elena  Boder,  Dr.  Reuben 
Straus,  Dr.  Harvey  E.  Billing,  Dr.  M.  N.  Beigelman.  Dr.  Douglas  R. 
Drury,  Dr.  Theodore  D.  Beckwith,  Dr.  Elmer  Belt,  Dr.  Clyde  Emery 
(American  Russian  Institute),  Dr.  Rudolph  Marx,  Ellarene  McCoy,  Dr. 
Fraser  X.  McDonald,  Dr.  Lester  M.  Morrison,  Dr.  Elizabeth  L.  Woods, 
Dr.  Franklin  Fearing,  Corinne  Seeds  (American  Russian  Institute), 
Robert  J.  Purdy,  Althea  Warren,  Nina  Antonyuk  (Soviet  Union),  Dr. 
Percy  L.  Davis,  Dr.  E.  Manfred  Evans,  Dorothea  Eltenton  (American 
Russian  Institute,  San  Francisco),  Dr.  Helen  Heffernan,  Gertrude  G. 
Howard,  Elizabeth  A.  Wood,  Dr.  Brainerd  Dyer,  Dr.  Harry  Hoijer,  Dr. 
Stuart  R.  Tompkins,  Dr.  S.  B.  Okun,  Dr.  Anatole  G.  Mazour,  Dr.  Ralph 
Beals,  Dean  R.  D.  Hunt,  Dr.  Harold  Bradley,  Dr.  Glenn  S.  Dumke,  Dr. 
Malbone  Graham,  Dr.  J.  Eugene  Harley,  Dr.  Alonzo  Baker,  Dr.  E. 
Wilson  Lyon,  Dr.  H.  U.  Sverdrup  (American  Russian  Institute),  Dr. 
Joseph  Weckler,  Dr.  Clayton  Carus,  Dr.  Laurence  de  Rycke,  John 
Entenza,  Dr.  Arthur  B.  Gallion,  Alexander  P.  Grachev,  Thomas  L.  Har- 
ris (National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship),  Reginald  John- 
son, J.  E.  Keith,  David  Reznick,  Emerson  Spear,  Dr.  George  W.  Zinke, 
Dr.  Bennet  M.  Allen,  Dr.  David  Appleman  (American  Russian  Insti- 
tute), Dr.  William  H.  Chandler,  Dr.  Michael  Shapovalov,  Dr.  N.  T. 
Mirov,  Dr.  James  Gilluly,  Dr.  James  McBain,  Dr.  Frank  Smiley,  Dr. 
Clifford  Zieber,  Dr.  Mildred  Struble,  Irving  Pichel,  Milton  Merlin,  Dr. 
Oleg  Maslenikov,  Dr.  Frederic  T.  Blanchard,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Dr. 
Percy  Houston,  Albert  Maltz,  Samuel  Rosen,  Lee  Strasberg,  Sidney 
Buchman,  William  Dieterle,  Howard  Koch  (American  Russian  Insti- 
tute), Alexander  Knox,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Jay  Ley  da,  Kenneth 
MacGowan,  Ben  Maddow,  William  E.  Oliver,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Dr. 
Stuart  R.  Tompkins,  Walter  E.  Hartley,  Dr.  Walter  Rubsamen,  Dr. 
Paul  Pisk,  Julian  Brodetsky,  Charles  C.  Hirt,  Lawrence  Morton,  John  R. 
Crown,  Dr.  Edmund  Cykler,  Isabel  Morse  Jones,  Dr.  Alexis  Kail, 
Howard  Swan,  Dr.  George  M.  Day,  Jerome  W.  MacNair,  and  Dr.  Robert 
A.  Millikan. 

An  American  Russian  Institute  Bulletin  for  March,  1947,  dis- 
tributed in  Southern  California,  lists  the  following  ' '  cultural ' '  activities 
for  December,  January,  and  February:  Premiere  of  "The  Turning 
Point, "  Soviet  prize  film  with  panel  discussion  by  Albert  Maltz,  Edward 
Dmytryk,  Morris  Carnovsky  and  Robert  Rossen,  400  in  attendance. 


172  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Open  membership  meeting  with  cultural  films.  Children 's  American  Rus- 
sian Christmas  Party  at  the  Los  Angeles  Downtown  Public  Library. 
Reception  and  musical  evening  at  the  home  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Soundel 
Becker — over  70  in  attendance.  Reception  for  Mrs.  Paul  Robeson  at  the 
home  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Maurice  Kowan — over  60  in  attendance.  Organiza- 
tional meeting  for  the  purpose  of  forming  Pasadena  Committee  for  the 
ART.  Twor  luncheons  in  conjunction  with  sustaining  fund  drive.  San 
Pedro  Committee:  American  Russian  Concert  at  the  YWCA  attended 
by  100. 

An  idea  of  the  propagandizing  efforts  of  this  single  Communist 
front  is  indicated  by  the  following  notes  from  the  same  bulletin : ' '  Gorky 
Exhibit  in  art  and  photography  shown  at  the  Long  Beach  and  San 
Pedro  Public  Libraries."  "Our  Speakers  Bureau  during  this  period 
served  Civic,  Community  Center,  Women's  University,  Relief,  Sorority, 
Public  Library,  and  International  Relations  groups.  17  audience  in  all. ' ' 
"Press  conference  for  Soviet  architect."  "Pictures  and  copy  about 
Children's  party."  "The  'Turning  Point'  received  more  than  80  inches 
in  11  local  newspapers,  including  the  Daily  News,  Hollywood  Citizen 
News,  Hollywood  Reporter,  Herald-Express. ' ' 

Under  date  of  October  28,  1947,  Stanley  Moffat  sent  out  a  mimeo- 
graphed letter  announcing  that  the  Red  Dean  of  Canterbury,  Rev.  Hew- 
lett Johnson,  would  speak  as  a  guest  of  the  American  Russian  Institute  on 
November  21,  1947,  at  the  Philharmonic  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles.  The 
Dean  of  Canterbury,  Hewlett  Johnson,  is  England 's  contribution  to  the 
Red  Scourge.  Stanley  Moffat  is  a  self-avowed,  if  somewhat  frenzied, 
admirer  of  Stalin  and  the  Red  dictatorship.  He  not  only  lends  his  name 
to  Communist  causes  and  organizations,  but  hurls  himself  into  Com- 
munist activities  with  a  vigorous  abandonment  that  is  almost  incredible. 

To  say  that  Moffat  has  disgraced  the  justice's  court  is  to  make  an 
understatement. 

Haakon  M.  Chevalier,  accompanied  by  his  attorney,  Francis 
McCarty,  appeared  and  testified  before  the  committee  at  its  Oakland 
hearings,  November  6,  1947.  While  his  memory  was  apparently  faulty  in 
many  respects  he  was  able  to  recall  some  of  his  affiliations  in  Communist 
fronts  and  Communist  activities.  He  admitted  that  he  had  been  connected 
with  the  Communist  publication,  Black  and  White,  the  League  of  Ameri- 
can Writers,  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  Western  Writers 
Congress,  Inter-Professional  Association,  Northern  California  Civil 
Rights  Council,  Festus  Coleman  Committee,  State  Wide  Civil  Rights 
Conference,  and  the  American  Russian  Institute. 

Chevalier  stated  that  he  had  subscribed  to  the  People's  Daily  World 
and  admitted  being  acquainted  with  most  of  California's  prominent 
Communists  and  Communist  fellow-travelers.  He  admitted  attending  a 
reception  at  the  Soviet  Consulate  in  San  Francisco,  celebrating  an  anni- 
versary of  the  Communist  revolution.  He  stated  that  he  had  visited  the 
Soviet  Vice  Consul  Ivanov  together  with  Prof.  Alexander  Cowan  of  the 
University  of  California  in  1942  or  1943. 

He  stated  that  he  became  acquainted  with  Dorothea  Eltenton,  secre- 
tary of  the  American  Russian  Institute  and  affiliated  with  the  Institute 
of  Pacific  Relations,  and  her  husband,  Dr.  George  C.  Eltenton,  in  1938. 
He  was  acquainted  with  Frank  Oppenheimer  and  his  brother  J.  Robert 
Oppenheimer. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  173 

The  following  is  part  of  the  transcript  testimony  of  Haakon  M. 
Chevalier : 

' '  Q.  (By  Mr.  Combs)  :  Now,  Mr.  Chevalier,  I  'm  going  to  ask  you 
a  question  that  I  want  you  to  be  very  careful  in  answering,  and  I  'm 
sure  you  will  be.  You,  of  course,  are  familiar  with  the  publicity  that 
attended  the  testimony  of  a  former  agent  of  \he  Federal  Bureau  of 
Investigation  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  with  specific  reference  to  infor- 
mation that  he  assertedly  had  concerning  what  he  testified (and 

I  'm  sure  I  'm  right  in  substance ;  if  you  disagree — interrupt  me)  — 
the  fact  that  he  was  approached ;  Dr.  Eltenton  was  approached, — 
by  the  Soviet  Vice  Consul  and  asked  to  contact  you ;  and  asked  you 
to  contact  Dr.  Oppenheimer.  You  are  familiar  with  that  ? 

11  A.  Yes. 

"Q.  And  is  that  substantially  a  correct  version  of  the  news- 
paper report? 

' '  A.  No,  it  is  not — yes,  of  the  newspaper  reports. 

"Q.  That's  what  I  mean.  Now,  were  you  ever  approached — 
strike  that — Do  you  know  where  Dr.  George  C.  Eltenton  was 
employed  when  you  knew  him  in  Berkeley? 

' l  A.  Yes,  he  was  employed  by  the  Shell  Oil  Company. 

"Q.  Shell  Development  Company,  wasn't  it? 

"A.  Shell  Development. 

"Q.  At  Emeryville? 

"A.  Yes. 

"Q.  Did  you  ever  hear  of  an  organization  known  as  the 
F.  A.  E.  C.  T.? 

"A.  Yes. 

' '  Q.  How  long  have  you  been  familiar,  in  a  general  way,  with 
that  organization  ? 

"A.  Well,  I  have  simply  heard  about  it. 

"Q.  You've  never  belonged  to  it? 

"A.  No,  I  wouldn't  be  eligible. 

' '  Q.  You  've  never  done  any  scientific  work  on  your  own  hook  ? 

11  A.  No. 

11  Q.  Just  to  keep  the  record  straight,  your  actual  academic  field 
is  the  romance  languages,  isn  't  it  ? 

1  'A.  That's  right. 

'  '  Q.  Did  you  ever  know  a  person  by  the  name  of  Rose  Segure  ? 

"A.  I  may  have  met  her  at  a  large  function.  I 

"Q.  You  mean  at  the  Soviet  Consulate? 

"A.  I  don't  know.  That  is,  I  know  her  name  from  the  news- 
papers and  I  may  have  met  her  at  a  large  gathering,  but  I  don't 
know  that  I  do  know  her.  If  I  should  see  her  I  would  recognize  her 
as  knowing  her  or  not  knowing  her,  but  it's  merely  casual  in  any 
event. 

"Q.  Now,  do  you  know  whether  or  not  she  had  anything  to  do 
with  the  F.A.E.C.T.? 

"A.  From  what  I  heard 

"Q.  What  was  that? 

* '  A.  What  I  read  in  the  newspapers. 


174  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

"Q.  Oh,  I  see.  I  meant  what  you  knew  from  your  own  knowl- 
edge. 

"A.  No. 

"Q.  Do  you  know  whether  or  not  she  knew  Dr.  Eltenton? 

I  'A.  No. 

"Q.  Do  you  know — you  have  no  way  of  knowing  that  he  ever 
told  you  about  his  acquaintanceship  with  her  if  he  had  any  ? 

"A.  No. 

"Q.  You  knew,  did  you  not,  in  1942  and  '43  that  there  was  such 
an  organization  in  the  East  Bay  as  the  F.A.E.C.T.  ? 

II  A.  Yes. 

"Q.  You  knew  about  that? 

11  A.  Yes. 

' '  Q.  And  you  knew  the  organization  was  comprised  of  scientists 
and  technically  trained  men  and  women? 

"A.  Yes. 

"Q.  Now,  did  Dr.  Eltenton  have  a  conversation  with  you  in 
which  he  asked; — in  which  he  told  you,  in  substance,  that  he  had 
been  asked  to  contact  you  by  a  member  of  the  Soviet  Consulate  in 
San  Francisco  ? 

* '  A.  Uh,  if  you  are  going  into  this,  I  would  like  to 

"Q.  I'm  not  going  into  it.  I'm  not  going  to  ask  you  what  you 
said  to  Dr.  Oppenheimer  because 

1  'Mr.  McCarty:  Mr.  Combs 

"Mr.  Combs:  It's  all  right,  Mr.  Chairman.  I  spoke  with  Mr. 
McCarty  earlier. 

"Mr.  McCarty:  I  had  a  conversation  with  Mr.  Combs  before 
this  hearing,  Senator,  in  which  he  stated  that  the  Committee  had 
reasons  of  its  own  for  not  questioning  Mr.  Chevalier  on  the  details 
of  this  conversation;  information  concerning  which  was  given 
already  by  Mr.  Chevalier,  a  year  and  a  half  ago  to  the  F.B.I.,  and  I 
stated  at  that  time  that  Mr.  Chevalier  is  willing  to  answer  any  and 
all  questions  that  may  be  asked  of  him  in  that  regard,  and  if  they 
are  not  going  to  be  asked,  I  requested  Mr.  Combs  that  a  statement 
might  be  made  for  the  record.  He 's  willing  to  answer  any  questions 
on  that  subject.  Thank  you. 

"Mr.  Combs:  Now,  I'd  like 

"Mr.  McCarty:  The  answers  that  he  gave  so  far  may  go  out, 
and  I'm  requesting  my  client  to  answer  the  question  which  was 
asked  him. 

"Q.  (By  Mr.  Combs)  :  Did  you  understand  the  question? 

"A.  Yes.  The  answer  to  that  is  "no". 

"Q.  Did  Mr.  Eltenton  approach  you  and  ask  you  to  approach 
Dr.  Oppenheimer? 

"A.  Yes. 

"Q.  Did  he  say  anything  about  the  Russian  Consulate? 

"A.  No. 

"  Q.  Or  anyone  connected  with  the  Russian  Consulate  ? 

"A.  No. 

"Q.  Did  you,  after  having  that  conversation — strike  that — 
where  were  you  when  that  conversation  occurred,  Mr.  Chevalier  ? 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  175 

' '  A.  I  believe  it  was  at  his  house. 

* '  Q.  You  remember  the  address  ? 

"A.  No,  I  do  not. 

"Q.  He,  at  that  time,  was  a  British  subject? 

"A.  Yes. 

1  i  Q.  You  were  aware  that  he  got  part  of  his  scientific  training 
at  the  Leningrad  Institute  in  the  Soviet  Union  ? 

"A.  Yes. 

"Q.  Thereafter,  after  that  conversation  occurred,  did  you  have 
a  conversation  with  Dr.  J.  Robert  Oppenheimer  ? 

"A.  Yes. 

"Q.  And  was  that  conversation  related  in  any  way  to  the 
previous  conversation  with  Dr.  Eltenton  1 

"A.I  reported  to  him  the  subject  of  the  conversation. 

I  i  Q.  Where  did  that  conversation  occur  ? 

' '  A.  That  was  at  Dr.  Oppenheimer 's  home. 

"0.  Did  you  know  Dr.  Oppenheimer  socially  at  the  time? 

"A.  Yes. 

1 '  Q.  You  visited  in  his  home  on  previous  occasions  ? 

"A.  Yes. 

"Q.  You  knew  him  quite  well? 

"A.  Yes. 

' '  Q.  You  knew  his  brother  ? 

"A.  Quite  well. 

"Q.  As  well  as  you  knew  Dr.  Eltenton? 

"A.  Much  better. 

"Q.  But  you  did  visit  in  Dr.  Eltenton 's  home? 

"A.  Yes. 

' '  Q.  And  he  visited  in  yours  ? 

"A.  Yes. 

I 1  Q.  Did  the  Oppenheimers  visit  in  your  home  ? 
"A.  Yes." 

R.  E.  Combs,  Committee  Counsel,  subsequently  summarized  evidence 
and  testimony  connected  with  Haakon  M.  Chevalier  as  follows  (Com- 
mittee transcript,  Volume  XXXIII,  pages  364  to  367)  : 

"Mr.  Combs:  Mr.  Chairman  and  members  of  the  Committee. 
During  the  examination  of  Mr.  Chevalier  this  morning,  he  identified 
certain  organizations  that  I  have  checked  on  my  list,  and  stated  that 
he  was  affiliated  with  them.  I  read  into  the  record  the  documentation 
on  those  organizations  and  publications,  and  I  now  wish  to  complete 
this  phase  of  the  hearing  by  reading  into  the  record  now,  which  I 
didn  't  take  time  to  do  this  morning,  from  those  same  sources  some  of 
the  individuals  who  were  affiliated  with  those  organizations  also,  and 
with  those  publications.  After  I  have  read  those  into  the  record,  Mr. 
Chairman,  I  wish  also  to  recapitulate  for  the  record  the  testimony  Dr. 
Eltenton  gave  before  the  committee  here  a  year  ago. 

Affiliated  with  the  American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees  were 
Professor  Harold  Urey,  Professor  F.  W.  Wey mouth,  Herbert 
Biberman,  who  was  recently  cited  for  contempt  in  Washington, 
John  Howard  Lawson,  also  cited  for  contempt  in  Washington, 


176  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Albert  Maltz,  Clifford  Odets,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  William 
Gropper,  Lillian  Hellman,  and  Ruth  McKenney. 

"In  the  American  Council  on  Soviet  Relations,  we  have  Dr. 
Thomas  Addis,  Lewis  Alan  Berne,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Vito 
Marcantonio,  and  Donald  Ogden  Stewart. 

Next,  the  League  of  American  Writers,  including  Alvah  Bessie, 
John  Howard  Lawson,  Ruth  McKenney,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Albert 
Maltz,  Bruce  Minton,  Sam  Ornitz,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  and 
Earl  Browder. 

' '  Other  signers  of  the  letter,  the  Open  Letter  Defending  Mos- 
cow Purge  Trials,  were  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  Carey  Me  Williams, 
Samuel  Ornitz,  and  Donald  Ogden  Stewart. 

' '  Other  signers  of  the  Open  Letter  for  Closer  Cooperation  with 
the  Soviet  Union  were  Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  Professor  Robert  A. 
Brady,  William  Gropper,  Professor  Norman  E.  Himes,  John  How- 
ard Lawson,  Professor  Alexander  S.  Kahn,  Ruth  McKenney,  and 
Donald  Ogden  Stewart. 

"Other  signers  of  the  statement  by  American  Progressives  on 
the  Moscow  Trials,  printed  in  the  Daily  Worker,  April  28,  1938, 
and  New  Masses  May  3,  were  Louis  Budenz,  high  official  in  the 
Communist  Party,  William  Gropper  again,  Harrison  George, 
Clarence  Hathaway,  Editor  in  Chief  of  the  Daily  Worker  in  New 
York,  V.  J.  Jerome,  true  name  Isaac  Romaine,  John  Howard  Law- 
son  again,  Albert  Maltz,  A.  B.  Magil,  Bruce  Minton,  M.  J.  Olgin, 
Samuel  Ornitz,  Holland  D.  Roberts. 

"American  League  Against  War  and  Fascism;  Earl  Browder, 
Clarence  Hathaway,  Israel  Amter,  an  official  of  the  Communist 
Party  of  the  United  States,  Max  Bedacht,  prominent  Communist 
writer,  Ella  Reeve  Bloor,  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  Harry 
Bridges,  Vito  Marcantonio,  William  Z.  Foster,  Robert  Minor,  and 
Jack  Stachel. 

"The  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee;  Max  Bedacht, 
Abram  Flaxer,  William  Gropper,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Ring  Lard- 
ner, Jr.,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Carey  Me  Williams,  and  Dalton  Trumbo. 
******* 

' '  Dr.  Eltenton  was  a  subscriber  to  the  People 's  World.  He  was  a 
lecturer  at  the  Tom  Mooney  Labor  School  in  March  of  1943  on  the 
subject  'Soviet  Minorities.'  He  lectured  at  the  California  Labor 
School  in  1945  on  the  '  Soviet  Union. '  He  was  chairman  of  a  meeting 
at  the  Palace  Hotel  October  22,  1945,  held  under  the  auspices  of 
the  American-Russian  Institute.  On  January  9,  1946,  he  taught 
'The  Challenge  of  Science'  at  the  California  Labor  School  in 
Oakland. 

"April  30,  1946,  he  was  a  sponsor  of  the  American-Russian 
Institute,  and  in  June,  1946,  the  21st  to  be  exact,  he  conducted 
a  labor  forum  on  the  'U.  S.  S.  R.'  under  the  auspices  of  the  Amer- 
ican-Russian Institute.  His  wife,  Dorothea  Eltenton,  taught  at  the 
Tom  Mooney  Labor  School  on  July  25,  1942.  She  taught  'Life  in 
the  Soviet  Union.'  On  August  31st  of  that  year  she  spoke  on 
'Soviet  Culture'  at  the  Tom  Mooney  Labor  School.  On  March  5th, 
1943,  she  taught  'Soviet  Minorities'  at  the  Tom  Mooney  Labor 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  177 

School,  and  she  was  also  Director  for  the  Institute  for  Pacific  Rela- 
tions. She  attended  the  mass  meeting  on  the  fifteenth  of  May,  1946, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  American-Russian  Institute  in  San  Fran- 
cisco to  honor  Contsantin  Siminov,  the  Soviet  writer.  Mr.  Siminov, 
incidentally,  according  to  this  article,  which  is  from  the  People's 
Daily  World,  wrote  for  Mainstream,  the  new  Marxist  quarterly, 
with  Dr.  Holland  Roberts,  President  of  the  American-Russian 

Institute,  and  one  of  the  co-editors  of  Mainstream." 
******* 

John  T.  McTernan,  of  the  law  firm  of  Gallagher,  Margolis,  McTer- 
nan  and  Tyre,  was  subpenaed  and  testified  before  the  committee  in  Los 
Angeles  February  17,  1948.  He  announced  that  he  represented  Sidney 
Davison,  Katherine  McTernan  (his  wife),  William  Axelrod,  Louis 
Schwartz,  Virginia  Gardner,  Frank  Spector,  and  Ben  Richman,  all  of 
whom  had  been  subpenaed  by  the  Committee  for  the  Los  Angeles 
hearing. 

McTernan  testified  that  he  came  to  Los  Angeles  from  San  Fran- 
cisco in  March  of  1944.  From  that  point  on  his  testimony  was  evasive 
and  argumentative,  when  he  did  not  actually  refuse  to  answer  questions. 
He  finally  admitted,  on  the  ground  that  it  was  a  matter  of  public  record, 
that  the  American  Russian  Institute  had  called  a  meeting  at  his  home  and 
that  the  meeting  was  held  on  February  8, 1948.  This  meeting  was  attended 
(although  this  information  was  not  actually  wrested  from  McTernan) 
by  members  of  the  Communist  Party  organization,  the  Congress  of 
American  Women,  and  there  were  about  250  men  and  women  present. 
Among  those  in  attendance  were  Evdokia  I.  Uralova,  Minister  of  Educa- 
tion for  Byelo  of  the  Soviet  Union;  Xenia  Gromyko,  wife  of  Andrei 
Gromyko ;  Elizabeth  A.  Popova,  Soviet  Judge ;  Ivan  Tarasov,  U.  S.  S.  R. 
Vice-Consul;  and  Alexandria  Groth.  Others  in  attendance  were  Mrs. 
Irving  Adler,  Dr.  Jack  Agins,  Bella  Dubnoff,  Paul  Dubnoff,  Frances  R. 
Eisenberg  (See  Committee's  1947  report),  Priscilla  M.  Esterman,  Wil- 
lard  Hall  Francis,  Harold  Gardner,  Leslie  Gardner,  Joseph  Goarwitch, 
Sanford  Goldner,  Susan  I.  Hardyman,  C.  Ko^neff,  Jerome  McNair, 
Helen  Hall  Moreland,  and  Rea  M.  Schneider. 

McTernan  praised  the  Communist  Party's  People's  Daily  World 
and,  generally,  countered  every  question  with  the  current  Communist 
Party  strategy.  He  continually  declared  that  he  was  being  " intimi- 
dated" and  that  the  questions  asked  him  invaded  his  "privacy." 

Helen  Hall  Moreland,  Dean  of  Women  at  the  University  of  South- 
ern California,  appeared  and  testified  concerning  her  affiliation  with  the 
American  Russian  Institute.  She  "presumed"  that  she  was  connected 
with  the  organization,  because  her  name  was  listed  on  the  stationery 
as  a  member  of  the  Board.  She  explained  that  the  American  Russian 
Institute  had  held  some  social  functions  which  she  attended.  She  said  she 
was  asked  if  she  would  be  willing  to  serve  on  the  organization's  Board. 
She  testified  that  she  stated  that  she  would  be  willing  to  serve  if  she 
were  elected,  and  that  she  would  be  glad  to  help  in  any  way.  She  stated 
that  her  name,  thereafter,  appeared  on  the  stationery  but  that  she  had 
never  been  notified  of  her  election.  She  identified  Mrs.  Bella  Dubnoff 
as  the  executive  secretary  for  the  American  Russian  Institute. 

13— L-7088-D 


178  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Miss  Moreland  testified  that  she  had  attended  the  meeting  of  the 
American  Russian  Institute  at  the  home  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  T. 
McTernan  on  February  8,  1948,  at  which  Soviet  dignitaries  were  in 
attendance.  She  stated  that  a  Mrs.  Minna  Agins  acted  as  an  interpreter 
for  the  Russians  at  this  meeting. 

Miss  Moreland  testified  that  she  had  attended  the  meeting  of  the 
American  Russian  Institute  held  at  the  Unitarian  Church  in  Los  Angeles 
and  presided  over  the  meeting.  This  was  on  the  evening  of  February 
9,  1948,  and  was  in  honor  of  the  two  Soviet  women  delegates  to  the 
United  Nations.  She  believed  that  the  meeting  was  attended  by  around 
800  people.  Minna  Agins  again  acted  as  interpreter.  The  two  Russian 
women  spoke,  according  to  Miss  Moreland,  as  did  Bella  Dubnoff,  who, 
it  later  developed  in  Miss  Moreland 's  testimony,  was  the  "they"  who 
asked  her  to  become  a  member  of  the  American  Russian  Institute's 
Board.  Mrs.  Dubnoff  is  the  executive  secretary  of  the  Los  Angeles 
branch  of  the  organization.  Miss  Moreland  was  also  acquainted  with 
two  other  members  of  the  board,  Dr.  George  Day  of  Occidental  College 
and  Jerome  McNair.  (The  meeting  at  the  Unitarian  Church  was  in 
honor  of  Evdokia  I.  Uralova  and  Elizabeth  A.  Popova,  two  Soviet 
women. ) 

Both  Dorothea  Eltenton  and  her  husband,  Dr.  George  Eltenton, 
were  members  of  the  American  Russian  Institute  in  San  Francisco. 
Dr.  George  Eltenton  was  a  nuclear  physicist.  He  attended  the  Lenin- 
grad Institute  in  Soviet  Russia  and  appeared  before  the  Committee  at 
its  Oakland,  1947,  hearings. 

Mrs.  Katherine  McTernan,  wife  of  John  T.  McTernan,  was  sub- 
penaed  and  testified  before  the  Committee,  February  18,  1948.  Like 
her  husband,  Mrs.  McTernan  was  evasive  and  argumentative  when  she 
did  not  actually  refuse  to  answer  questions  propounded  by  the  com- 
mittee's counsel  or  committee  members.  She,  like  her  husband,  refused 
to  answer  whether  or  not  she  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party, 
or  had  ever  been.  About  the  only  direct  answer  to  any  question  pro- 
pounded to  Mrs.  McTernan  was  that  she  had  taught  at  the  People's 
Educational  Center  in  1947  and  that  Sidney  Davison  was  the  director  of 
the  Communist  school  during  that  year. 

AMERICAN  STUDENT  UNION 

This  Communist  front  for  students  was  organized  at  a  convention 
held  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  in  December,  1935,  and  resulted  from  the 
merger  of  the  National  Student  League  (Communist)  and  the  Student 
League  for  Industrial  Democracy  (Socialist).  The  merger  was  in  accord 
with  the  ' '  united  front ' '  policy  adopted  by  the  Communist  International 
at  its  seventh  congress  in  the  summer  of  1935,  calling  for  joint  action 
with  Socialist  groups  throughout  the  world.  The  combined  organization 
was  under  Communist  control  from  its  inception  and  has  followed  the 
official  objectives  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Without  exception  the  American  Student  Union  supported  defense 
of  teachers  and  students  charged  with  Communist  activity.  The  Dies 
Committee  reports  the  following :  Robert  Burke,  ousted  from  Columbia 
University ;  Jerome  Davis,  ousted  from  Yale  University ;  Morris  U. 
Schappes,  ousted  from  the  City  College  of  New  York;  Herbert  Morais, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  179 

Howard  Selsam,  David  McKelvey  White,  Henry  Klein,  John  Kenneth 
Ackley,  Alfred  Chaikin,  Maxwell  Weisman,  Philip  Foner,  Walter  Scott 
Neff,  Morris  Foner,  Seymour  Copstein,  Frederic  Ewen,  Harry  Slochower, 
Lewis  Balamuth,  Sidney  Eisenberger,  and  others  cited  by  the  Rapp- 
Coudert  committee  investigating  Communist  activities  in  the  New  York 
public  schools. 

Communist  Celeste  Strack  was  national  high  school  secretary  in 
1937.  Andrew  Charles  of  the  University  *f  California  was  a  member  of 
the  national  executive  committee.  Bernie  Firestone  of  the  University  of 
California  was  a  vice-chairman  in  1938.  Jack  Chasson,  U.  C.  L.  A.,  was  a 
member  of  the  College  Committee  and  Dorothy  Brooks  of  Belmont  High 
School  in  Los  Angeles  was  a  member  of  the  High  School  Committee. 

The  Advisory  Board  of  the  American  Student  Union  was  composed 
of  Roger  Baldwin,  Algernon  Black,  Van  Wyck  Brooks,  George  S.  Counts, 
Mrs.  Ethel  Clyde,  Mary  Fox,  Waldo  Frank,  Francis  Gorman,  Louis 
Hacker,  Julius  Hochman,  Quincy  Howe,  Charles  Hendley,  Freda  Kirch- 
wey,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Alexander  Meiklejohn,  Reinhold  Niebuhr, 
Norman  Thomas,  Mrs.  Bertha  Pool  Weyl,  and  Goodwin  Watson. 

The  national  headquarters  of  the  American  Student  Union  was 
located  at  112  East  19th  Street,  New  York  City. 

The  following  members  of  the  American  Student  Union  were  active 
at  the  University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles :  Bessy  Albert,  Elsa  Aller, 
Walter  Alshuler,  Melvin  Bassman,  John  Berry,  Lee  Beaudry,  Betty 
Bregoff,  Goldie  Brill,  Lee  Christie,  Byron  Citron,  Ula  Citron,  Betty  Chan, 
Jeanne tte  Cohen,  Mitzi  Cooper,  Margaret  Corbell,  Frank  Dituri,  Eliza- 
beth Embrey,  Garland  Embrey,  Sam  Eidusson,  Florita  Ecmirbiam,  Ruth 
Fisher,  Carol  Flepsie,  Miriam  Gordon,  Pauline  Harrison,  Edith  Kauf- 
man, Clara  Klapperman,  John  Krause,  Cynthia  Lee,  Leonora  Levin,  Ray 
Levin,  Faustine  Liles,  Ralph  Littlestone,  Melvin  Lifton,  Sarah  Mazelis, 
Roxie  Wittenburg,  Galiiia  Wollin,  Charles  Robel  and  Dan  Zhitlowsky. 

The  following  national  figures  have  been  affiliated  with  the  American 
Student  Union  :  Bruce  Bliven,  James  B.  Carey,  Mrs.  Ethel  Clyde,  Albert 
Sprague  Coolidge,  Langston  Hughes,  Frank  Kingdon,  Max  A.  Lerner, 
Arthur  M.  Schlesinger,  J.  Raymond  Walsh,  Orson  Welles,  James  Water- 
man Wise,  Jerome  Davis,  Serril  Gerber,  and  Arthur  Holcombe. 

Bruce  Bliven  is  listed  from  Stanford  University  and  Serril  Gerber 
from  Los  Angeles  J.  C. 

In  cooperation  with  the  American  Student  Union,  a  demonstration 
was  held  at  the  University  of  California  in  Los  Angeles,  April  18,  1940, 
in  conjunction  with  the  Yanks  Are  Not  Coming  Committee.  The  Yanks 
Are  Not  Coming  Committee  was  strictly  a  Communist  organization.  The 
purpose  of  the  meeting  at  the  University  of  California  in  Los  Angeles 
was  to  induce  the  students  to  stage  a  "peace  strike"  in  support  of  the 
Stalin-Hitler  Pact.  Among  the  speakers  at  this  meeing  were  Dr.  E.  P. 
Ryland  of  the  American  Civil  Liberties  Union,  Carey  Me  Williams,  and 
Herbert  K.  Sorrell. 

AMERICAN  YOUTH  CONGRESS 

The  American  Youth  Congress  was  launched  during  August  of 
1934,  and  for  about  seven  years  it  was  one  of  the  most  influential  front 
organizations  ever  established  by  the  American  Communist  Party.  In 


180  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

response  to  a  call  by  one  Viola  lima,  a  conference  was  organized  at  New 
York  University,  Washington  Square,  New  York  City. 

The  Communists  contended  that  Viola  lima  was  tainted  with  Nazi 
or  Fascist  sympathies  and  that  her  idea  in  mobilizing  American  youth 
into  the  America  Youth  Congress  was  " inspired"  by  observing  youth 
organizations  in  Italy  and  Germany.  In  any  event,  the  gathering  in  New 
York  in  1934  included  representatives  from  national  youth  organizations, 
reaching  all  the  way  from  the  Boy  Scouts  to  the  Young  Communist 
League. 

The  Communists  took  over  immediately.  Earl  Browder,  in  his  book 
"Communism,"  describes  the  capture  of  the  American  Youth  Congress, 
and,  incidentally  accuses  Eleanor  Roosevelt,  members  of  the  Roosevelt 
Cabinet,  and  state  governors,  along  with  Viola  lima,  of  having  Fascist 
tendencies.  Browder  said : 

"A  unique  achievement  of  the  youth  united  front  movement 
was  the  building  of  an  anti-fascist  bloc  inside  the  American  Youth 
Congress,  which  was  called  together  by  a  certain  young  woman 
named  Viola  lima  with  the  backing  of  Mrs.  Roosevelt,  Anne  Morgan, 
a  half-dozen  State  Governors,  members  of  the  Roosevelt  Cabinet,  etc., 
with  the  purpose  of  adopting  a  program  for  American  youth  which 
was  distinctly  fascist  in  its  tendencies. ' ' 

Like  many  important  Communist  front  organizations,  the  American 
Youth  Congress  was  so  cleverly  handled  that  many  prominent  persons  of 
non-Communist  tendencies  were  drawn  into  its  circle  of  supporters. 

With  the  help  of  the  Socialists,  the  Communists  were  successful  in 
ousting  Viola  lima  from  the  leadership  of  the  American  Youth  Congress, 
and  installed  Waldo  McNutt  as  chairman.  McNutt  held  this  position  for 
about  a  year,  when  he  became  the  national  organizer  of  the  American 
League  Against  War  and  Fascism,  another  important  Communist  front 
organization.  Waldo  McNutt 's  father,  Ernest  F.  McNutt,  was  a  member 
of  the  Kansas  State  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  and  a  repre- 
sentative from  Kansas  on  the  national  executive  board  of  the  Workers' 
Alliance  of  America,  the  Communist  front  for  unemployed. 

Waldo  McNutt 's  wife,  Rose  Troiano,  was  a  member  of  the  adminis- 
trative committee  of  the  American  Youth  Congress. 

William  W.  Hinckley  was  executive  secretary  of  the  American 
Youth  Congress  for  a  few  months  in  the  latter  part  of  1935  and  became 
chairman  of  the  organization  in  January  of  1936.  He  continued  to  serve 
in  this  position  until  July,  1939.  The  Dies  Committee  reported  that 
the  Communist  Party  arranged  and  paid  for  Hinckley 's  trans-atl antic 
passage  to  Europe  in  1936,  where  he  was  in  attendance  at  the  Frst  World 
Youth  Congress.  At  this  time  Hinckley  was  chairman  of  the  American 
Youth  Congress. 

Champion  is  a  publication  of  the  Communist  Party  and  bears  the 
union  printer's  label  No.  209,  Prompt  Press.  Edward  Strong,  Abbott 
Simon  and  Rose  Terlin,  leaders  of  the  American  Youth  Congress,  were 
members  of  the  staff  of  the  Champion. 

Edward  Strong  was  a  member  of  the  administrative  committee  of  the 
American  Youth  Congress,  representing  the  National  Negro  Congress. 
He  was  also  the  chairman  of  the  Southern  Negro  Youth  Congress.  He 
was  member  of  the  National  Committee  of  The  American  League  for 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  181 

Peace  and  Democracy.  He  was  later  the  executive  secretary  of  the 
National  Negro  Congress. 

Clarence  Hathaway,  leading  American  Communist,  and  editor  of 
the  Daily  Worker,  was  one  of  the  principal  speakers  at  the  Second 
American  Youth  Congress  held  in  Detroit  in  1935. '  *  I  am  sure, ' '  declared 
Hathaway,  "that  the  American  youth  guided  and  led  by  the  American 
Youth  Congress  will  be  a  force  working  for  the  defense  of  the  Soviet 
Union,  our  Socialist  Fatherland,  and  for* he  defeat  of  our  own  robber 
imperialist  government  and  for  the  victory  of  the  American  toiling 
masses."  This  declaration  was  greeted  with  "prolonged  applause." 

Since  1933  there  have  been  five  distinct  Communist  phases  of  policy 
with  respect  to  the  administration  at  Washington.  (1)  Pronounced  hos- 
tility toward  the  administration,  1933  to  1936.  (2)  The  People's  Front 
era,  in  which  the  Communist  Party  made  great  efforts  to  ingratiate  itself 
with  the  administration,  1936  to  August,  1939.  (3)  The  Stalin-Hitler 
pact  era,  August,  1939,  to  June,  1941,  in  which  the  Communist  Party 
viciously  attacked  the  administration  and  picketed  the  White  House. 
(4)  The  era  of  winning  support  for  Soviet  Russia  in  which  the  Com- 
munists set  themselves  up  as  "win-the-war"  super-patriots,  June,  1941, 
to  V-J  Day,  1945.  (5)  V-J  Day  to  the  present,  in  which  the  Communists 
attack  the  Truman  administration  and  direct  their  propaganda  against 
the  "imperialist  policy"  of  the  United  States  in  an  attempt  to  support 
Soviet  Russia 's  expansionist  program  in  Europe  and  Asia. 

Every  Communist  front  in  the  United  States  is  characterized  by  its 
faithful  adherence  to  the  change  in  the  ' '  party  line, ' '  as  indicated  above, 
and  the  American  Youth  Congress  has  not  been  an  exception. 

Among  those  who  have  been  affiliated  with  or  who  have  given  sup- 
port to  the  subversive  American  Youth  Congress  are  the  following : 

Thomas  R.  Amlie,  Luigi  Antonini,  Madeleine  L.  Arduino,  Roger  N. 
Baldwin,  Harry  Elmer  Barnes,  Elmer  A.  Benson,  Mary  McLeod  Bethune, 
Van  A.  Bittner,  Ralph  S.  Cushman,  Jerome  Davis,  Dorothy  Detzer,  E. 
Franklin  Frazier,  Mrs.  William  Lloyd  Garrison,  III,  Rabbi  Sidney  E. 
Goldstein,  Dorothy  Kenyon,  Frank  Kingdon,  Oliver  LaFarge,  Eduard 
C.  Lindeman,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Henry  Noble  MacCracken,  Archi- 
bald MacLeish,  Jeremiah  T.  Mahoney,  Phillip  Murray,  Clifford  Odets, 
Rev.  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  William  F.  Quillian,  Reid  Robinson,  Philip 
Schiff,  Rose  Schneiderman,  George  N.  Schuster,  George  Soule,  Maxwell 
S.  Stewart,  Genevieve  Taggard,  Katharine  Terrill,  Mary  Van  Kleeck, 
Dr.  Harry  F.  Ward,  Orson  Welles,  Reverend  Robert  T.  Weston,  A.  F. 
Whitney,  Aubrey  Williams,  M.  L.  Wilson,  James  Waterman  Wise,  Mary 
E.  Woolley,  and  Winnifred  Wygal. 

Prominent  individual  endorsers  of  the  American  Youth  Congress 
and  its  activities  include  the  following :  John  P.  Davis,  Oswald  Garrison 
Villard,  Max  Yergan,  Heywood  Broun,  Raymond  Burr,  Frank  GiUmore, 
Gardner  Jackson,  A.  Philip  Randolph,  John  M.  Coffee,  Thomas  F.  Ford, 
Harold  L.  Ickes,  Ed  V.  Izak,  Culbert  L.  Olson,  Robert  F.  Wagner,  Rev. 
Stephen  H.  Fritchman,  and  Jack  McMichael. 

Among  others  who  were  active  in  the  American  Youth  Congress  are 
Celeste  Strack,  Carl  Ross,  Gil  Green  and  Angelo  Herndon.  Gil  Green, 
Angelo  Herndon,  Carl  Ross  and  Celeste  Strack  were  coeditors  of  the 
Young  Communist  Review,  published  by  the  National  Board  of  the  Young 
Communist  League  of  the  United  States. 


182  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Celeste  Strack  was  student  secretary  of  the  Young  Communist 
League  and  high  school  secretary  of  the  American  Student  Union.  She 
represented  the  American  Student  Union  and  the  Young  Communist 
League  in  the  American  Youth  Congress. 

Carl  Ross  and  Gil  Green  were  the  national  representatives  of  the 
Young  Communist  League  in  the  American  Youth  Congress. 

Angelo  Herndon  represented  the  National  Negro  Congress  in  the 
American  Youth  Congress. 

American  Youth  Congress  publishes  a  magazine  entitled  Winner, 
the  editor  of  which  is  Barry  Wood,  the  Communist  Party  name  for  Jeff 
Kibre,  well-known  party  leader  in  Southern  California. 

AMERICAN  YOUTH  FOR  DEMOCRACY 

This  organization  was  formerly  the  Young  Communist  League.  It 
has  been  very  active  in  California  but  has  not  achieved  too  much  success 
on  the  university  campus. 

On  October  17,  1943,  a  special  convention  of  the  Young  Communist 
League  was  held  at  Mecca  Temple,  New  York  City.  The  name  of  the 
organization  was  changed  to  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  In  the 
issue  of  the  Communist  for  September,  1943,  the  president  of  the  Young 
Communist  League  called  for  a  change  of  the  name  of  the  group  in  order 
to  enable  the  organization  to  function  more  efficiently  for  the  duration 
of  the  war. 

On  November  11,  1943,  a  meeting  was  held  in  San  Francisco  to  hear 
a  report  on  the  Young  Communist  League  convention.  Among  those  who 
spoke  were  Rev.  Morgan  A.  Tabb,  Miss  Jean  Addis,  Mrs.  Robert  Miller 
Green  (formerly  Betty  McGregor  of  the  Young  Communist  League), 
Miss  Annabel  Hopkins  and  Andrew  Barrigan. 

In  December  of  1943  the  San  Francisco  sponsors  of  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  were  published.  Among  those  listed  were  Bartley  Crum 
and  Dr.  Thomas  Addis  of  Stanford  University. 

The  first  California  state  convention  of  the  American  Youth  for 
Democracy  was  held  in  the  North  Star  Auditorium,  631  West  Adams 
Boulevard,  Los  Angeles,  on  May  6  and  7,  1944.  Among  those  who  spoke 
were  Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  Bartley  Crum,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Lester 
McMillan,  and  John  Howard  Lawson. 

The  first  Los  Angeles  County  convention  was  held  on  July  8,  1945, 
at  Park  Manor,  2200  West  Seventh  Street,  Los  Angeles.  Among  the 
speakers  was  Jerry  Pacht.  An  Intercollegiate  Council  was  proposed 
calling  for  members  from  each  college  where  a  unit  of  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  was  organized.  The  educational  institutions  listed  were 
University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles,  California  Technical  Institute, 
and  Los  Angeles  City  College. 

During  the  agitational  activities  of  the  Communist  front,  Mobiliza- 
tion for  Democracy,  American  Youth  for  Democracy  members  volun- 
teered to  distribute  100,000  handbills  for  the  organization. 

During  the  motion  picture  strike  American  Youth  for  Democracy 
members  volunteered  to  do  picket  duty  and  a  spokesman  for  the  organ- 
ization announced  that  all  units  would  be  contacted  for  strike  duty  in 
the  picket  line. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  183 

On  December  31,  1944,  Albert  Dekker  acted  as  master  of  ceremonies 
at  an  American  Youth  for  Democracy  birthday  fete  at  the  Hollywood- 
Roosevelt  Hotel,  where  telegraphic  greetings  were  read  from  Robert  W. 
Kenny.  Honored  guests  were  Congressmen  Ellis  E.  Patterson  and  Ned 
Healy.  Among  those  present  were  Rex  Ingram,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Albee 
Slade,  Rev.  Raymond  Henderson  and  Willis  J^Hill. 

Albert  Dekker  was  announced  as  master  of  Ceremonies  for  an  Amer- 
ican Youth  for  Democracy  banquet  in  San  Francisco,  November  11, 1945. 

On  Sunday,  December  16,  1945,  American  Youth  for  Democracy 
sponsored  a  "Welcome  Home,  Joe"  dinner  at  the  Ambassador  Hotel  in 
Los  Angeles  on  the  occasion  of  the  second  anniversary  of  the  organization. 

Among  the  sponsors  of  this  Communist  affair  were  Mrs.  Faye  E. 
Allen,  Charlotta  A.  Bass,  Edward  Biberman,  Reuben  W.  Borough,  Carl 
Brant,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Cohee,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Floyd  C.  Coving- 
ton,  Dr.  Frank  Davis,  Ernest  Dawson,  Rev.  S.  Martin  Eidsath,  Edward 
Dmytryk,  Pearl  Fagelson,  Leon  Feuchtwanger,  Prof.  Franklin  Fearing, 
Augustus  C.  Hawkins,  Congressman  Ned  Healey,  Rev.  J.  Raymond  Hen- 
derson, Dr.  Charles  W.  Hill,  Willis  J.  Hill,  Prof.  Harry  Hoijer,  Rex 
Ingram,  Peter  M.  Kahn,  Dr.  Maurice  J.  Karpf,  Robert  W.  Kenny,  Jeff 
Kibre,  Walter  Kolowski,  Chaim  Kotylansky,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William 
Kozienko,  Nathan  Krupin,  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  Bill  Lawrence,  John 
Howard  Lawson,  Albert  Maltz,  Lester  McMillan,  Sam  Moore,  Judge 
Stanley  Moffat,  Dr.  Max  Nussbaum,  William  0.  Oliver,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Samuel  Ornitz,  Congressman  Ellis  E.  Patterson,  Oscar  Pattiz,  Frank  G. 
Pellet,  Pettis  Perry,  Prof.  Donald  Piatt,  Jerome  Posner,  Earl  Robinson, 
William  H.  Rosenthal,  Barney  Ross,  Aaron  Rothblatt,  Raye  Rubin,  Rev. 
Clayton  D.  Russell,  Frank  Scully,  Chaim  Shapiro,  Herbert  K.  Sorrell, 
Dr.  Ruth  Temple,  Prof.  Harry  C.  Steinmetz,  Mrs.  Jessie  L.  Terry,  Dr. 
Donald  H.  Tippett,  Matthew  Torok,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Gilbert  W.  Turner, 
and  Al  S.  Waxman. 

Frank  Sinatra  was  an  honored  guest  and  was  presented  with  an 
award  by  Rabbi  Max  Nussbaum.  Col.  Evans  Carlson  presented  an  award 
to  Bill  Mauldin.  Philip  M.  Connelly  made  a  presentation  to  Martha 
MacLane.  Congressman  Ellis  E.  Patterson  presented  an  award  to  Sgt. 
Harry  Tanouye.  Attorney  General  Robert  W.  Kenny  made  a  presenta- 
tion to  De  Witt  Colbert.  Peggy  Ryan,  Carleton  Moss,  and  "Slim" 
Aarons,  received  awards  from  Barney  Ross,  Dore  Schary,  and  Alvah 
Bessie,  respectively. 

Norman  Corwin  was  toastmaster.  John  Howard  Lawson  and  Albert 
Dekker  were  introduced  for  short  addresses. 

Earl  Robinson,  Calvin  Jackson,  Sidney  Miller,  Ann  Blythe,  Julie 
Gibson,  and  Johnny  Poletti  furnished  the  entertainment. 

Senator  Claude  E.  Pepper,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Ann  M.  Kross, 
Col.  Evans  F.  Carlson,  Walter  Huston,  Josephine  Timms,  and  Paul 
Robeson  have  all  taken  time  out  to  laud  and  praise  this  Communist 
front  for  youth. 

American  Youth  for  Democracy  follows  the  Communist  Party  line 
assiduously.  A  press  release  from  the  organization's  headquarters,  1201 
S.  Alvarado  Street,  Los  Angeles,  under  date  of  July  2,  1947,  states 
its  position  on  military  training.  Focus  on  Youth,  American  Youth  for 
Democracy  publication,  issue  for  July  1,  1947,  carries  caption  "Wallace 
Blasts  Youth  Conscription  as  Wedge  for  Wall  Street— Army  Rule." 


184  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  letterhead  of  the  organization  under  date  of  May  30,  1944,  shows 
the  headquarters  at  701  Broadway  Arcade  Building.  The  letter  in  the 
files  of  the  committee  is  signed  by  Elaine  Rose,  field  secretary. 

The  Communist  Party  line  of  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy 
is  obvious  in  most  of  its  leaflets.  One  such  leaflet  in  the  files  of  this  com- 
mittee reads,  in  part,  as  follows : 

The  issue  is  thought  control  vs.  intellectual  freedom  on  our 
campuses.  The  issue  is  youth  security  or  another  generation  of  youth 
betrayed.  We  know  our  enemies — the  men  who  want  to  jail  Henry 
Wallace  for  opposing  the  "Truman  Doctrine"  *  *  *  the  men  who 
preach  hysteria,  war,  union  busting.  While  A.Y.D.  is  the  most 
direct  target,  the  actual  objective  is  reactionary  dictation  to  our 
entire  educational  system,  and  the  betrayal  of  all  American  youth. 

On  Sunday,  October  8,  1944,  American  Youth  for  Democracy  staged 
a  "Teen  Age  Mock  Congress"  at  the  Virgil  Junior  High  School  at  152 
North  Vermont  Avenue  in  Los  Angeles.  The  "officers"  of  the  congress 
were  as  follows:  Patti  Zimmerman,  Isadore  Friedenthal,  Irwin  Gostin, 
Martha  Fleinert,  Leopold  Dumas,  Leo  Breiman,  David  Hollister,  Leo 
Grundfast,  Gordon  Osser,  Arthur  Merims,  and  Vivian  Meyerowitz. 
Sponsors  and  consultants  were :  Charlotta  Bass,  Judge  John  Beardsley, 
Mrs.  Harry  Braverman,  Reuben  Borough,  Dr.  Ernest  Caldecott,  Philip 
M.  Connelly,  Dr.  Franklin  Fearing,  Kenneth  Howard,  Mrs.  Lucie 
McCollie,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Oscar  Pattiz,  William  Pomerance,  Earl 
Robinson,  and  Everett  Wile. 

The  chairman  of  the  "judiciary"  was  David  Hollister,  and  Frank- 
lin Fearing  and  Carol  Hollister  were  the  "consultants."  Community 
singing  and  songs  were  by  Shirley  Grawoig  and  Bill  Oliver.  Meyer 
Frieden,  executive  secretary  of  the  Los  Angeles  branch  of  American 
Youth  for  Democracy  made  a  presentation  of  "merit  pins."  Dr.  Ernest 
Caldecott  gave  the  ' '  invocation. ' ' 

A  letter  under  date  of  January  8,  1946,  signed  by  Meyer  Frieden, 
shows  the  address  of  the  organization  as  408  S.  Spring  Street,  Los  Angeles 
13,  telephone  MUtual  5307.  Jeanette  Salve  is  listed  as  chairman.  Record- 
ing secretary  is  Lee  Herendeen.  Student  secretary  is  Vicki  Landish. 
The  vice  chairmen  are  Sue  Scherr,  Gene  Gardner,  Nena  Ackerman,  and 
Bob  Zakon. 

The  state  officers  in  1945  were  James  Logan,  Vivien  Levin,  Bill 
Lowe,  Nancy  Rosenfield,  Katie  Corboff  (or  Korboff),  and  Dash 
McMichael. 

The  state  council  was  composed  of  Jean  Addis,  Reeva  Cluen,  Fred 
Toy,  Betty  Green  (McGruger),  Pearl  Pinson,  Rachel  Reis,  Elbert  Bass, 
Harriet  Moskowitz,  Ding  Rossi,  Eloise  Steel,  and  Helen  Lude. 

San  Diego  officers  were  Jackie  Smith,  Frank  Crump,  Barbara 
Richardson,  Camille  Barkan,  and  Johnny  Peacock. 

Marin  County  officers  were  Ann  Tompkins  and  Pierre  Patri. 

East  Bay  officers  were  Sandra  Martin,  Meyer  Frieden,  Irvin  Gostin, 
Vicki  Landish,  Norma  Pittman,  Mary  Sherwood,  Paul  Dudrov,  Pearl 
Glazer,  Geraldine  Brownlow,  George  Stankert,  and  Elaine  Mitchell. 

Los  Angeles  officers  were  Kelly  Mink,  Sam  Young,  Elaine  Rose, 
Patti  Zimmerman,  Gloria  Gervin,  Helene  Powell,  Steve  Stanford,  Isabel 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  185 

Baron,  Sybil  Goldenberg,  Martha  Freeman,  Francis  Herrera,  Bob  Ham- 
ilton, Ida  Bodin,  Bill  Jenkins,  Harriette  Goodman,  Jeannette  Salve,  and 
Carolyn  Hassell. 

The  following  names  were  listed  as  members  of  the  provisional 
council  on  a  pamphlet  distributed  by  American  Youft  for  Democracy 
announcing  the  ''First  California  State  Convention"  of  the  organiza- 
tion, held  at  the  North  Star  Auditorium,  1631  W.  Adams  Blvd.  in  Los 
Angeles  (May,  1944)  :  Jean  Addis,  Charles  Anderson,  Dolores  Ander- 
son, Isabelle  Baron,  Katy  Corboff,  Charlotte  Flanner,  Meyer  Frieden, 
Betty  Green,  Gerald  Hill,  Earl  Johnson,  Vicki  Landish,  Vivian  Levin, 
James  Logan,  William  Lowe,  Eoss  Lynch,  Sandra  Martin,  Dash 
McMichael,  Kelly  Mink,  Harriet  Moskowitz,  Jerry  O'Connor,  Reeva 
Olsen,  Helene  Powell,  Barbara  Richardson,  Violet  Rittenberg,  Nancy 
Rosenfield,  Willy  Solomon,  Julia  Spector,  Celeste  Strack,  Fred  Toy, 
and  Mary  Jane  Windsor. 

The  following  names  were  listed  on  the  same  pamphlet  as  sponsors : 
Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  Dr.  Harold  B.  Allen,  Mara  Alexander,  Henry  Arm- 
strong, R.  S.  Avery,  William  Bailey,  Charlotta  A.  Bass,  Louise  Beavers, 
Reuben  W.  Borough,  Dr.  Arthur  Brodjeur,  Hugh  Bryson,  David  W. 
Buchanan,  Dr.  Phillip  W.  Buck,  Lolita  Bunyard,  J.  Vernon  Burke,  Iris 
Carpenter,  Ada  Clement,  Dr.  P.  Price  Cobbs,  Dr.  Le  Grande  Coleman, 
Philip  M.  Connelly,  Bartley  Crum,  Van  Dart,  Ernest  Dawson,  Daniel 
Del  Carlo,  Dr.  Mathurin  Dondo,  Edward  Dmytryk,  Rev.  S.  Martin 
Eidsath,  Dr.  Charles  A.  Ertola,  Howard  Estabrook,  Rev.  Joyce  Wesley 
Farr,  Arnold  M.  Fassler,  Rev.  Juan  Garcia,  Gus  Gaynor,  Robert  Miller 
Green,  Kathleen  Griffin,  Dr.  Victor  Hall,  Ruby  Heide,  Violetta  M.  Hems- 
ley,  Rev.  J.  Raymond  Henderson,  Loyal  A.  Hobson,  Lillian  Hodghead, 
G.  F.  Irvine,  Joseph  James,  Rev.  H.  T.  S.  Johnson,  Dr.  Alexander  Kaun, 
George  Kidwell,  Peter  King,  Rev.  Herrick  Lane,  John  Howard  Lawson, 
Dr.  Leon  L.  Loofburow,  Rev.  Edgar  Lowther,  Richard  Lynden,  Walter 
W.  Mahaffey,  Lester  A.  McMillan,  Bertha  Metro,  Stanley  Moffatt,  George 
H.  Moore,  Steve  Murdock,  Mrs.  George  Newman,  Dolores  Padilla,  Rt. 
Rev.  Edward  L.  Parsons,  Giacomo  Patri,  Lyle  M.  Proctor,  Mervyn  Rath- 
bone,  Dr.  Holland  Roberts,  Ralph  Rogers,  William  H.  Rosenthal,  Robert 
Rossen,  Dr.  Maxwell  Savelle,  James  San  Jule,  Paul  Schnur,  Dr.  Ch'en 
Shou-Yi,  Jeffrey  Smith,  Anne  Solomon,  Jack  Stallings,  Harry  C.  Stein- 
metz,  Rev.  Edward  Stovall,  Dixie  Tiller,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Dr.  George  A. 
Warmer,  Dr.  Frank  W.  Weymouth,  Helen  Wheeler,  Jack  White,  Rabbi 
Saul  White,  Anita  Whitney,  and  Dr.  George  H.  Williams. 

Robert  Thompson  was  the  national  cochairman  of  the  American 
Youth  for  Democracy.  He  was  formerly  a  national  vice  president  of  the 
Young  Communist  League.  He  has  been  a  contributor  to  the  Communist 
Daily  Worker.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade.  The 
Young  Communist  Review  of  April,  1938,  described  Thompson  as  the 
"leading  Y.C.L.  figure  in  California."  In  1938,  Robert  Thompson  was 
a  member  of  the  National  Council  of  the  Young  Communist  League. 

Carl  Ross  became  national  Executive  Secretary  of  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  when  it  was  launched  in  October,  1943.  For  more  than 
five  years  prior  to  that  time,  he  had  been  national  Executive  Secretary 
of  the  Young  Communist  League.  He  was  affiliated  with  such  Communist 
front  organizations  as  the  American  Youth  Congress  and  the  World 
Youth  Congress. 


186  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Claudia  Jones  was  the  Editor  of  the  official  magazine  of  the  Ameri- 
can Youth  for  Democracy,  Spotlight.  She  was  formerly  an  associate  edi- 
tor of  the  official  organ  of  the  Young  Communist  League,  Weekly  Review. 
She  was  a  member  of  the  National  Council  of  the  Young  Communist 
League.  Claudia  Jones  presently  faces  deportation  as  an  undesirable 
alien  seeking  the  overthrow  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

Leo  Cooper  was  Managing  Editor  of  Spotlight,  the  official  magazine 
of  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  He  formerly  was  the  Managing  Edi- 
tor of  the  Weekly  Review,  the  official  organ  of  the  Young  Communist 
League. 

Celeste  Strack  became  the  Executive  Secretary  of  American  Youth 
for  Democracy  in  California.  She  was  formerly  a  member  of  the  National 
Council  of  the  Young  Communist  League.  She  ran  for  Congress  on  the 
Communist  Party  ticket  in  1940. 

The  following  (Spotlight,  April,  1944)  were  national  sponsors  of 
American  Youth  for  Democracy :  Henry  Armstrong,  Charlotte  Hawkins 
Brown,  John  M.  Coffee,  Frank  Marshall  Davis,  Howard  Fast,  A.  Eustace 
Haydon,  William  H.  Holly,  Langston  Hughes,  John  Howard  Lawson, 
Kirtley  F.  Mather,  H.  P.  Marley,  F.  Mathiessen,  Adam  Clayton  Powell, 
Jr.,  Minerva  Pious,  Charles  S.  Seely,  William  B.  Spofford,  D.  J.  Struik, 
William  Jay  Schieffelin,  Teddy  Wilson,  Mary  E.  Woolley,  and  Mary 
McLeod  Bethune. 

The  national  headquarters  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy  are 
located  at  150  Nassau  Street,  Room  412,  New  York  City.  The  cochairmen 
of  the  organization  were  Robert  Thompson  and  Naomi  Ellison.  The 
executive  secretary  is  Carol  Ross.  Winifred  Norman  and  John  Gallo 
were  vice  chairmen.  The  secretary-treasurer  was  W.  Robert  McCarthy. 
Others  connected  with  the  national  set-up  were  Henry  Cooperstock, 
Terry  Grabel,  Vivian  Levin,  Leo  Rifkin,  Beryl  Michaelson,  Jimmie 
Schlecker,  Nettie  Selling,  Everett  C.  Thomas,  and  Leon  Wossy. 

Among  American  Youth  for  Democracy  members  who  were  also 
connected  with  the  Communist  Party  or  the  Young  Communist  League, 
are  the  following:  Pauline  Annone,  Warren  Brown,  Fay  Caller  (alias 
Fay  Caller  Vedro),  Frank  Cestare,  Leo  Cooper,  Margaret  Delehante, 
Jack  Epstein,  Francis  Franklin,  John  Gallo,  Claudia  Jones,  John  Hud- 
son Jones,  Adeline  Kohl,  David  Livingston,  Daisy  Lolich,  Bill  Mardo, 
Robert  McCarthy,  Carl  Ross,  Lillian  Ross,  Phillip  Schatz,  Herbert  Sig- 
ner, Marcella  Sloane,  Celeste  Strack,  Everett  Thomas,  Robert  Thomp- 
son, Max  Weiss,  Thelma  Weiss,  James  West,  and  Leon  Wossy. 

Subsidiary  Communist  fronts  created  by  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, include  Sweethearts  of  Service  Men,  Friends  of  the  Campus,  and 
World  Federation  of  Democratic  Youth.  Pauline  Annone,  and  Naomi 
Ellison  were  active  in  Sweethearts  of  Service  Men.  The  "boy  friend"  of 
Pauline  Annone  was  David  Grant,  Organizational  Secretary  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  western  Pennsylvania.  Naomi  Ellison  is  the  wife  of  Vic- 
tor Ellison,  Communist  candidate  for  Commissioner  in  Pierce  County, 
Washington.  Donald  Henderson,  Jack  MacMichael,  Vivian  Liebman, 
Joseph  Starobin,  and  Bob  Burke,  were  among  the  leaders  of  Friends  of 
the  Campus. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  187 

American  Youth  for  Democracy  is  affiliated  with  the  World  Feder- 
ation of  Democratic  Youth,  founded  in  London  November,  1945,  by  dele- 
gates from  more  than  50  nations.  The  organization  now  has  its  headquar- 
ters in  Paris.  It  is  part  of  the  Communist  Internationa^  solar  system 
which  includes  such  other  world  Communist  organizations  as  Women's 
International  Democratic  Federation  and  the  World  Federation  of  Trade 
Unions. 

The  1945  delegation  to  the  World  Youth  Conference  included  Esther 
Cooper,  Frances  Damon,  Alice  Horton,  Molly  Lieber,  Elizabeth  McCand- 
less,  Thomas  Neill,  and  Doris  Senk.  Elsa  Graves,  Frances  Damon,  Naomi 
Chertoff,  Esther  Cooper,  Russell  Jones,  and  Thomas  Neill  were  among 
the  American  delegates  elected  as  officers  of  the  World  Youth  Conference. 
Out  of  the  World  Federation  of  Democratic  Youth  came  the  Inter- 
national Union  of  Students,  which  held  a  meeting  in  Prague  on  August 
17-31,  1946.  Twelve  of  the  17-man  executive  committee  are  known  Com- 
munists. 

The  officials  of  the  University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles  recognized 
the  Communist  character  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  An  editorial 
from  the  Los  Angeles  Herald-Express,  January  19,  1948,  tells  the  story. 
The  editorial,  under  the  caption,  "U.  C.  L.  A.  Outlaws  Communist  Group 
as  Campus  Organization,"  reads  as  follows : 

Officials  of  the  University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles  are  to  be 
commended  for  their  action  in  refusing  official  campus  standing  to 
the  American  Youth  for  Democracy  organization,  successor  to  the 
Young  Communist  League,  on  the  ground  that  it  is  a  political  organ- 
ization and  political  organizations  are  barred  from  campus  recog- 
nition. 

The  community  will  look  with  favor  on  this  stand  for  positive 
Americanism  and  will  now  watch  with  interest  to  see  what  the  uni- 
versity does  about  those  faculty  members  who  have  been  so  interested 
in  Communism  and  in  the  campus  activities  of  the  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy gang. 

The  university  apparently  realizes  that  the  un-American  activ- 
ities of  a  small  but  active  minority  have  given  the  institution  much 
criticism  in  Los  Angeles,  in  California,  and  throughout  the  United 
States. 

U.  C.  L.  A.  realizes  that  bad  publicity  hurts  and  that  a  state  uni- 
versity should  so  act  that  its  actions  are  above  reproach. 

There  is  a  growing  sentiment  throughout  the  Country  to  throw 
the  exposing  spotlight  of  publicity  on  those  individuals  and  those 
Communist-inspired  groups  and  organizations  which  are  spreading 
unrest  and  trouble,  seeking  constantly  to  bring  about  the  eventual 
overthrow  of  this  Country 's  constitutional  government  and  the  Amer- 
ican way  of  life. 

This  is  not  a  witch  hunt,  nor  is  it  persecution,  but  is  rather  an 
honest  effort  to  rid  this  Country  of  a  despicable  menace. 

Among  the  subversive  groups  the  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy is  one  of  the  most  offensively  dangerous.  Its  members  are 
without  moral  integrity,  without  social  consciousness  and  without 
restraint  in  their  desire  to  stir  up  race  antagonism,  create  dissension 
and  revile  every  good  influence  in  the  land. 


188  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Nothing  good  can  be  said  for  the  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy, those  who  belong  to  it,  those  who  support  it  or  those  who  are 
tolerant  of  it. 

It  is  evil  and  dangerous  in  every  way. 

U.  C.  L.  A.  has  taken  a  commendable  first  step,  a  step  which 
should  be  followed  by  further  patriotic  house-cleaning. 

The  present  national  cochairmen  of  American  Youth  for  Democracy 
are  Winifred  Norman  and  Vincent  Fieri.  The  vice  chairmen  are  Louis 
Burnham,  Mayer  Frieden,  John  Gallo,  Frances  Gullotta,  Ruth  Jett,  and 
Mollie  Lieber.  The  executive  secretary  is  Herbert  Signer.  The  secretary- 
treasurer  is  Julie  Lowitt.  The  Education  and  "Teen-Age"  director  is 
Vivian  Levin.  The  intercollegiate  director  is  Lee  Marsh. 

Present  California  officers  include  Bob  Zakow,  Chuck  Bruck,  Ralph 
Johnson,  Vicki  Landish,  Henry  Lei  and,  Elaine  Rose,  and  Betty  McCand- 
less,  chairmen  of  the  Los  Angeles  Youth  Council. 

The  San  Francisco  headquarters  are  at  216  Market  Street.  The  Los 
Angeles  address  is  1201  South  Alvarado  Street.  The  recently  established 
headquarters  in  San  Jose  is  located  at  318  Eighth  Street.  Kenneth  Van 
Luven  is  membership  director  in  Los  Angeles.  Barbara  Gould  is  member- 
ship director  in  San  Francisco.  Henry  Leland  is  the  county  organizer  for 
Santa  Clara  County.  The  California  regional  office  is  under  the  direction 
of  Communist  Celeste  Strack  at  593  Market  Street,  in  San  Francisco. 

The  Teen-Age  Art  Club  is  a  Los  Angeles  branch  of  American  Youth 
for  Democracy.  This  group  held  an  art  exhibit  in  June,  1947,  at  the  Los 
Angeles  Museum.  Marty  Lupner,  chairman  of  American  Youth  for 
Democracy  in  Los  Angeles,  was  in  charge  of  the  exhibits. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST  LEAGUE 

See  All- America  Anti-Imperialist  League. 

ANTI-NAZI  NEWS 

A  publication  of  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League.  Ursula  Daniels, 
Young  Communist  League  member,  was  the  circulation  manager. 

ARTEF 

This  is  one  of  the  oldest  Communist  front  organizations  in  existence. 
It  is  a  theatrical  front  and  was  affiliated  with  the  Communist  New  Theatre 
League.  Daly's  Theatre  in  New  York  City  was  renamed  the  Artef  Theatre. 

The  Communist  Daily  Worker  for  January  18,  1935,  reported  that 
ARTEF  had  launched  a  drive  for  finances.  The  Daily  Worker  states: 
"The  drive  is  already  on  and  many  leading  theatrical  people,  realizing 
the  importance  of  giving  all  possible  aid  to  the  Artef,  have  gladly  con- 
sented to  sponsor  the  drive.  Among  them  are  Brooks  Atkinson,  Elmer 
Rice,  Clifford  Odets,  Jed  Harris,  Sylvia  Sidney,  Orson  Welles,  Philip 
Loeb,  John  Houseman,  Katherine  Locke,  and  the  New  Theatre  League, 
of  which  the  Artef  is  the  proudest  and  outstanding  member. " 

ARTISTS'  FRONT  TO  WIN  THE  WAR 

This  Communist  organization  grew  out  of  a  mass  meeting  at  Carnegie 
Hall  in  New  York  City  on  October  16,  1942.  Among  the  sponsors  were 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  189 

Aline  Bernstein,  Robert  Carse,  H.  W.  L.  Dana,  Martha  Dodd,  Muriel 
Draper,  Edward  Eliscu,  Guy  Endore,  Ben  Field,  Franklin  Folsom,  Paul 
Jaerico,  Rockwell  Kent,  Arthur  Kober,  Alfred  Kreymborg,  John  Hqward 
Lawson,  Albert  Maltz,  Bruce  Minton,  Ruth  McKenney,  Dudley  Nichols, 
S.  J.  Perelman,  Robert  Rossen,  Edwin  Seaver,  George  Seldes,  George 
Sklar,  Philip  Stevenson,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  John  Wexley,  Ella 
Winter,  Victor  A.  Yakhontoff,  Leane  Zugsmith,  Harold  Ambellan,  Robert 
Cronbach,  Stuart  Davis,  Wanda  Gag,  William  Gropper,  Anton  Refregier, 
Paul  Strand,  Lynd  Ward,  Max  Webber,  Canada  Lee,  Howard  Bay, 
Morris  Parnovsky,  Paul  Robeson,  Hans  Eisler,  Earl  Robinson,  Angelo 
Herndon,  Kyle  S.  Crichton,  Hugo  Gellert,  Charles  Chaplin,  J.  Gorney, 
William  Rose  Benet,  Alvah  Bessie,  Sidney  Buchman,  Hy  Kraft,  Dorothy 
Parker,  Dalton  Trumbo,  and  Ring  Lardner,  Jr. 

Louis  J.  Russell,  former  F.B.I,  agent,  testified  before  the  Thomas 
Committee  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  October  30,  1947,  (Thomas  Report, 
page  483)  that  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party, 
and  that  he  had  obtained  the  Communist  Party  registration  card  of  Ring 
Lardner,  Jr.,  bearing  the  number  "47180."  Russell  stated  that  the  card 
bore  the  notation  "1944  Card  No.  46806."  The  address  given  for  Ring 
Lardner,  Jr.,  on  the  card  is  447  Loring,  Los  Angeles,  California.  Russell 
further  testified  that  the  card  contained  a  notation  reading  "New  card 
issued  on  November  30,  1944." 

The  long  Communist  Party  record  of  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  begins  on 
page  483  of  the  congressional  report  above  referred  to.  It  corroborates 
the  information  in  the  files  of  the  Senate  committee  investigating 
un-American  activities  in  California,  and  reads  as  follows : 

The  files,  records,  and  publications  of  the  Committee  on  un-American 
Activities  contain  the  following  information  concerning  the  Communist- 
front  affiliations  of  Ring  Lardner,  Jr. : 

Under  date  of  August  22,  1946,  the  Hollywood  Reporter,  a  publica- 
tion in  Los  Angeles,  California,  carried  an  editorial  headed  ' '  More  Red 
Commissars. ' '  This  editorial  is  quoted,  in  part,  as  follows : 

1  ( Now  let  us  take  a  look  at  another  member  of  the  Screen  Writers 
Guild's  executive  board — Ring  Lardner,  Jr.  As  chairman  of  the 
Guild's  powerful  original  materials  committee,  Lardner  incubated 
and  sponsored  the  James  M.  Cain  plan  for  literary  dictatorship 
through  the  so-called  American  Authors  Authority. 

"The  Reporter  has  this  to  ask  Ring  Lardner,  Jr. :  "Are  you  a 
member  of  the  Communist  Party  ?  Are  you  at  present  assigned  to 
the  party's  northwest  (propaganda)  section?  Do  you  hold  Party 
Book  No.  25109  ?"  The  article  continues :  "Lardner  has  a  long  record 
of  activity  in  Communist  front  organizations.  The  March  1937  issue 
of  The  Western  Worker  listed  him  as  one  of  the  signers  of  an  open 
letter  which  denounced  the  demands  of  the  American  Committee  for 
the  Defense  of  Trotsky  for  an  investigation  of  the  Russian  'purge' 
trials.  This  letter  contended  that  such  an  investigation  would  con- 
stitute political  interference  in  the  internal  affairs  of  the  Soviet 
Union." 

Lardner  and  his  fellow  signers  at  that  time  were  acting  in  accordance 
with  the  directives  of  the  Stalin  dictatorship  which  was  attempting  to 


190  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

silence  the  Communist  faction  that  was  loyal  to  Trotsky.  Trotsky  later 
was  murdered  in  Mexico  by  an  assassin  who  allegedly  was  a  member  of 
the  Communist  Party. 

In  1941  Lardner  resigned  his  official  position  in  the  Screen  Writers 
Guild,  after  James  K.  McGuinness  and  Howard  Emmett  Rogers  had 
conducted  a  vigorous  campaign  against  the  Communist  activities  of  that 
organization.  But  this  was  only  a  temporary  retreat  made  necessary  by 
the  searchlight  which  Mr.  McGuinness  and  Mr.  Rogers  had  turned  on  the 
Guild's  leadership.  At  present,  Lardner,  in  addition  to  being  chairman 
of  the  original  materials  committee,  is  a  member  of  the  editorial  com- 
mittee, which  is  responsible  for  the  editorial  policies  of  the  Guild's 
magazine. 

In  1942,  Lardner  was  on  the  editorial  board  of  Communique,  pub- 
lished by  the  Hollywood  Writers  Mobilization,  a  Communist-front  organ- 
ization, and  a  member  of  the  mobilization's  minority  committee,  a 
smaller  group  also  actively  engaged  in  party-line  work.  *  *  * 

The  American  Youth  for  Democracy  is  the  new  name  for  the  Young 
Communist  League.  The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  in  its 
report  of  April  17,  1947,  called  upon  the  governors  or  legislatures  of  the 
various  states  and  the  administrative  heads  of  the  colleges  and  univer- 
sities "to  thoroughly  expose  the  Communist  connections  of  the  American 
Youth  for  Democracy,  as  well  as  the  inimical  objectives  of  the  Communist 
Party  in  America."  The  American  Youth  for  Democracy  was  also  cited 
as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activi- 
ties in  the  report  on  March  29, 1944.  The  People's  World  of  December  1, 
1944,  reveals  that  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  was  a  sponsor  of  the  American 
Youth  for  Democracy.  The  People's  World  is  the  organ  of  the  Communist 
Party  on  the  West  Coast. 

People's  World,  on  August  17,  1944,  contained  an  article  setting 
forth  the  winners  in  the  contest  sponsored  by  the  American  Youth  for 
Democracy.  This  was  a  letter-writing  contest  held  in  connection  with  a 
play  entitled  "Tomorrow  the  World,"  and  had  for  its  theme  "Why 
Democracy  Is  Better  Than  Fascism."  The  article  announced  that  judges 
for  the  contest  were  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  Franklin  Fearing,  William  0. 
Oliver,  Rev.  J.  Raymond  Henderson,  and  Mayer  Frieden.  It  should  be 
noted  that  this  was  during  the  period  when  Russia  was  our  ally. 

The  American  Youth  for  Democracy,  Room  701,  542  S.  Broadway, 
Los  Angeles,  California,  published  a  pamphlet  setting  forth  the  work  of 
the  American  Youth  for  Democracy.  This  pamphlet  listed  a  committee 
which  would  sponsor  the  American  Youth  for  Democracy's  first  anniver- 
sary dinner  in  Los  Angeles  in  November,  1944.  Among  those  listed  as 
sponsors  were  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Mrs.  Charlotta 
A.  Bass,  Mrs.  Dalton  Trumbo,  and  Edward  Dmytryk. 

George  Dimitroff,  the  former  general  secretary  of  the  Communist 
International,  was  honored  by  a  declaration  issued  by  the  Reichstag  Fire 
Trial  Anniversary  Committee.  According  to  the  New  York  Times  of 
December  22,  1943,  page  40,  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  was  a  signer  of  this 
declaration  which  paid  honor  to  Dimitroff.  The  Reichstag  Fire  Trial 
Anniversary  Committee  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front  by  the  Special 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  the  report  of  March  29,  1944. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  191 

The  California  Action  Conference  for  Civil  Rights  was  cited  by  the 
California  Joint  Fact-Finding  Committee  as  being  ' '  Communist  inspired 
and  dominated."  The  People's  Daily  World  of  September  27,  1941,  lists 
Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  as  a  sponsor  of  the  California  Action  Conference  for 
Civil  Rights. 

In  the  spring  of  1946,  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  205  East  42d  Street, 
New  York  City,  issued  a  pamphlet  entitled  ' '  Urgent  Summons  to  a  Con- 
gress on  Civil  Rights."  This  pamphlet  called  upon  civil  rights,  labor, 
religious,  racial,  and  other  organizations  and  individuals  to  attend  a 
Congress  on  Civil  Rights  in  Detroit  on  April  27-28,  1946,  to  formulate 
and  agree  upon  a  national  program  to  defeat  the  offensive  and  reactionary 
and  Fascist  forces  and  to  assure  the  maximum  unification  of  effort  to 
advance  that  program.  The  summons  contained  a  partial  list  of  sponsors. 
This  list  included  the  name  of  Ring  W.  Lardner,  Jr. 

The  Civil  Rights  Congress  is  the  successor  to  the  International  Labor 
Defense,  legal  arm  of  the  Communist  Party. 

The  American  Friends  of  Spanish  Democracy  and  the  Veterans  of 
the  Abraham  Lincoln  Br-gade  were  a  part  of  the  Communist  Party  pro- 
gram to  provide  aid  and  assistance  to  the  Spanish  Loyalists  in  response 
to  instructions  received  from  the  Communist  International  at  the 
Seventh  Communist  International  Congress  held  in  1935  in  Moscow. 
The  American  Friends  of  Spanish  Democracy  was  cited  as  a  Communist 
front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  the  report 
of  March  29,  1944,  and  by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
the  reports  of  June  12,  1947,  and  September  2,  1947.  The  Daily  Worker 
of  April  8,  1939,  page  4,  states  that  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  was  affiliated  with 
this  organization  as  a  signer  of  a  petition  to  lift  the  arms  embargo  which 
the  American  Friends  of  Spanish  Democracy  sponsored.  His  affiliation 
with  the  Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  is  shown  by  the  New 
Masses  of  April  2,  1940,  page  21,  which  lists  him  as  a  signer  of  a  letter 
which  that  organization  sent  to  the  President  of  the  United  States.  The 
Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  was  cited  as  a  Communist  front 
by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  the  report  of 
March  29,  1944,  and  as  "under  Communist  control"  by  Professor  John 
Dewey,  chairman  of  the  Committee  for  Cultural  Freedom,  April,  1940. 

The  League  of  American  Writers  was  affiliated  with  the  Inter- 
national Union  of  Revolutionary  Writers,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow, 
and  has  been  pledged  to  the  defense  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  '  *  Use  of 
art  as  an  instrument  of  the  class  struggle."  The  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities  cited  it  as  a  Communist  front  in  the  reports  of 
January  3,  1940,  June  25,  1942,  and  March  29,  3944.  It  was  also  cited  by 
former  Attorney  General  General  Francis  Biddle  in  these  words :  l  i  The 
overt  activities  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  in  the  last  two  years 
leave  little  doubt  of  its  Communist  control"  (Congressional  Record, 
September  24,  1942,  page  7686).  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  according  to  the 
Daily  Worker  of  September  14,  1942,  page  7,  and  People's  World  of 
September  23,  1942,  page  5,  was  a  signer  of  a  statement  of  the  League  of 
American  Writers  in  behalf  of  a  second  front.  He  was  also  affiliated  with 
the  Hollywood  chapter  of  the  League  of  American  Writers  as  a  signer  of 
the  cable  sent  to  Leon  Blum,  President  Roosevelt,  and  Secretary  Hull  for 
supplies  for  Loyalist  Spain,  as  shown  by  the  New  Masses  of  March  29, 
1938,  page  21. 


192  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  Writers  Congress  was  sponsored  by  the  Hollywood  Writers 
Mobilization  which  is  the  successor  to  the  Hollywood  branch  of  the 
League  of  American  Writers.  The  program  of  the  Writers  Congress, 
1943,  lists  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  as  the  chairman  of  the  panel  on  minority 
groups. 

The  Open  Letter  to  American  Liberals  was  a  denunciation  of  the 
efforts  made  to  defend  Leon  Trotsky  and  a  reaffirmation  of  faith  in  the 
Soviet  Union.  It  also  defended  the  Moscow  trials  which  were  character- 
ized by  forced  confessions  and  were  staged  as  political  demonstrations 
rather  than  trials,  in  our  sense  of  the  term.  The  Open  Letter  to  American 
Liberals,  of  which  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  was  a  signer,  according  to  Soviet 
Russia  Today,  March,  1937,  pages  14  and  15,  was  cited  as  a  Communist- 
front  project  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
the  report  of  June  25, 1942.  Soviet  Russia  Today  was  formerly  the  publi- 
cation of  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  has  been  cited  as  a  Com- 
munist-front publication  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  on  June  12,  1947,  and  September  2,  1947. 

The  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  has  been  described  as  an 
' '  allegedly  liberal  organization  which  believes  in  cooperating  with  Com- 
munists" by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  its  report  of 
June  12,  1947.  It  was  formed  by  the  pro-Communist  group  of  the  Inde- 
pendent Citizens  Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences,  and  Professions  which 
dissolved  because  of  the  issue  of  Communism.  According  to  the  Daily 
Worker  of  May  16, 1947,  page  11,  a  manuscript  by  Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  was 
sold  at  auction  for  the  benefit  of  the  literature  division  of  the  Progressive 
Citizens  of  America. 

According  to  the  Daily  Worker  of  March  31,  1947,  page  11,  Ring 
Lardner,  Jr.,  collaborated  with  John  Hubley  and  Phil  Eastman  in  the 
writing  of  the  screen  version  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Man,  an  animated 
color  cartoon  produced  by  United  Productions  of  America  for  the  Auto 
Workers  Union.  This  film  was  based  on  the  pamphlet,  The  Races  of  Man- 
kind, coauthored  by  Ruth  Benedict  and  Gene  Weltfish,  which  the  War 
Department  banned.  Gene  Weltfish  heads  the  Congress  of  American 
Women  which  is  the  American  affiliate  of  the  Women's  International 
Democratic  Federation.  One  of  the  agencies  through  which  the  Brother- 
hood of  Man  can  be  booked  is  the  International  Workers  Order  film  divi- 
sion. The  International  Workers  Order  was  cited  by  Attorney  General 
Francis  Biddle  as  "One  of  the  strongest  Communist  organizations" 
(Congressional  Record,  September  24,  1942,  page  7688),  and  as  a  Com- 
munist front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
the  reports  of  January  3,  1940,  and  June  25,  1942. 

The  Artists '  Front  to  Win  the  War,  which  was  cited  as  a  Communist 
front  by  the  Special  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in  the  report 
of  March  29,  1944,*  supported  the  then  current  Communist  demand  for 
a  second  front.  Sponsors  of  the  organization  included  many  writers  for 
the  Communist  press  who  had  opposed  the  war  during  the  Stalin-Hitler 
pact  such  as  Alvah  Bessie,  Angelo  Herndon,  Alfred  Kreymborg,  Albert 
Maltz,  Ruth  McKenney,  and  Dalton  Trumbo.  The  program  of  the  Artists' 
Front  to  Win  the  War,  October  16,  1942,  page  5,  lists  Ring  Lardner,  Jr., 
as  a  sponsor. 

The  Voice  of  Freedom  Committee,  according  to  PM  of  May  19, 1947, 
page  19,  was  formed  by  Dorothy  Parker,  whose  record  of  affiliation  with 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  193 

Communist-front  organizations  is  set  forth  in  a  separate  report.  Accord- 
ing to  a  news  release  of  the  organization,  dated  June  16,  1947,  Langston 
Hughes,  Paul  Robeson,  and  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  all  of  whom  have 
lengthy  records  of  Communist-front  affiliations,  are  sponsors  of  the 
Voice  of  Freedom  Committee,  whose  function  is  the  support  of  com- 
mentators who  have  received  the  acclaim  of  the  Communist  press.  Ring 
Lardner,  Jr.,  is  listed  by  a  leaflet  of  the  organization  as  a  signer  of  a 
petition  which  the  Voice  of  Freedom  Committee  sponsored. 

ASSOCIATED  FILM  AUDIENCES 

In  a  report  before  the  League  of  American  Writers  (Fighting 
Words,  edited  by  Donald  Ogden  Stewart)  "a  group  of  Hollywood 
writers '  '  stated : 

* '  Audience  organization  is  the  only  safeguard  of  this  function. 
Associated  Film  Audiences,  in  the  West,  and  Film  Audiences  for 
Democracy,  in  the  East,  have  made  a  beginning  in  audience  organ- 
ization through  trade-unions,  fraternal  and  church  groups,  and 
women 's  organizations. ' ' 

The  Cinema  Bureau  in  Moscow  had  laid  down  its  directives  con- 
cerning the  building  up  of  audiences  for  the  purpose  of  agitating  against 
certain  films  opposed  to  the  current  Communist  Party  line  and  for  sup- 
porting those  which  favor  the  line. 

In  1939  Associated  Film  Audiences  was  merged  with  Films  for 
Democracy  and  became  Film  Audiences  for  Democracy. 

Among  executive  members  of  the  Hollywood  branch  of  Associated 
Film  Audiences  were  Fritz  Lang,  John  Cromwell,  Herbert  Biberman 
and  Aben  Kandel. 

The  headquarters  of  Associated  Film  Audiences  was  located  in  New 
York  City  at  Room  805,  132  West  43d  Street.  Dr.  Worth  M.  Tippy  was 
listed  as  honorary  chairman.  Edward  K.  Kern  was  chairman,  and  Viola 
D.  Calder  was  executive  secretary.  The  executive  board  was  composed  of 
the  following:  Roswell  P.  Barnes,  Algernon  Black,  Dr.  Sidney  E.  Gold- 
stein, Lester  Granger,  Rita  Hochheimer,  Laurence  Hosie,  Spurgeon 
Keeny,  Dr.  William  H.  Kilpatrick,  Clyde  R.  Miller,  Etta  Schneider, 
Abbott  Simon,  Katherine  Terrill,  and  Rose  Terlin. 

BLACK  AND  WHITE 

This  monthly  "  literary "  magazine  was  a  Communist-controlled 
publication  in  Los  Angeles.  Under  the  editorship  of  Wilbur  Needham, 
the  periodical  began  publication  June,  1939.  Among  the  associate  editors 
of  the  magazine  were  the  following:  Carey  Me  Williams,  Ella  Winter, 
Dolph  Winebrenner,  and  Robert  A.  Brady.  Herber  A.  Klein,  former 
organizer  of  Unit  140  of  the  Communist  Party  of  Los  Angeles,  was  also 
an  associate  editor  of  Black  and  White.  Still  another  associate  editor 
was  Harlan  R.  Crippen,  former  member  of  the  Young  Communist 
League. 

Mike  Quinn,  Tom  Cullen,  Elsa  Gidlow,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  and 
Haakon  Chevalier  were  associated  with  the  magazine. 


14— L-7088-D 


194  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

BOOK  UNION 

This  outfit  is  the  Communist  ' '  Book-of -the-Month ' '  club.  The  selec- 
tion of  the  books  is  in  the  hands  of  a  Communist  board  of  editors.  The 
Communist-owned  publications  were  mobilized  fully  behind  the  attempt 
to  make  the  Book  Union  a  success. 

The  first  offer  of  the  Book  Union  was  Proletarian  Literature  in  the 
United  States,  sponsored  by  the  League  of  American  Writers.  The  book 
was  published  by  International  Publishers. 

The  editorial  board  of  Book  Union,  Inc.,  (381  Fourth  Avenue,  New 
York  City)  were  Malcolm  Cowley,  Robert  W.  Dunn,  Henry  Hart,  Gran- 
ville  Hicks,  Corliss  Lamont,  Isidor  Schneider,  Bernard  Smith,  Alexan- 
der Trachtenberg,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  and  Marian  Hart. 

The  advisory  council  of  Book  Union,  Inc.,  included  Roger  Bald- 
win, Max  Bedacht,  Joseph  Brodsky,  Erskine  Caldwell,  Fielding  Burke, 
Jack  Conroy,  H.  W.  L.  Dana,  R.  Palme  Dutt,  James  T.  Farrell,  Waldo 
Frank,  Joseph  Freeman,  Leo  Gallagher,  Hugo  Gellert,  Ben  Gold,  Michael 
Gold,  Eugene  Gordon,  Clarence  Hathaway,  Josephine  Herbst,  Langston 
Hughes,  Matthew  Josephson,  Joshua  Kunitz,  John  Howard  Lawson, 
Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Loren  Miller,  Lewis  Mumford,  M.  Nadir,  Joseph 
North,  Clifford  Odets,  Moissaye  J.  Olgin,  Paul  Peters,  Edwin  Seaver, 
John  L.  Spivak,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  John  Strachey,  Genevieve  Taggard, 
Ernst  Toller,  Louis  Weinstock,  John  Wexley,  Ella  Winter,  and  James 
Waterman  Weiss. 

CALIFORNIA  LABOR  SCHOOL 

The  committee  has  in  its  files  and  exhibits  many  of  the  pamphlets 
circulated  by  the  California  Labor  School  Library.  One  such  pamphlet 
is  entitled  "Why  Work  for  Nothing?"  by  Herman  Schendel.  The  charac- 
ter of  this  type  of  propaganda  is  indicated  by  the  following  quotation, 
which  appears  at  page  63 : 

"Marx  stands  out  as  one  of  mankind's  greatest  thinkers  and 

scientists  and  fighters.  Today,  his  books  and  his  ideas  reach  millions 

of  people.  His  influence  grows  because  time  is  proving  that  he 

called  the  turn  on  capitalism. ' ' 

On  Sunday,  March  4,  1945,  a  reception  was  held  in  honor  of  Paul 
Robeson,  notorious  Negro  Communist  leader.  The  reception  was  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Communist  California  Labor  School  and  it  was  sponsored 
by  the  following:  Mrs.  Frances  Albrier,  Mrs.  Fanny  Bulger,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Jeffery  Cohelan,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Matt  Crawford,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  L. 
Dellums,  Prof,  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Dennes,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Monroe  E. 
Deutsch,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Virgil  E.  Dickson,  Prof,  and  Mrs.  Willard  H. 
Durham,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  W.  Erskine,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B. 
Flippin,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  Frankenstein,  Mrs.  Frank  Gerbode,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Sam  Hamburg,  Prof,  and  Mrs.  W.  Z.  Hassid,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
John  Hassler,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Hay  ward,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Heide, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Henry  Jackson,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Jenkins,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Allan  Johnson,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sydney  Joseph,  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Jacob  Kasanin,  Prof.  A.  M.  Kidd,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Kuttler,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Sam  Ladar,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Duncan  McDuffie,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  C. 
McGiffert,  Leonard  J.  Meltzer,  Nathan  Harry  Miller,  Dr.  and  Mrs. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  195 

William  R.  O'Dell,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  E.  Packard,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
John  Peregoy,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Pittman,  Prof,  and  Mrs.  Max 
Radin,  Dr.  Aurelia  Henry  Reinhart,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  H.  Rodin, 
Prof,  and  Mrs.  Leo  Rogin,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  J.  Sapper,  J.  D.  Sarber, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  Siegal,  Paul  St.  Sure,  Mrs.  Mary  Ellen  Washburn, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gordon  Williams,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Baldwin  Woods,  and  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Frank  Youell. 

David  Hedley  was  subpenaed  and  testified  before  the  committee  in 
Oakland  on  November  5,  1947.  He  stated  that  he  was  the  assistant 
director  of  the  California  Labor  School.  He  admitted  that  he  had  taught 
a  course  at  the  predecessor  of  the  California  Labor  School,  the  Com- 
munist Tom  Mooney  Labor  School.  He  identified  a  Communist  booklet 
"Why  Work  for  Nothing"  by  Herman  Schendel  as  a  booklet  of  the 
California  Labor  School.  Hedley  admitted  that  he  was  not  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States  although  he  had  headed  the  California  C.I.O.  Political 
Action  Committee.  Although  not  a  citizen,  he  stated  that  he  believed 
that  ' '  any  kind  of  a  political  affiliation  or  political  activity  that  I  may 
engage  in  is  my  right,  guaranted  by  the — under  the  Constitution — and 
that  it  is  not  proper  for  the  committee  to  place  questions  of  that  kind. ' ' 

For  a  detailed  account  of  the  California  Labor  School,  see  the  com- 
mittee's 1947  Report. 

CALIFORNIA  LEGISLATIVE  CONFERENCE 

This  Communist  front  is  variably  called  by  the  number  of  its 
meetings. 

The  latest  call  for  the  California  Legislative  Conference  appeared 
in  the  Communist  People's  Daily  World  for  March  5,  1948.  About  one 
hundred  delegates  from  11  Northern  California  congressional  districts 
were  scheduled  to  gather  at  the  Palace  Hotel,  San  Francisco,  on  March  8, 
1948. 

George  F.  Irvine,  chairman  of  the  California  Legislative  Confer- 
ence, announced  that  issues  to  be  discussed  would  include  the  Town- 
send  Pension,  the  State  Senate  Reapportionment,  and  Housing  Initiative 
Petitions;  revision  of  the  State  Constitution,  Central  Valley  Develop- 
ment, Civil  Rights  and  Minorities,  and  Child  Care.  Among  those  indi- 
viduals scheduled  to  participate  in  this  Communist  conference  are  the 
following:  Frank  Hendricks,  secretary  of  the  San  Francisco  C.I.O. 
Political  Action  Committee ;  Kathleen  Griffin,  Oakland  Voters '  League ; 
Mary  Pieper,  Berkeley  Democratic  Club,  Edith  Pfalsgraf,  Sonoma 
Pomona  Grange;  Carl  Barnum,  Sacramento  Brotherhood  of  Railroad 
Trainmen ;  Phyllis  Lindley,  Grass  Valley ;  Robert  Hardgrove,  San  Jose ; 
Ethel  Stevens,*  Modesto ;  Hence  Fisher,  Bakersfield ;  Margaret  Moreau ; 
Harold  F.  Wise,  California  Housing  Initiative  Committee;  Wilford 
Howard,  Townsend  Legislative  Chairman;  and  Dr.  Max  Radin,  Uni- 
versity of  California.  Dr.  Max  Radin,  incidentally,  was  scheduled  to 
discuss  the  initiative  petition  for  the  reapportionment  of  the  California 
State  Senate. 

CALIFORNIA  YOUTH  LEGISLATURE 

See  American  Youth  Congress. 


196  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

CELEBRATION  OF  15  YEARS  BIRO-BIDJAN 

This  Communist-front  organization  came  into  being  to  celebrate 
15  years  of  Biro-Bidjan.  Biro-Bidjan  is  a  Jewish  Communist  colony  in 
the  Soviet  Union. 

The  Committee  of  sponsors  for  the  Celebration  of  15  Years  Biro- 
Bidjan  include  the  following :  Max  Levin,  A.  Jenofsky,  Prof.  C.  Kuntz, 
Ben  Gold,  B.  Z.  Goldberg,  Rabbi  Benjamin  Plotkin,  Louis  Weinstock, 
M.  Stern,  Jacob  Adler,  Max  Bedacht,  Alexander  Bittelman,  Louis  B. 
Boudin,  Joseph  R.  Brodsky,  Peter  V.  Cacchione,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Dr. 
Bella  V.  Dodd,  Abraham  Flaxer,  William  Gropper,  V.  J.  Jerome, 
Moishe  Katz,  Rockwell  Kent,  Carol  King,  B.  Lapin,  Helen  London,  Mrs. 
J.  H.  Macy,  Mary  Cabot  Macy,  Vito  Marcan,tonio,  Harry  Mintz,  Paul 
Muni,  Clifford  Odets,  Max  Perlow,  Adam  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  Dr. 
Maxwell  Ross,  Jacob  Rothbaum,  Max  Steinberg,  James  Waterman  Wise, 
Victor  A.  Yakhontoff,  and  Benjamin  Zemach. 

CHAMPION  OF  YOUTH 

This  is  a  Communist  Party  periodical  for  youth.  It  is  published  by 
Champion  of  Youth  Publishers,  located  at  2  East  23d  Street,  New  York 
City.  Headquarters  were  maintained  at  799  Broadway,  New  York  City, 
which  is  also  the  headquarters  of  the  Young  Communist  League,  and 
many  other  Communist  Party  auxiliary  organizations.  (The  building  at 
799  Broadway,  which  also  uses  the  address  80  East  llth  Street,  is  owned 
by  Communist  Grace  Burnham.)  Prompt  Press  (Union  Printers'  Label 
No.  209),  Communist  printing  organization,  does  the  actual  printing. 

Morrie  Schnapper  was  the  editor  and  Irvin  Keitly  the  business  man- 
ager and  managing  editor.  The  editorial  board  has  been  composed  of 
John  Ames,  Joseph  Cohen,  Dave  Doran,  Angelo  Herndon,  Roger  Chase, 
Beryl  Gilman,  Sofie  Juried,  James  Wechsler,  and  Jane  Whitebread. 
Advisory  editors  were  listed  as  Lynn  J.  Frazier,  Eduard  C.  Lindeman, 
Jerome  Davis,  Oswald  Garrison  Villard,  Frank  Palmer,  William  Ziegner, 
C.  Harley  Grattan,  Jack  Conroy,  Kenneth  M.  Gould,  Harry  Elmer 
Barnes,  Sherman  Dryer,  and  Robert  Morss  Lovett. 

Others  connected  with  Champion  of  Youth  are  Sam  Pavzner,  Inter- 
national Workers  Order ;  Louis  Gordon,  member  of  the  Maine  campaign 
committee  of  the  Communist  Party;  James  Murphy,  member  of  the 
National  Campaign  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party ;  James  Lerner, 
member  of  the  staff  of  the  Daily  Worker,  and  youth  secretary  of  the 
American  League  Against  War  and  Fascism  and  the  International 
Workers  Order;  Francis  Franklin,  writer  for  the  Communist;  Langston 
Hughes,  affiliated  with  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade, 
Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,  International  Workers  Order,  American 
League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  League  of  American  Writers,  North 
American  Committee  to  Aid  Spanish  Democracy,  American  Revolution- 
ary Writers'  Congress,  League  of  Professional  Groups  for  Foster  and 
Ford,  and  National  Committee  for  Browder  and  Ford;  Frederick  N. 
Myers,  member  of  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade ;  Richard 
Pack,  New  Theatre  contributor ;  John  Groth,  member  of  the  Friends  of 
the  Soviet  Union,  American  League  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  and  New 
Masses  and  New  Theatre  contributor;  Gregor  Duncan,  member  of  the 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  197 

Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade,  and  James  Wechsler,  member 
of  the  American  Student  Union,  and  a  New  Masses  contributor. 

The  Young  Communist  League  made  a  practice  of  giving  subscrip- 
tions to  Champion  of  Youth  to  all  members  who  paid  their  initiation  fee. 
The  periodical  was  also  used  as  an  official  publication  of  the  International 
Workers  Order  which  had  printed  on  the  cover  of  its  copies  "I.  W.  0. 
Edition. " 

CHINA  CONFERENCE  ARRANGEMENTS  COMMITTEE 

This  front  was  organized  primarily  to  bring  pressure  on  the  Truman 
administration  to  remove  American  troops  from  China  so  that  the  Chinese 
Communists  would  be  given  a  free  hand  against  Chiang  Kai-Shek. 

Allen  Metcalf  is  the  Southern  California  director  of  the  Committee 
to  Win  the  Peace,  and  is  the  signer  of  a  letter  ander  date  of  November  6, 
1946  on  the  letterhead  of  the  China  Conference  Arrangements  Committee. 
The  headquarters  of  the  organization  is  listed  as  room  334,  206  S.  Spring 
Street,  telephone  number  MUtual  7859.  The  letter  is  as  follows : 

To :  All  Organizations. 

Subject :  "  Remove  American  Troops  From 

China"  Petition  Drive. 
During  the  period  November  15th  to  December  15th  there  will 

be  an  intensive  petition  campaign,  directed  to  President  Truman, 

asking  the  President  to  take  the  following  action  in  the  interests  of 

America 's  peace  and  security : 

1.  Remove  all  American  armed  forces  from  China  immediately. 

2.  Withhold  all  loans,  credits,  military  and  other  material  assist- 
ance from  the  present  Chinese  government  until  the  Chinese 
civil  war  is  halted  and  a  democratic,  representative,  peaceful 
Chinese  government  has  been  formed. 

3.  Pursue  a  more  democratic  foreign  policy  in  Korea,  the  Philip- 
pines, Japan,  and  throughout  the  Far  East. 

The  goal  is  to  secure  100,000  Los  Angeles  signatures  and  another 
50,000  signatures  in  the  rest  of  Southern  California  by  Decem- 
ber 15th. 

These  petitions,  when  completed  on  December  15th,  will  be 
turned  over  to  a  group  of  Southern  California  congressmen  with 
instructions  to  place  the  signatures  personally  on  President  Tru- 
man 's  desk  and  then  to  introduce  into  the  Eightieth  Congress  early 
in  January  a  house  resolution  calling  for  congressional  action  to 
remove  American  armed  forces  from  China,  etc. 

You  can  pick  up  these  petitions  for  your  members  to  circulate 
beginning  Tuesday,  November  12th  at  our  headquarters.  If  the  goal 
of  150,000  signatures  is  to  be  reached  all  the  forces  interested  in 
peace  must  cooperate  decisively  in  this  campaign.  Act  Now !  !  ! 

The  late  Brigadier  General  Evans  F.  Carlson  was  the  temporary 
chairman  of  the  China  Conference  Arrangements  Committee.  The 
National  Committee  to  Win  the  Peace  and  the  Committee  for  Democratic 
Far  Eastern  Policy  were  co-sponsors  of  the  China  Conference  Arrange- 
ments Committee. 


198  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

A  partial  list  of  sponsors  printed  on  the  letterhead  above  referred  to 
is  as  follows  Ellenore  Abowitz,  James  Egert  Allen,  Bertram  Alves,  Lee 
Bachelis,  Sam  Baiter,  Sanford  S.  Beldner,  Elmer  A.  Benson,  Michael 
Blankfort,  Dr.  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Rev.  L.  B.  Brown,  George 
Campbell,  Si  Lan  Chen,  Margarete  L.  Clark,  Leslie  E.  Claypool,  Rabbi 
J.  K.  Cohen,  M.  de  Gracia  Concepcion,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Bartley  C. 
Crum,  Rev.  J.  C.  Coleman,  Parley  Parker  Christensen,  Joseph  Curran, 
Hugh  Deane,  Jr.,  Hugh  De  Lacey,  Earl  P.  Dickerson,  Dean  Dixon,  Rabbi 
Simon  A.  Dolgin,  Rev.  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Julius  Emspak,  Frederick  V. 
Field,  Harrison  Forman,  Rev.  Stephen  H.  Fritchman,  John  Garfield, 
Leo  A.  Goldberg,  Rabbi  Ernest  E.  Greenfield,  Lena  Home,  Augustus  F. 
Hawkins,  Dr.  Claude  Hudson,  John  B.  Hughes,  Langston  Hughes,  James 
Wong  Howe,  Alvin  P.  Jackson,  Michael  Kanin,  Robert  W.  Kenny,  Rabbi 
Jacob  Kohn,  Leo  Kryzycki,  Edward  Lamb,  Millard  Lampell,  Canada  Lee, 
Katherine  de  Mille  Quinn,  Alain  Locke,  Rev.  Martin  Luther  Long,  Albert 
Maltz,  Thomas  Mann,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Elizabeth  B.  McCandless,  Carey 
Me  Williams,  Rev.  Jack  McMichael,  Rt.  Rev.  Walter  Mitchell,  Judge 
Stanley  Moffatt,  Karen  Morley,  Ed  Mosk,  Dr.  Max  Nussbaum,  Gregory 
Peck,  Frank  Pallet,  Dr.  Edwin  McNeil!  Poteat,  Paul  Robeson,  Earl  Rob- 
inson, Edward  G.  Robinson,  Reid  Robinson,  John  R.  Roden,  Maud  Rus- 
sell, Frederick  L.  Schuman,  Jean  Sieroty,  Edgar  Snow,  Mrs.  Edgar 
Snow,  Johannes  Steel,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  Everett  M.  Stowe,  Ilona  Ralf 
Sues,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Dr.  Keith  Sward,  Frank  Tuttle,  Al  S.  Waxman, 
Claude  L.  Welch,  Justice  James  H.  Wolfe,  and  Virginia  Wright. 

The  Communist  Party  line  shifted  after  V-J  Day  and  all  existing 
Communist  fronts  started  pressure  on  the  administration  in  reference  to 
its  foreign  policy  both  in  China  and  central  Europe  in  order  to  clear  the 
way  for  Soviet  expansion.  The  China  Conference  Arrangements  Com- 
mittee, the  Committee  for  a  Democratic  Far  Eastern  Policy,  and  the 
Committee  to  Win  the  Peace  were  new  fronts  in  this  field. 

CHINA  TODAY 

This  magazine  is  published  by  the  Communist  front,  Friends  of  the 
Chinese  People,  at  168  West  23d  Street,  New  York  City. 

J.  W.  Phillips,  Frederick  Spencer,  Hansu  Chan,  Lawrence  Hearn 
and  E.  P.  Greene  have  been  editors  of  China  Today. 

Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  R.  P.  Norton,  R.  A.  Howell,  Theodore  Draper, 
Andrew  Drummond,  J.  H.  Lin,  Fumio  Tanabe,  L.  Turner,  Harold  Ward, 
Victor  A.  Yakhontoff,  and  Julius  Loeb  have  been  contributing  editors. 

Robert  Norton,  Max  Granich,  T.  A.  Bisson,  Philip  J.  Jaffe,  Haru 
Matsui,  Frank  Kai-ming  Su,  Dorothea  Tooker,  and  Michel  Rothman  have 
been  connected  with  the  magazine  in  one  capacity  or  another. 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE  FOR  BETTER  EDUCATION 

This  front  maintains  headquarters  at  1515  Crossroads  of  the  World 
in  Hollywood,  the  address  for  similar  groups.  Mrs.  John  Whedon  is 
president ;  Mrs.  Arthur  Yanow,  vice  president ;  Mrs.  Hartwell  E.  Scar- 
brough,  financial  secretary;  Mrs.  Louis  Waldeck,  recording  secretary; 
Miss  Wilma  Baker,  corresponding  secretary,  and  Angers  Woolley, 
treasurer. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  199 

The  chief  activity  of  the  Citizens'  Committee  for  Better  Education 
has  been  the  support  of  extreme  leftists  for  election  to  the  Los  Angeles 
Board  of  Education.  In  1947  the  committee  fronted  for  the  election  of 
Dr.  H.  Claude  Hudson,  who  has  been  active  in  a  number  of  Communist- 
front  organizations. 

The  Citizens'  Committee  for  Better  Education  uses  the  Communist 
Party 's  mailing  list  for  Los  Angeles  County.  Several  of  the  committee 's 
agents  receive  mimeographed  material  under  several  aliases,  indicating 
that  the  Citizens'  Committee  for  Better  Education  has  access  to  the 
party's  files. 

A  paragraph  from  a  mimeographed  appeal  for  funds  on  the  letter- 
head of  the  Citizens'  Committee  for  Better  Education,  signed  by  Anita 
Yanow  as  acting  president  and  dated  April  23,  1947,  utilizes  typical 
double-talk  characteristic  of  Communist  fronts : 

The  anti-democratic  forces  of  this  city  resorted  to  every  desper- 
ate device  to  elect  their  candidate  in  the  primaries.  They  dragged 
out  the  red  herring.  They  resorted  to  race  baiting.  Their  press  sys- 
tematically denied  our  candidate  access  to  the  channels  of  com- 
munication. We  faced  an  iron  curtain  of  silence  whenever  we  tried 
to  bring  the  true  issues  of  the  campaign  to  the  public.  But  despite 
these  attempts  to  gag  and  to  smear  progressive  candidates,  the  forces 
of  reaction  did  not  succeed  in  their  purpose.  Dr.  Hudson  got  on  the 
final  ballot.  This  is  a  real  victory  for  the  common  man.  (Committee 
italics. ) 

Among  the  Communists  and  Communist  fellow-travelers  who  have 
been  writing  textbooks  for  use  in  public  schools  are  the  following :  Louis 
Adamic,  Sherwood  Anderson,  Prof.  Charles  A.  Beard,  Mary  Beard, 
Pearl  S.  Buck,  Eveline  M.  Burns,  Prof.  Zachariah  Chaffee,  Jr.,  Stuart 
Chase,  Edward  Corsi,  Kenneth  Crawford,  Carl  Crow,  Edwin  Embree, 
Abraham  Epstein,  Morris  Ernst,  Dorothy  Canfield  Fisher,  Hallie  Flana- 
gan, Prof.  Willystone  Goodsell,  Arthur  Garfield  Hays,  James  Weldon 
Johnson,  Oliver  La  Farge,  Owen  Lattimore,  Prof.  Helen  M.  Lynd,  Prof. 
Robert  S.  Lynd,  Prof.  Kenneth  MacGowan,  Prof.  Kirtley  F.  Mather, 
Carey  Me  Williams,  Lewis  Mumford,  Rose  Nelson,  Prof.  H.  A.  Overstreet, 
Prof.  Paul  Radin,  Prof.  Holland  D.  Roberts,  Mari  Sandoz,  William  Sea- 
brook,  Sigmund  Spaeth,  Prof.  Eugene  Staley,  Lincoln  Steffens,  Prof. 
Bernhard  J.  Stern,  Leland  Stowe,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  Marguerite  N. 
Stewart,  Anna  Louise  Strong,  Shepard  Traube,  James  Waterman  Wise, 
Carl  W.  Wittke,  Albert  Rhys  Williams,  Frank  Lloyd  Wright,  Lin 
Yutang,  Dr.  Will  H.  Alexander,  Margaret  Bourke-White,  Prof.  Frank 
P.  Graham,  Granville  Hicks,  and  Sidney  and  Beatrice  Webb. 

As  this  partial  report  goes  to  press  the  committee  is  in  receipt  of  a 
communication  from  a  student  at  Los  Angeles  City  College.  He  writes : 
"This  is  a  list  of  books  suggested  for  reading  in  our  English  class.  It 
has  just  recently  been  published  by  the  English  department  and  includes 
Communist  authors  such  as  Leland  Stowe,  Ilya  Ehrenburg,  Edgar  Snow, 
and  Carey  McWilliams.  How  about  cleaning  out  the  Red  teachers  at 
Los  Angeles  City  College  ? ' ' 

This  communication  was  written  on  the  back  of  a  mimeographed 
sheet  containing  a  list  of  "Books  Available  in  Class  Library,  H.  T.  Heath, 
1947."  The  Red  viewpoint  is  definitely  indicated  both  in  the  titles  of 


200  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

the  books  and  the  authors,  which  in  addition  to  those  listed  by  the  student 
in  his  communication,  include  Louis  Adamic. 

In  1948,  the  address  on  the  letterheads  of  the  Citizens'  Committee 
for  Better  Education  is  given  as  3467  North  Knoll  Drive,  Los  Angeles 
28,  California.  The  address  "6769  Lexington  Avenue,  Los  Angeles  38, " 
has  been  crossed  off  of  the  letterhead  in  the  possession  of  the  committee. 

The  officers  of  the  organization  for  1948,  as  they  appear  on  the 
letterhead  mentioned  above,  are,  Dr.  H.  Claude  Hudson,  president ;  Dr. 
George  B.  Mangold,  first  vice  president;  Mrs.  Louis  Waldeck,  second 
vice  president;  Mrs.  Hartwell  E.  Scarbrough,  financial  secretary;  Mrs. 
Alex  Blumstein,  recording  secretary;  Mrs.  Esther  Gilbert,  correspond- 
ing secretary ;  and  Angers  Woolley,  treasurer. 

The  Citizens'  Committee  for  Better  Education  is  currently  pres- 
suring the  Legislature  for  passage  of  Assembly  Bill  Nos.  2  and  3  (1948 
Session)  providing  for  permanent  child  care  centers. 

CITIZENS  COMMITTEE  TO  FREE  EARL  BROWDER 

This  organization  was  strictly  a  Communist  Party  project.  Elizabeth 
Gurley  Flynn  was  the  executive  secretary  of  the  organization.  Miss 
Flynn  is  not  only  a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist 
Party  but  is  a  columnist  for  the  Daily  Worker.  Louis  Weinstock,  admin- 
istrative secretary  of  the  Citizens  Committee  to  Free  Earl  Browder, 
became  a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist  Political 
Association. 

Earl  Browder  admitted  before  the  House  Special  Committee  on 
Un-American  Activities,  in  September,  1939,  that  he  had  traveled  on 
false  passports.  His  conviction  and  sentence  was  not  based  on  this  fact, 
however.  His  conviction  and  sentence  to  four  years  in  Atlanta  Federal 
Penitentiary  was  based  on  the  charge  of  perjury  committed  in  connec- 
tion with  his  false  passports.  Browder  had  served  a  term  as  a  draft 
dodger  of  World  War  I  in  Leavenworth  Prison. 

The  principal  Communist  pressure-vehicle  for  Browder 's  release 
was  the  Citizens  Committee  to  Free  Earl  Browder. 

Before  Browder  started  his  prison  sentence  at  Atlanta  Penitentiary, 
he  made  the  following  public  statement : 

"If  my  passport  offense  rates  four  years,  what  is  the  punish- 
ment that  fits  the  crime  of  Franklin  D.  Koosevelt  against  the  Amer- 
ican people  ?  I  think  the  punishment  that  will  inevitably  be  inflicted 
for  that  crime — the  supreme  punishment — will  be  written  by  his- 
tory, which  will  write  down  that  name  as  the  man  who  betrayed 
the  peace  and  prosperity  of  the  American  people. ' ' 

Among  those  who  were  affiliated  with  the  Citizens  Committee  to 
Free  Earl  Browder,  either  as  committee  members  or  signers  of  state- 
ments or  petitions,  are  the  following :  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Louis  Gold- 
blatt,  Lyn  Whiting,  Henry  Schmidt,  Ernest  Lovina,  James  Smith,  Ben 
Gold,  Paul  Stein,  Donald  McGuire,  Hugh  Bryson,  Walter  J.  Stack, 
Donald  Henderson,  Paul  Heide,  Roger  Baldwin,  Max  Bedacht,  Prof. 
Franz  Boas,  Hugh  De  Lacey,  Abraham  Flaxer,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn, 
Osmond  K.  Fraenkel,  Stephen  H.  Fritchman,  Dashiell  Hammett,  Kock- 
well  Kent,  Max  Lerner,  Albert  Maltz,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Lewis  Merrill, 
Grant  Oakes,  Arthur  Upham  Pope,  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.?  Paul  Robeson, 


TIN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  201 

Reid  Robinson,  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  Dr.  Clinton  J.  Taft,  Dr.  Harry 
F.  Ward,  James  Waterman  Wise,  Dr.  Max  Yergan,  Art  Young,  Rev. 
Edward  L.  Parsons,  Prof.  Sophonisba  Breckinridge,  Prof.  Albert 
Sprague  Coolidge,  Prof.  Henry  Pratt  Fairchild,  Prof.  Walter  Rauten- 
strauch,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Alfred  Kreymborg,  Carey  McWilliams, 
Oswald  G.  Villard,  Dr.  Thomas  A.  Addis,  John  Beardsley,  Arthur  Gar- 
field  Hays,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Tom  Mooney,  Louis  Weinstock,  Robert  W. 
Dunn,  Warren  K.  Billings,  Dr.  W.  E.  B.  Du  Bois,  Leo  Gallagher,  Angelo 
Herndon,  James  Waterman  Wise,  Eduard  C.  Lindeman,  Mrs.  Fay  E. 
Allen,  Dr.  Ira  DeA.  Reid,  Mervyn  Rathborne,  Elliott  Wax,  William 
Morris,  and  Michael  Quill. 

CITIZENS  COMMITTEE  FOR  THE  MOTION  PICTURE  STRIKERS 

This  Communist  front  was  organized  for  the  purpose  of  creating 
sympathy  for  Herbert  K.  Sorrell's  Communist  inspired  strike  against 
the  motion  picture  industry.  It  was  particularly  active  in  attempting 
to  influence  public  opinion  in  favor  of  Sorrell  and  his  strikers  and  in 
agitating  and  fomenting  antagonisms  between  law  enforcement  officers 
and  the  strikers. 

Included  in  the  activities  of  the  Citizens  Committee  for  the  Motion 
Picture  Strikers  were  John  Howard  Lawson,  Carey  McWilliams,  Albert 
Dekker,  Dr.  Franklin  Fearing,  and  others. 

CIVIL  RIGHTS  CONGRESS 

Communist  fronts  change  their  names  so  often  that  it  is  difficult  to 
keep  up  with  them.  The  groups  devoted  to  defending  the  Communist 
Party  and  its  members  change  their  names  more  often  than  others.  Of 
the  so-called  ' '  defense  fronts ' '  the  most  prominent  have  been  the  Inter- 
national Labor  Defense  and  the  National  Federation  of  Constitutional 
Liberties.  These  fronts  recently  combined  with  the  Metropolitan  Inter- 
faith  and  Interracial  Coordinating  Council  of  New  York,  and  now 
operate  under  the  name  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress.  The  national  head- 
quarters are  located  at  205  East  42d  Street,  New  York  City. 

George  Marshall,  who  headed  the  National  Federation  for  Constitu- 
tional Liberties,  is  the  national  chairman;  Dr.  Benjamin  E.  Mays  and 
Harry  F.  Ward  are  honorary  cochairmen;  Raymond  C.  Ingersoll  is 
treasurer ;  Milton  Kaufman  is  executive  director ;  Milton  N.  Kemnitz  is 
field  director;  George  F.  Addes,  Mary  Bethune,  Rev.  Charles  A.  Hill, 
Ira  Latimer,  Stanley  Nowak,  Lawrence  Rivkin,  and  Vincent  Sheean  are 
national  vice  chairmen.  Benjamin  Goldring  is  the  secretary  of  the  legal 
committee. 

A  National  Congress  on  Civil  Rights  was  held  in  Detroit  on  April 
27-28,  1946,  out  of  which  emerged  the  Civil  Rights  Congress.  Initiators 
of  the  national  congress  were  the  late  Col.  Evans  Carlson,  Norman  Corwin, 
Dr.  Kirtley  F.  Mather,  Carey  McWilliams,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Paul 
Robeson,  Clark  Foreman,  George  Marshall,  James  G.  Patton,  and  Con- 
gressman Vito  Marcantonio. 

The  sponsors  of  the  national  congress  included  Susan  B.  Anthony  II, 
of  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  Louis  E.  Burnham,  D.  A.  Cameron, 
Prof.  Emmanuel  Chapman,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Bishop  J.  A.  Gregg, 
Rabbi  Ferdinand  M.  Isserman,  Ellis  E.  Patterson,  Michael  J.  Quill, 


202  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Dorothy  K.  Roosevelt,  Senator  Glen  H.  Taylor,  Max  Weber,  Louis 
Adamic,  Elmer  Benson,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  and  Francis  J. 
McConnell. 

Signers  of  the  call  to  the  national  congress  were  Anna  M.  Kross, 
Gene  Weltfish,  Saul  Mills,  Adam  Clayton  Powell,  Vito  Marcantonio, 
Johannes  Steel,  Lisa  Sergio,  Joe  Curran,  Joseph  P.  Selly,  and  Hulan 
E.  Jack. 

Milton  Kaufman,  Louis  Coleman  of  the  International  Labor  Defense, 
and  Milton  Kemnitz  were  elected  to  the  continuation  committee. 

The  California  headquarters  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  is  located 
at  206  South  Spring  Street  in  Los  Angeles :  telephone  number  VAndike 
3360.  William  R.  Bidner  is  the  executive  director.  The  Los  Angeles 
sponsors  are  as  follows :  Prof.  Thomas  Addis,  Sam  Baiter,  Charlotta  A. 
Bass,  Michael  Blankfort,  George  Campbell,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Rev.  Don 
M.  Chase,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Jaime  Gonzales,  E.  Y.  Harburg,  Dr.  J.  H. 
Hayes,  Willis  J.  Hill,  Dr.  Harry  Hoijer,  Lena  Home,  Dr.  H.  Claude 
Hudson,  Peter  Kahn,  Jr.,  Robert  W.  Kenny,  Howard  Koch,  William  S. 
Lawrence,  Kenneth  MacGowan,  Thomas  Mann,  Hugh  McBeth,  Jr.,  Judge 
Stanley  Moffatt,  Seniel  Ostrow,  Anne  Revere,  Frank  Scully,  Artie  Shaw, 
Ruth  Marrow  Slade,  Herbert  K.  Sorrell,  and  Virginia  Wright. 

The  current  activity  of  the  Communist  front  is  agitation  in  behalf 
of  Hans  Eisler  now  awaiting  deportation  hearing  and  considered  an 
important  agent  of  the  international  Communist  movement.  The  second 
current  activity  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  is  a  campaign  to  stop  the 
Thomas  Committee  in  Washington  and  the  Senate  Fact-Finding  Com- 
mittee in  California. 

A  pamphlet  issued  by  the  Communist  Party  of  Los  Angeles  (Room 
525,  124  West  Sixth  Street)  at  the  time  the  Freedom  Train  visited 
Los  Angeles,  lays  down  the  current  line  for  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  and 
all  of  the  subsidiary  organizations  of  the  International  Labor  Defense. 
The  pamphlet  reads,  in  part,  as  follows: 

Freedom  Is  More  Than  a  Train  *  *  *  The  fight  for  Freedom 

has  now  become  one  of  defending  sacred  Constitutional  rights. 

John  Williamson,  Labor  Secretary  of  the  Communist  Party, 

Gerhardt  Eisler,  leading  German  anti-fascist,  and  Ferdinand  Smith, 

Secretary  of  the  National  Maritime  Union,  have  been  seized  by  the 

Justice  Department,  are  being  kept  in  isolation  at  Ellis  Island  and 

are  denied  release  on  bail ! 

The  technique  now  being  practiced  is  to  seize  those  who  oppose 

the  war  plans  of  the  Truman  administration,  charge  them  with 

being  * '  dangerous  aliens, ' '  hustle  them  oif  to  a  concentration  camp, 

such  Ellis  Island  is  becoming,  and  keep  them  there  indefinitely. 

If  the  government  succeeds  in  this  plot,  no  American  having 

any  political  objections  to  the  bipartisan  administration  will  be  safe. 

Every  American  who  values  his  own  liberty  should  protest  this 

violation  of  our  freedom  heritage. 

Wire  Attorney  General  Clark  insisting  that  bail  be  set  for 

Williamson,  Eisler  and  Smith ! 

Demand  that  the  Truman  Administration  stop  the  deportation 

proceedings  based  on  political  beliefs ! 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  203 

One  of  the  most  brazen  Communist  meetings  held  in  a  church  in  Los 
Angeles  was  the  Paul  Robeson  concert-meeting  held  Friday,  February 
27,  1948,  at  8  p.m.  in  the  Second  Baptist  Church,  located  at  2412 
Griffith  Avenue,  in  the  City  of  Los  Angeles.  The  meeting  was  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  the  C.I.O.  United  Public  Workers, 
and  the  A.  F.  of  L.  state,  county  and  municipal  workers.  The  important 
participants  in  this  meeting  were  Sidney  Moore,  a  Mr.  DiMisner,  a  Mr. 
Lindsey,  Dr.  Francis  E.  Townsend,  Don  Wheeldon,  Lena  Home,  Char- 
lotta  Bass,  James  Burford,  and  Paul  Robeson. 

Sidney  Moore  represented  the  C.I.O.  Unitfi  Public  Workers  Inter- 
national. Don  Wheeldon,  represented  the  United  Negro  and  Allied  Vet- 
erans. Dr.  Francis  E.  Townsend,  aging  leader  of  the  old  age  pension 
advocates,  has  apparently  gone  over  to  the  Communist  Party  and  is 
presently  quite  a  hero  with  Stalin 's  agents.  Lena  Home  has  consistently 
given  aid  and  comfort  to  Communist-front  organizations  and  causes. 
Charlotta  Bass,  editor  of  the  Communist  California  Eagle,  has  been 
affiliated  with  most  of  the  Los  Angeles  County 's  Communist-front  organi- 
zations and  is  a  member  of  the  Communist-front,  International  Labor 
Defense.  James  Burford,  since  his  affiliation  with  the  Communist  units 
at  Berkeley,  has  been  an  avid  Communist  functionary.  Paul  Robeson  is  an 
avowed  Communist  and  is  probably  the  most  active  Negro  in  Stalin's 
fifth  column  in  America. 

The  Rev.  J.  Raymond  Anderson,  is  pastor  of  the  Second  Baptist 
Church. 

Bill  Bendor  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress  and  Sam  Berland  of  the 
C.I.O.  United  Public  Workers  were  called  to  the  platform  and  introduced. 
Don  Wheeldon  was  in  charge  of  the  collection.  He  stated  that  he  was 
present  "to  raise  funds  to  help  in  the  defense  of  Ferdinand  Smith, 
Claudia  Jones,  John  Williamson/'  and  others  threatened  with  deporta- 
tation.  Ferdinand  Smith,  Claudia  Jones,  and  John  Williamson  are  all 
self-confessed  Communists. 

Dr.  Francis  E.  Townsend  donated  $50 ;  and  Mr.  Gorlich  donated  $25 ; 
Sadie  and  Morris  Goodman  donated  $5;  Glen  Whitney  donated  $25; 
Leola  Burns  donated  $5 ;  Verdia  Finch  donated  $5 ;  Mrs.  Good  donated 
$5 ;  Mrs.  Spencer  donated  $1 ;  Murray 's  Dude  Ranch  donated  $25 ; 
American  Youth  For  Democracy  donated  $8.92 ;  and  the  Sawtelle  Pro- 
gressive Citizens  of  America  gave  $5. 

It  was  announced  that  Leon  Foreman  had  lost  his  wallet. 
The  Civil  Rights  Congress,  Division  of  Mobilization  for  Democracy, 
issued  a  call,  signed  by  Daniel  G.  Marshal,  Chairman  of  the  Los  Angeles 
Chapter  of  the  National  Lawyers  Guild,  Anthony  Lucio,  Port  Agent  of 
the  San  Pedro  Branch  of  the  National  Maritime  Union,  and  William  R. 
Bidner,  Executive  Director  of  the  Civil  Rights  Congress,  for  a  meeting 
to  be  held  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium,  Ninth  and  Grand  Avenue,  in  the 
City  of  Los  Angeles,  Tuesday  evening,  March  9,  1948,  at  8  p.m. 

The  aforesaid  "Call  to  Emergency  Action  Conference"  reads  as 
follows : 

Five  men  arrested  for  deportation  are  on  a  hunger  strike 
against  the  denial  of  any  bail,  pending  normal  legal  procedure  in 
their  cases.  To  date,  in  all  of  the  political  deportation  cases  reason- 
able bail  has  been  granted.  In  the  case  of  these  five  men  bail  has  been 


204  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA,. 

denied  by  personal  order  of  Attorney  General  Tom  Clark.  In  effect 
these  men  are  imprisoned  and  punished  before  they  are  found  guilty 
of  any  offense. 

The  individuals  involved  are : 
Ferdinand  C.  Smith — Secretary,  National  Maritime  Union,  C.I.O. 

Labor's  most  prominent  Negro  leader.   (He  has  never  before 

been  arrested  or  convicted  of  any  crime.) 
John   Williamson — National  Labor  Secretary,   Communist  Party. 

(He  has  never  been  arrested  or  convicted  of  any  crime.) 
Irving  Potash — Manager,  New  York  Fur  and  Leather  Workers, 

C.I.O. 
Charles   Doyle — International    Vice    President,    C.I.O.    Chemical 

Workers.    (He  has  never  been  arrested  or  convicted  of  any 

crime.) 
Gerhart  Eisler — German  progressive  writer. 

The  One  Issue  at  Stake  Is— The  Right  of  These  Men  to  Release 
on  Reasonable  Bail.  At  stake  is  every  person 's  right  to  due  process 
of  law — the  right  to  release  on  bail  pending  trial — the  concept  that  a 
person  is  innocent  until  proved  guilty.  These  rights  are  guaranteed 
in  the  Eighth  Amendment  to  our  Constitution  which  reads : ' '  Exces- 
sive bail  shall  not  be  required,  nor  excessive  fines  imposed,  nor  cruel 
or  unusual  punishment  inflicted."  The  Fifth  Amendment  says: 
' '  No  person  *  *  *  shall  be  *  *  *  deprived  of  life,  liberty  or  prop- 
erty without  due  process  of  law. ' ' 

Five  men  are  now  on  a.  hunger  strike  to  secure  these  elementary 
rights.  It  is  of  immediate  urgency  for  every  organization  to  be  rep- 
resented at  this  conference  by  delegates  or  observers.  Qualified  com- 
munity and  legal  spokesmen  will  present  the  issues  and  a  program 
for  action.  No  group  will  be  committed  beyond  its  desire  and  ability 
to  seek  justice  for  all. 

A  "Fact  Sheet  No.  1  on  Political  Deportation  Cases'9  is  enclosed  with 
the  '"Call."  The  "Fact  Sheet"  reads  as  follows: 

These  noncitizens  and  more  than  100  others  face  deportation 

proceedings  by  the  Department  of  Immigration  and  the  Department 

of  Justice  because  of  their  political  opinions  or  progressive  and  labor 

activities. 

Peter  Harisiades,  of  New  York,  native  of  Greece,  entered  United 
States  in  1916  at  age  of  13.  Secretary  of  the  Hellenic  American 
Brotherhood,  I.W.O.  (International  Workers  Order) .  He  is  mar- 
ried to  an  American  citizen  and  is  the  father  of  two  American- 
born  children. 

Mrs.  Theresa  Horvath,  of  Fairmount,  West  Virginia,  native  of  Hun- 
gary, entered  United  States  in  1921  at  age  of  23.  Mother  of  two 
American-born  children,  one  of  whom  is  an  honorably  dis- 
charged war  veteran. 

Refugio  Ramon  Martinez,  of  Chicago,  native  of  Mexico,  entered 
United  States  at  age  of  24.  A  member  of  the  staff  of  the  United 
Packinghouse  Workers  of  America.  He  is  married  to  an  Amer- 
ican citizen  and  is  the  father  of  two  American-born  children. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  205 

David  Balint,  of  Cleveland,  native  of  Czechoslovakia,  entered  United 
States  in  1920  at  age  of  13.  Former  President  of  United  Steel- 
workers  of  America,  Local  1666.  He  is  married  to  an  American 
citizen  and  is  the  father  of  two  American-born  children. 

Harry  Bersin,  of  New  York,  native  of  Latvia,  entered  United  States 
in  1919  at  age  of  21.  Honorably  discharged  veteran  of  second 
World  War.  Member  of  Painters'  Union,  Local  51.  Married  to  a 
legally-resident  alien. 

Joe  Weber,  of  Chicago,  native  of  Yugoslavia,  entered  United  States 
in  1913  at  age  of  9.  Former  Director  of  Organization  of  the 
United  Farm  Equipment  and  Metal  Workers  of  America.  Mar- 
ried to  an  American  citizen.  Faces  deportation  on  ground  that, 
in  1939,  he  visited  Mexico  for  four  hours. 

Kondo  Dimitroff,  of  Lorain,  Ohio,  native  of  Bulgaria,  entered  United 
States  at  the  age  of  23.  Member  of  the  United  Steel  workers  of 
America  and  active  in  Bulgarian-American  organizations. 

Claudia  Jones,  native  of  Trinidad,  entered  United  States  in  1924. 
Outstanding  Negro  woman  leader  and  National  Secretary  of  the 
Women 's  Commission  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Ferdinand  Smith,  National  Secretary  of  the  National  Maritime 
Union  of  the  C.I.O.  and  a  member  of  the  National  Executive 
Board  of  the  C.I.O.  Native  of  Jamaica,  entered  the  United  States 
in  1932. 

John  Williamson,  born  in  San  Francisco  in  1902.  Arrested  for  depor- 
tation to  Scotland,  native  country  of  his  parents.  He  is  National 
Labor  Secretary  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Charles  Doyle,  International  Vice  President  Chemical  Workers, 
C.I.O.,  native  of  Ireland. 

Gerhart  Eisler,  German  Communist  writer  and  leader,  member  of 
the  International  Brigade  that  fought  fascist  Franco  in  Spain. 

Irving  Potash,  native  of  Russia.  Entered  the  United  States  more  than 
20  years  ago.  He  is  manager  of  the  Joint  Board  of  Fur  and 
Leather  Workers,  C.I.O.,  in  New  York. 
Among  those  facing  denial  of  citizenship  are :  Alex  Balint,  of 

Cleveland ;  Werner  Fink,  of  Detroit ;  Philip  Stasiukevich,  of  Boston ; 

and  more  than  12  applicants  in  Farrell,  Pennsylvania. 

Contact  the  Los  Angeles  Civil  Rights  Congress  for  further  infor- 
mation and  action  on  the  campaign  to  stop  the  political  deportation 

drive  of  the  Truman  Administration. 

The  following  article  from  the  Hollywood  Citizens  News  for  Wednes- 
day, March  10, 1948,  accurately  reports  the  "  Emergency  Action  Confer- 
ence" at  the  Embassy  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles  on  the  evening  of 
March  9,  1948 : 

Deportation  of  five  alien  Communists  who  last  week  staged  a 
"hunger  strike"  on  Ellis  Island  was  discussed  by  speakers  in 
Embassy  Auditorium  last  night  at  a  mass  meeting  sponsored  by  the 
Civil  Rights  Congress,  the  Los  Angeles  chapter  of  National  Lawyers 
G  uild  and  the  San  Pedro  chapter  of  the  National  Maritime  Union. 

Sentiments  of  the  audience  were  indicated  by  prolonged 
applause  for  Philip  M.  Connelly,  secretary-treasurer,  Los  Angeles 
C.I.O.  Council,  who  said : 


206  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

"Justice  will  mean  nothing  to  Attorney  General  Tom  Clark 
unless  the  American  people  rise  up  and  put  Tom  Clark  and  his 
sadistic  Brown  Shirts  into  their  own  concentration  camp." 

Earlier  Connelly  had  denounced  the  holding  of  the  alien  Com- 
munists without  bail  at  the  discretion  of  the  Attorney  General.  The 
meeting  had  been  planned  as  a  protest  against  the  denial  of  bail. 
Before  the  meeting,  the  alien  Communists — accused  of  violating  the 
terms  of  their  admission  to  the  United  States — were  granted  bail,  so 
the  theme  of  the  meeting  was  changed,  according  to  William  Bidner, 
executive  director,  Civil  Bights  Congress.  He  described  it  as  "an 
emergency  action  conference"  to  launch  "an  all-out  campaign 
against  the  Truman  Administration's  deportation  delirium." 

Bidner  told  the  gathering  that  100  aliens  are  facing  deportation 
proceedings.  "It  didn't  surprise  me,"  he  said,  "to  learn  that  more 
than  half  of  them  are  veteran  trade-union  leaders. ' ' 

Bidner  interpreted  the  "deportation  delirium"  as  a  political 
move  of  the  Truman  Administration.  ' '  Ferdinand  Smith, ' '  he  said, 
' '  was  arrested  the  morning  after  he  sat  on  the  same  platform  beside 
Henry  Wallace  before  22,000  people  in  Harlem." 

Smith  is  Secretary  of  the  National  Maritime  Union,  C.I.O.,  and 
a  member  of  the  national  executive  committee,  Communist  Party, 
U.S.A. 

Besides  Smith,  those  whose  deportation  was  discussed  at  the 
meeting  were  Irving  Potash,  manager  of  the  New  York  Fur  and 
Leather  Workers,  C.I.O. ;  John  Williamson,  National  Labor  Secre- 
tary, Communist  Party;  Charles  Doyle,  International  Vice  Presi- 
dent, Chemical  Workers,  C.I.O.,  and  Gerhart  Eisler,  described  by 
the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  as  the  No.  1  Communist 
in  the  United  States. 

Robert  W.  Kenny,  who  was  introduced  as  chief  counsel  for  the 
10  Hollywood  celebrities  who  face  trial  for  refusing  to  tell  Congress 
whether  they  are  Communists,  drew  a  parallel  between  1860  and 
1948.  "In  1860,"  he  said,  "the  slave  owners  were  defending  what 
they  called  the  '  American  way. '  Today,  our  government  is  again  in 
the  hands  of  slave  owners  who  are  defending  their  system." 

Kenny  said  the  South,  in  opposing  President  Truman's  civil 
rights  program,  is  insincere. '  *  The  protest  against  Truman  is  camou- 
flage," he  said.  "What  the  South 's  would-be  slave  owners  really 
fear  is  the  demand  for  a  new  economy. ' ' 

He  said  he  had  just  returned  to  Los  Angeles  from  campaign 
efforts  in  behalf  of  Henry  Wallace. 

1 '  Wallace  and  I  have  never  disagreed  except  as  to  tactics, ' '  said 
Kenny,  "and  he  was  usually  right."  He  described  Wallace  as  "the 
only  leader  who  can  reverse  the  sickening  trend  of  the  last  two 
years." 

Dan  Marshall,  president  of  the  Los  Angeles  chapter  of  the 
National  Lawyers  Guild,  discussed  the  legal  rights  of  the  aliens 
accused  of  communist  activities. 

Bidner  asked  the  audience  to  join  a  picket  line  today  at  the 
office  of  United  States  Attorney  James  Carter.  * l  Carter, ' '  he  said, 
* '  will  be  asked  to  convey  a  protest  to  Attorney  General  Clark. ' ' 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  207 

While  a  collection  was  being  taken,  Bidner  announced  dona- 
tions from  the  National  Maritime  Union,  Fur  and  Leather  Workers 
Union,  News  Vendors  Union,  United  Furniture  Workers,  Progres- 
sive Citizens  of  America,  International  Workers  Order,  and  Morgan 
Hull  section  of  the  Communist  Party  of  Los  Angeles  County. 

Dorothy  Thompson  summarizes  the  matter  far  better  than  could 
this  committee.  She  writes : 

Tens  of  thousands  of  American  youths  are  in  their  graves 
because  they  fought  to  keep  this  Country  free. 

Now  we  are  asked  to  weep  crocodile  tears  because  four  alleged 
Communist  aliens  who  entered  this  Country  illegally  to  further  the 
aim  of  destroying  America  are  detained  without  bail  on  Ellis  Island, 
pending  their  deportation  or  sentencing. 

They  have  gone  on  a  hunger  strike,  and  Communists  are  calling 
mass  meetings  of  protest. 

"At  stake, "  they  cry,  "are  due  process  of  law,  the  right  of 
habeas  corpus,  the  right  to  release  on  bail  pending  trial,  the  pre- 
sumption that  all  are  innocent  until  proved  guilty,  the  concept  of 
equal  justice  for  all." 

Yes,  these  are  exactly  what  are  at  stake.  They  are  at  stake,  not 
only  in  this  Country,  but  all  over  the  world.  In  the  last  few  days,  in 
Czechoslovakia,  scores  of  journalists,  college  professors  and  political 
leaders  have  been  thrown  into  jail,  or  out  of  jobs  and  sentenced  to 
serve  in  work  gangs  or  starve — all  without  one  single  safeguard  of 
law.  Among  them  are  persons  who  suffered  for  years  in  German 
concentration  camps  for  Czech  freedom. 

These  men  held  on  Ellis  Island  belong  to  the  same  party  which 
everywhere  destroys  habeas  corpus,  due  process,  and  equal  justice. 
They  would,  if  they  had  their  way,  abolish  everything  they  now 
appeal  to. 

One  of  them  is  Gerhart  Eisler,  international  Communist  agent 
and  member  of  the  Praesidium  of  the  Communist  International.  He 
entered  this  Country  on  a  false  affidavit,  to  direct  the  American 
branch  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Moscow 's  line.  Now  he  is  "warn- 
ing" the  American  people  that  "no  one  in  America  is  safe  if  (Attor- 
ney General)  Clark  is  allowed  to  imprison  individuals,  deny  them 
bail,  because  they  oppose  administration  policy  *  *  *  Any  crook  or 
criminal  gets  bail. ' ' 

What  lunk! 

Every  crook  or  criminal  does  not  get  bail  under  American  law. 
And  no  ordinary  crook  or  criminal  represents  half  the  menace  that 
these  wretched  tools  of  overthrow  and  destruction  do.  Their  aims  no 
longer  are  academic.  Men  like  these  have  suppressed  every  right, 
every  safeguard,  every  hope  for  millions. 

"The  denial  of  bail,"  says  the  Daily  Worker  protest,  "is  con- 
trary to  all  precedent. ' ' 

Contrary  to  all  precedent  of  civilized  states  is  the  habit  of  a 
state,  with  whom  friendly  relations  are  thought  to  exist,  to  organize 
and  use  an  international  movement  to  enter  this  Country,  organize 
treason  among  its  citizens,  seduce  them  to  become  spies,  penetrate 


208  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

the  ranks  of  the  innocent,  exacerbate  the  discontents  of  racial  groups, 
capture  the  leadership  of  unions,  and  conspire  for  the  dissolution  of 
the  Nation — and  in  doing  so  appeal  for  constitutional  safeguards ! 

So  contrary  to  all  precedent  is  such  activity  that  the  constitu- 
tional state  has  wholly  inadequate  means  for  dealing  with  such  a 
movement.  It  must  wait  until  it  catches  one  of  the  members  in  open 
breach  of  law  to  do  anything  against  him  at  all ! 

Then  the  whole  claque  of  hyenas  turns  loose  in  his  defense. 

In  the  treatment  of  these  aliens  the  law  has  scrupulously  been 
observed. 

They  are  held  under  Title  8,  U.  S.  Code,  Sections  1-5-6,  as 
amended,  which  makes  bail  for  such  aliens  entirely  permissive — not 
mandatory — with  the  Attorney  General.  Three  of  the  men — Eisler, 
Williamson  and  Smith — have  applied  to  the  Federal  Court,  Southern 
District  of  New  York,  for  writs  of  habeas  corpus,  claiming  they  are 
unlawfully  detained  and  should  be  admitted  to  bail.  The  judges  have 
denied  the  writ.  Now  the  decision  is  being  appealed  to  the  circuit 
court. 

The  prisoners  have  all  the  benefits  of  appeal  open  to  anyone. 
And  Eisler,  from  Ellis  Island,  is  still  exercising  "free  speech"  in  the 
Daily  Worker,  while  mass  meetings  to  protest  his  "  persecution  "  are 
being  called  everywhere. 

These  gentry,  however,  will  not  starve  themselves  to  death. 
Communists  do  not  make  martyrs  of  themselves.  They  martyr  others. 

COMMITTEE  FOR  A  DEMOCRATIC  EASTERN  POLICY 

Headquarters  for  this  Communist  front  is  located  at  111  West  42d 
Street  in  New  York  City.  The  organization  opposes  the  American  policy 
toward  Greece  and  Turkey. 

The  executive  director  of  the  organization  is  Maude  Russell.  Evans 
Carlson,  until  his  death,  was  the  group 's  president.  Members  of  the  board 
of  directors  include  Frederick  V.  Field,  Rev.  Stephen  H.  Fritchman, 
Jack  R.  McMichael,  Arthur  Upham  Pope,  Martin  topper,  Rose  Terlin, 
and  Max  Yergan.  Consultants  to  the  Committee  for  a  Democratic  Eastern 
Policy  include  Philip  Jaffe,  Kate  Mitchell,  and  Maxwell  S.  Stewart.  The 
sponsors  include  Zlatko  Balotovic,  Elmer  Benson,  Millan  Brand,  Louise 
Bransten,  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  John  M.  Coffee,  Norman  Corwin, 
Hugh  De  Lacy,  Martha  Dodd,  W.  E.  B.  Du  Bois,  Dr.  Henry  Pratt  Fair- 
child,  Donald  Henderson,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Rockwell  Kent,  Edward 
Chodorov,  William  Gropper,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  Muriel  Draper,  Leo  Huber- 
man,  William  Howard  Melish,  A.  Clayton  Powell,  Jr.,  Saul  Mills,  Doxey 
Wilkerson,  Gene  Weltfish,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Dirk  J.  Struik, 
Gregory  Peck,  William  J.  Schieffelin,  Jacob  S.  Potofsky,  and  Paul 
Robeson. 

COMMITTEE  FOR  DEFENSE  OF  FERDINAND  C.  SMITH 

This  is  a  Communist  front  set  up  to  oppose  the  deportation  of  an 
alien  Communist,  Ferdinand  C.  Smith,  Secretary  of  the  National  Mari- 
time Union,  C.I.O.,  and  a  member  of  the  National  Executive  Board 
of  the  C.I.O. 


TIN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  209 

The  headquarters  of  the  committee  is  listed  as  512J  South  Palos 

Verdes  Street,  San  Pedro,  and  the  telephone  number  is  TErminal  2-0295. 

The  usual  Communist  line  in  such  cases  is  used  by  the  Committee 

for  Defense  of  Ferdinand  C.  Smith.  A  pamphlet  in  the  files  of  the  Senate 

committee  reads,  in  part,  as  follows : 

This  attack  against  Ferdinand  Smith,  N.M.U.  Secretary,  is 
purely  a  case  of  persecution  of  a  militant  maritime  labor  leader  by 
a  government  body  acting  on  the  dictates  of  Wall  Street,  and  in  open 
disregard  of  the  rights  guaranteed  by  the  Constitution  and  the  Bill 
of  Rights. 

The  National  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United 
States  has  called  for  an  all-out  pressure  program  in  unions,  civic  groups, 
etc.,  to  support  the  Communists  who  have  been  arrested,  indicted  or  are 
presently  being  held  for  deportation.  The  Communists  and  fellow- 
travelers  have  been  ordered  to  * '  call  upon  every  civic  and  political  figure 
*  *  *  and  insist  that  they  speak  out  *  *  *  arouse  the  whole  American 
people  *  *  *  let  delegations  of  the  people  visit  the  Attorney  General  and 
the  President  in  Washington  *  *  *." 

Communists  and  Communist  fellow-travelers  in  California  have 
immediately  jumped  into  action  to  carry  out  the  Communist  Party  man- 
date. William  R.  Bidner  and  the  Los  Angeles  branch  of  the  Communist 
Civil  Rights  Congress  have  called  for  mass  meetings  and  are  frantically 
drafting  letters  for  the  usual  herd  of  Communists  and  Communist  fellow- 
travelers  to  sign.  One  such  letter  appeared  in  the  People's  Daily  World 
for  March  3,  1948.  It  was  signed  by  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Charles  Glad- 
stone, Clifford  Odets,  Peter  M.  Kahn,  Sr.,  Mrs.  Charlotta  Bass,  William 
Lawrence,  William  Elconin,  Anne  Revere,  and  Rose  Hobart. 

In  addition  to  Ferdinand  Smith,  the  following  Communists  have 
been  arrested  by  the  Federal  Government :  Gerhart  Eisler,  Charles  Doyle, 
Irving  Potash,  John  Williamson,  Claudia  Jones,  and  Nat  Yanish. 

Nat  Yanish  is  the  advertising  manager  for  the  People 's  Daily  World, 
the  organ  of  the  Communist  Party  on  the  West  Coast.  Merriel  R.  Bacon, 
a  member  of  the  Portland,  Oregon  police  force,  who  had  joined  the  Com- 
munist Party  for  six  months  to  investigate  its  activities  for  the  Portland 
Police  Department,  testified  in  the  proceedings  for  the  deportation  of 
Nat  Yanish.  He  stated  that  United  States  Communists  are  opposed  to 
spontaneous  revolution  since  "revolutions  do  not  just  happen ;  they  have 
to  be  made. "  Yanish  is  charged  with  being  a  deportable  alien  and  belong- 
ing to  an  organization  advocating  overthrow  of  the  government  by  force 
and  violence.  He  is  an  asserted  Communist. 

As  in  most  cases  of  this  kind,  Yanish  is  defended  by  one  of  the 
notorious  Communist  fellow-traveling  attorneys  in  California.  In  Yan- 
ish's  case  it  is  Richard  Gladstein.  The  following  is  from  the  Los  Angeles 
Examiner,  March  3, 1948  : 

Asked  by  Gladstein  to  describe  the  party 's  theory  of  the  nature 

of  human  society,  Bacon  conceded  that  it  involved  the  anarchy  of 

capitalism  through  evolution,  but  then  added  sharply : 

'  *  We  were  taught  that  it  is  the  duty  of  the  party  to  encourage 

that  breakdown  and  organize  the  working  people  to  bring  about  the 

revolution. ' ' 

15— L-7088-D 


210  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN   CALIFORNIA 

In  a  series  of  sarcastic  questions  about  the  meaning  of  ' '  dialecti- 
cal materialism,"  " historical  materialism"  and  "economic  deter- 
minism, ' '  Gladstein  attempted  to  demonstrate  that  the  witness  was 
not  sufficiently  familiar  with  party  theory  to  testify  as  an  authoriy 
on  the  party. 

Bacon  answered : 

' '  I  was  not  so  interested  in  theory  as  in  action.  Like  any  police- 
man, I  wouldn  't  be  so  interested  in  why  a  man  burglarized  a  house 
as  in  how  and  when  he  did  it.  Those  theories  are  needed  in  order  to 
influence  workers.  I  wasn  't  interested  in  leading  workers  into  revolt. ' ' 

Bacon,  in  describing  the  mechanics  of  Communistic  activity, 
said  a  member  spends  six  months  on  probation,  is  not  eligible  to 
attend  conventions  until  two  years  have  passed,  and  must  be  a 
member  of  five  years'  standing  "to  enter  the  underground  illegal." 

*  *  They  maintain  a  legal  and  an  illegal  party, ' '  answered  Bacon. 
' '  The  illegal  one  is  underground. ' ' 

COMMITTEE  FOR  THE  FIRST  AMENDMENT 

This  organization  is  a  recently  created  Communist  front  in  the 
defense  of  Communists  and  Communist  fellow-travelers.  Its  immediate 
purpose  is  to  create  favorable  public  opinion  for  the  Communists  who 
refused  to  testify  before  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 
in  Washington,  D.  C. 

A  full  page  advertisement  in  the  Hollywood  Reporter  for  October 
24, 1947,  states :  "We  are  arranging  for  radio  broadcasts  and  other  steps 
to  protest  the  conduct  of  the  Washington  hearings. "  It  is  signed  by  the 
following:  Larry  Adler,  Stephen  Morehouse  Avery,  Geraldine  Brooks, 
Roma  Burton,  Lauren  Bacall,  Barbara  Bentley,  Leonardo  Bercovici, 
Leonard  Bernstein,  DeWitt  Bodeen,  Humphrey  Bogart,  Ann  and  Mor 
Braus,  Richard  Brooks,  Jerome  Chodorov,  Cheryl  Crawford,  Louis  Cal- 
hern,  Frank  Calleiider,  Eddie  Canot,  McClure  Capps,  Warren  Cowan, 
Richard  Conte,  Norman  Corwin,  Tom  Carlyle,  Agnes  DeMille,  Delmer 
Daves,  Donald  Davies,  Spencer  Davies,  Donald  Davis,  Armand  Deutsch, 
Walter  Doniger,  I.  A.  L.  Diamond,  Muni  Diamond,  Kirk  Douglas,  Jay 
Dratler,  Philip  Dunne,  Howard  Duff,  Paul  Draper,  Phoebe  and  Henry 
Ephron,  Julius  Epstein,  Philip  Epstein,  Charles  Einfeld,  Sylvia  Fine, 
Henry  Fonda,  Melvin  Frank,  Irwin  Gelsey,  Benny  Goodman,  Ava 
Gardner,  Sheridan  Gibney,  Paulette  Goddard,  Michael  Gordon,  Jay 
Goldberg,  Jesse  J.  Goldburg,  Moss  Hart,  Rita  Hayworth,  David  Hop- 
kins, Katharine  Hepburn,  Paul  Henreid,  Van  Heflin,  John  Huston,  John 
Houseman,,  Marsha  Hunt,  Joseph  Hoffman,  Uta  Hagen,  Robert  L. 
Joseph,  George  Kaufman,  Norman  Krasna,  Herbert  Kline,  Michel  Kraike, 
Isobel  Katleman,  Arthur  Kober,  Evelyn  Keyes,  Gene  Kelly,  Danny 
Kaye,  J.  Richard  Kennedy,  Harry  Kurnitz,  Fred  Kohlmar,  Canada  Lee, 
Anatole  Litvak,  Burt  Lancaster,  Herbert  Clyde  Lewis,  Arthur  Lubin, 
Mary  Loos,  Myrna  Loy,  Burgess  Meredith,  Richard  Maibaum,  David 
Miller,  Frank  L.  Moss,  Margo,  Dorothy  McGuire,  Ivan  Moffatt,  Josef 
Mischel,  Dorothy  Matthews,  Lorie  Niblo,  N.  Richard  Nash,  Doris  Nolan, 
George  Oppenheimer,  Ernest  Pascal,  Vincent  Price,  Norman  Panama, 
Marion  Parsonnet,  Frank  Partos,  Jean  Porter,  John  Paxton,  Bob  Pres- 
nell,  Jr.,  Gregory  Peck,  Harold  Rome,  Gladys  Robinson,  Francis  Rosen- 
wald,  Irving  Rubine,  Irving  Reis,  Stanley  Rubin,  Sylvia  Richards,  Henry 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  211 

C.  Rogers,  Lyle  Rooks,  Norman  and  Betsy  Rose,  Robert  Ryan,  Irwin 
Shal,  Richard  Sale,  George  Seaton,  John  Stone,  Allan  Scott,  Barry  Sulli- 
van, Shepperd  Strudwick,  Mrs.  Leo  Spitz,  Theodore  Strauss,  John  and 
Marti  Shelton,  Robert  Shapiro,  Joseph  Than,  Leo  Townsend,  Don  Victor, 
Bernard  Vorhaus,  Billy  Wilder,  Bill  Watters,  Jerry  Wald,  and  Cornel 
Wilde. 

Ira  Gershwin  was  subpenaed  and  testified  before  the  committee's 
Los  Angeles  hearing  February  18,  1948.  He  promptly  declared,  in 
response  to  the  question,  that  he  had  never  been  a  member  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  He  was  the  first  of  a  long  string  of  witnesses  who  unhesitat- 
ingly made  a  prompt  response  to  this  question. 

Gershwin  stated  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Committee  for  the  First 
Amendment  and  testified  that  the  membership  consisted  of  between  five 
and  seven  hundred  persons.  He  admitted  that  a  meeting  of  the  organiza- 
tion was  held  at  his  home  on  October  25,  1947.  He  identified  a  number 
of  people  from  a  prepared  committee  list  as  having  been  in  attendance 
at  the  meeting. 

The  list  of  people  who  attended  the  meeting  in  Ira  Gershwin 's  home 
are  as  follows:  Madeline  Gesas,  Evelyn  Keyes,  John  C.  Lee,  Bernard 
Feins,  Hal  Horne,  Burt  Lancaster,  Vincente  Minnelli,  Arthur  H.  Singer, 
Dr.  N.  P.  Roe,  Robert  Ardrey,  Mervyn  Le  Roy,  Sidney  Buchman,  Jane 
Strudwick,  Marcia  Panama,  Kirk  Douglas,  Humphrey  Bogart,  John 
Beal,  Mortimer  Offner,  Sy  Bartlett,  Mrs.  Van  Heflin,  William  Wyler, 
Margaret  T.  Wyler,  Richard  Brooks,  Leon  S.  Becker,  Chas.  Einfeld, 
John  Edward  Paxton,  Olive  Abbott,  Richard  Conte,  Harry  Kurnitz, 
Marsha  Hunt  Presnell,  John  Houseman,  Irving  Yergin,  Edward  Smith, 
Joseph  Than,  Henry  Brum,  Jane  Wyatt,  Sheridan  Gibney,  Lloyd  R. 
Perkins,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Sterling  Hayden,  Charles  Boyer,  Melvin 
G.  Frank,  Alexander  Knox,  Evelyn  Rideout  Rooks,  A.  Litvak,  and  Peter 
Lorre. 

COMMITTEE  TO  AID  CHINESE  TRADE  UNIONS 

See  ATYip.nVa.Ti  Friends  of  the  Chinese  People. 

COMMITTEE  TO  DEFEND  AMERICA  BY  KEEPING  OUT  OF  THE  WAR 

This  Communist  front  preceded  the  launching  of  the  American 
Peace  Mobilization,  and  its  purposes  were  the  same.  It  followed  the 
Communist  Party  "line"  which,  at  the  time  of  the  formation  of  the 
Committee  to  Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out  of  the  War,  was  based 
upon  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact. 

Among  those  who  sponsored,  or  were  otherwise  affiliated  with,  the 
Committee  to  Defend  America  by  Keeping  Out  of  War,  were  the  follow- 
ing: Rabbi  Michael  Alper,  Harry  Elmer  Barnes,  Lewis  Allen  Berne, 
Prof.  Franz  Boas,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  Joseph  Curran,  Jerome  Davis, 
Theodore  Dreiser,  Abram  Flaxer,  Rev.  Stephen  H.  Fritchman,  Rockwell 
Kent,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Michael  Quill,  Prof. 
Walter  Rautenstrauch,  Reid  Robinson,  George  Seldes,  Oswald  Garrison 
Villard,  Morris  Watson,  Max  Yergan,  Rev.  John  B.  Thompson,  Pearl 
M.  Hart,  Marian  Briggs,  and  Rev.  Claude  C.  Williams. 


212  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

COMMUNIST  DOMINATED  C.I.O.  UNIONS 

The  committee  has  found  the  following  C.I.O.  unions  to  be  so  thor- 
oughly entranched  with  Communist  leadership  as  to  be  dominated  by 
the  Stalinites  in  America : 

American  Communications  Association ; 

Food,  Tobacco,  Agricultural  and  Allied  Workers ; 

Inland  Boatmen 's  Union  of  the  Pacific ; 

International  Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  and  Technicians 
(now  the  United  Office  and  Professional  Workers)  ; 

International  Longshoremen 's  and  Warehousemen 's  Union ; 

International  Union  of  Fishermen,  and  Allied  Workers  of  America ; 

International  Union  of  Fur  and  Leather  Workers ; 

International  Union  of  Mine,  Mill  and  Smelter  Workers ; 

Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards  Association  of  the  Pacific  Coast ; 

National  Maritime  Union ; 

State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers  of  America  (now  the  United 
Public  Workers)  ; 

Transport  Workers  Union  of  America ; 

United  Cannery,  Agricultural,  Packing,  and  Allied  Workers  of 
America ; 

United  Electrical,  Radio,  and  Machine  Workers  of  America ; 

United  Farm  Equipment  and  Metal  Workers  of  America ; 

United  Federal  Workers  of  America  (now  United  Public  Workers)  ; 

United  Furniture  Workers ; 

United  Office  and  Professional  Workers  of  America,  and 

United  Public  Workers. 

This  does  not  purport  to  be  a  complete  list.  The  reader  is  referred 
to  the  index  and  to  previous  committee  reports. 

COMMUNIST  PARTY 

The  Communist  Party  keeps  its  publicly  avowed  members  down 
to  the  smallest  possible  number.  The  national  headquarters  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  the  United  States  is  located  at  35  East  12th  Street  in 
New  York  City. 

The  Daily  Worker  is  the  official  national  publication  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  and  the  People's  Daily  World  serves  the  West  Coast. 

The  national  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party  is  William  Z.  Foster, 
possibly  one  of  the  most  outspoken  traitors  the  United  States  has  ever 
tolerated. 

The  general  secretary  is  Eugene  Dennis,  alias  Waldron.  The  admin- 
istrative secretary  is  John  Williamson.  The  office  of  treasurer  is  vacant 
since  the  death  of  Charles  Krumbein. 

A  National  Secretariat  is  composed  of  William  Z.  Foster,  Eugene 
Dennis,  Robert  Thompson,  John  Williamson,  Benjamin  J.  Davis,  Jr., 
John  Gates,  Gil  Green,  Gus  Hall,  Irving  Potash,  Jack  Stachel,  Carl 
Winter,  and  Henry  Winston. 

The  National  Committee  is  composed  of  William  Z.  Foster,  Benja- 
min J.  Davis,  Jr.,  Rose  Gaulden,  Mickey  Lima,  John  Williamson,  Nat 
Ganley,  Bella  Dodd,  James  Jackson,  Louis  Weinstock,  William  McKie, 
Nat  Ross,  Fred  Blair,  Jack  Stachel,  Gus  Hall,  Nat  Cohen,  Ferdinand 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  213 

Smith,  Abner  Berry,  Alexander  Bittleman,  Claudia  Jones,  Alexander 
Trachtenberg,  David  Davis,  Herb  Signer,  Irving  Potash,  Max  Weiss, 
Lem  Harris,  and  Hal  Simon. 

The  National  Review  Board  is  composed  of  JRay  Hansborough,  chair- 
man, and  Saul  Wellman,  secretary.  The  vice  chairmanship  is  vacant  due 
to  the  death  of  Charles  Krumbein. 

The  National  Labor  Commission  is  composed  of  John  Williamson, 
chairman;  William  Albertson,  secretary;  and  Robert  Minor,  adminis- 
trative secretary ;  Al  Blumberg,  and  Pat  Toohey. 

The  National  Women's  Commission  is  headed  by  Elizabeth  Gurley 
Flynn.  The  assistant  secretary  is  Claudia  Jones. 

Josh  Lawrence  is  the  chairman  of  the  National  Negro  Commission 
and  Harry  Winston  is  the  secretary. 

Steve  Nelson  is  the  chairman  of  the  National  Groups  Commission. 

Max  Weiss  heads  the  National  Farm  Commission  with  Lem  Harris 
as  secretary. 

The  Organizing  Commission  is  composed  of  Henry  Winston  and 
Betty  Gannett. 

The  Coordinating  Committee  in  the  national  maritime  field  is  Al 
Lannon. 

The  Jewish  Commission  is  composed  of  Moses  Miller  and  Alexander 
Bittleman. 

John  Gates  is  the  chairman  or  director  of  the  new  Veterans'  Com- 
mission. The  members  of  the  committee  are  George  Blake,  Joseph  Clark, 
Louis  Diskind,  Irving  Goff,  Howard  Johnson,  Herbert  Kurzer,  Carl 
Reinstein,  Leon  Strauss,  Robert  Thompson,  Carl  Vedro,  George  Watt, 
Saul  Wellman,  Herbert  Wheeldin,  and  Henry  Winston. 

Marion  Shaw  is  the  director  of  the  Student 's  Commission. 

Arnold  Johnson  is  the  chairman  of  the  Legislative  Commission  and 
Robert  Minor  is  the  secretary. 

Jack  Stachel  heads  the  Educational  Agit-Prop  and  Publicity  Com- 
mission. Max  Weiss  is  the  secretary. 

The  California  headquarters  is  now  located  at  942  Market  Street 
in  San  Francisco.  William  Schneiderman  is  the  California  State  chair- 
man ;  Loretta  Starvis,  organizing  secretary ;  Anita  Whitney,  state  treas- 
urer; Mickey  Lima,  state  field  organizer;  Celeste  Strack,  state  educa- 
tional director ;  Leo  Baroway,  People's  Daily  World  circulation  director ; 
George  Kaye,  youth  commission  chairman ;  A.  Olken,  chairman,  Jewish 
Commission;  Ida  Rothstein,  state  press  director;  and  George  Kaye, 
state  youth  director. 

Cosecretaries  of  the  Labor  Commission  are  Archie  Brown  and  Leon 
Kaplan.  The  commission  is  composed  of  John  Pittman,  Louise  Todd,  Ray 
Thompson,  William  Schneiderman,  Pettis  Perry,  Loretta  Starvis,  Nemmy 
Sparks,  Clarence  Tobey,  George  Lohr,  and  Mickey  Lima. 

The  state  political  editor  is  Douglas  Ward. 

Herbert  Nugent  is  the  secretary  of  the  water-front  section. 

Nemmy  Sparks  is  the  chairman  of  the  Los  Angeles  County  section. 
The  Los  Angeles  County  section  includes  the  following:  Ben  Dobbs, 
labor  secretary ;  Elizabeth  Ricardo,  press  director ;  Pettis  Perry,  minor- 
ities chairman;  Dorothy  Healy,  organizing  secretary;  Sidney  Burke, 


214  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

editor  People's  Daily  World;  Emil  Freed,  chairman,  Sixteenth  Congres- 
sional District ;  Alvin  Averbuck,  section  organizer ;  Harry  Daniels,  legis- 
lative director;  Jim  Forrest,  harbor  section  organizer;  Merel  Brodsky, 
veterans '  director ;  Phil  Bock,  youth  director ;  and  Mort  Newman,  Carver 
Club  section  secretary. 

La  Rue  McCormack  has  been  a  candidate  for  the  California  Senate 
on  the  Communist  ticket.  Henry  Steinberg,  James  C.  McGowan,  and 
Elsie  M.  Monjar,  have  been  candidates  for  the  Los  Angeles  City  Council, 
running  openly  as  Communists. 

Joe  Klein  is  the  director  of  the  West  Adams  Club  of  the  Communist 
Party  and  Ida  Elliott  is  the  social  activity  secretary  of  the  62d  Assembly 
District  Communist  Club. 

Oleta  Yates  is  the  chairman  of  the  San  Francisco  section.  Herb 
Nugent  is  the  legislative  director.  Leon  Kaplan  is  labor  director.  Alex 
Freskin  is  the  water-front  organizer.  Aubrey  Grossman  heads  the  edu- 
cational commission. 

Enos  J.  Baker  is  the  chairman  of  the  Communist  Party  in  San  Diego 
County. 

Lloyd  Lehman  is  the  chairman,  and  Wesley  Bodkin  the  labor  direc- 
tor of  the  Communist  Party  in  Alameda  County.  Buddy  Green  is  the 
organizer  for  the  Ben  Davis  Club  in  Alameda  County.  Helen  Bodkin  is 
the  trade-union  director  of  the  Hariet  Tubman  Communist  Party  Club 
in  Alameda  County. 

The  president  of  the  Santa  Monica  Club  of  the  Communist  Party 
is  David  Grant.  Mildred  Bowen  is  chairman  of  Contra  Costa  County. 
John  Stapp  heads  the  Hollywood  section.  Libby  Wilson  is  the  press  direc- 
tor of  the  East  Side  Youth  Club  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Los  Angeles. 
George  Edwards  is  the  organizer  for  the  North  Oakland  section. 

The  New  Century  Publishers,  Inc.  is  the  largest  of  the  Communist 
publishing  firms.  It  is  located  at  832  Broadway,  New  York  City.  It  was 
incorporated  December  8, 1944  with  a  capital  stock  of  $20,000.  The  incor- 
porators  were  Joseph  Felshin,  832  Broadway,  New  York  City;  Isidore 
Greenbaum,  207  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York  City ;  and  Betty  Greenbaum, 
207  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York  City. 

International  Publishers,  381  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York  City,  and 
Workers '  Library  Publishers,  New  York  City,  are  two  other  important 
publishing  organizations  of  the  Communist  Party.  Alexander  Trachten- 
berg  is  the  president  of  International  Publishers. 

The  Four  Continent  Book  Corporation,  253  Fifth  Avenue,  and  Uni- 
versal Distributors,  38  Union  Square,  New  York  City  are  Communist 
publishing  houses. 

At  the  Sixteenth  General  Assembly  of  the  Brotherhood  of  Painters, 
Decorators  and  Paperhangers  of  America,  held  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  Sep- 
tember 23,  1941,  one  hundred  officers  and  delegates  signed  a  petition 
demanding  the  immediate  release  of  Earl  Browder,  head  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  of  the  United  States,  from  the  Atlanta  Penitentiary  where 
he  was  serving  a  term.  Among  those  who  signed  this  Communist  petition 
was  Herbert  K.  Sorrell,  who  was  a  delegate  from  Hollywood  Local  644. 

In  the  November,  1942  election,  La  Rue  McCormick,  a  self -admitted 
Communist,  and  an  officer  of  the  Communist  Party  and  the  Communist 
Political  Association,  was  a  candidate  for  the  office  of  State  Senator  for 
Los  Angeles  County.  She  was  running  openly  on  the  Communist  Party 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  215 

ticket.  A  committee  was  organized  for  the  support  of  Mrs.  McCormick 's 
candidacy  under  the  title  "Democrats  for  McCormick. "  Among  those 
who  supported  Mrs.  McCormick  were  John  Howard  Lawson,  Dalton 
Trumbo,  Rev.  Clayton  Russell,  Charlotta  Bass,  Al  S.  Waxman,  Herbert 
K.  Sorrell,  Ellis  E.  Patterson,  Paul  Jarrico,  Viola  Brothers  Shore,  John 
Bright,  Lester  Cole,  Leo  Gallagher,  Richard  Collins,  Jay  Gorney,  Henry 
Myers,  and  A.  Maymudes. 

Attorneys  for  the  California  State  Communist  Party  are  Gladstein, 
Andersen,  Resner,  E  discs,  and  Sawyer  of  240  Montgomery  Street  in  the 
City  of  San  Francisco. 

Communist  functionaries  in  Alameda  County  include  Lloyd  Leh- 
man, Carol  Barnes,  Emma  Stanley,  Eugene  Toopeekoff,  Nori  Lafferty, 
Katrina  Manley,  and  John  Morgan.  The  Alameda  County  Communist 
Party  Codornices  Club  has  the  following  functionaries:  Shirley  Cloke, 
Marion  Redner,  Bruce  Anderson,  Hannah  Drucker,  June  Naboisek,  Mary 
Bradsher,  and  Van  Frederics. 

The  Berkeley  section  of  the  Communist  Party  include  Marion  Ham- 
mond, Wilhelmina  Loughrey,  and  Robert  Ragland. 

Frank  Parsons  is  the  organizer  for  the  Central  Bloor  Branch  of  the 
Communist  Party. 

The  Herman  Boettcher  Branch  of  the  Communist  Party  includes 
Harold  Goldenberg,  Ruth  McGovney  (former  wife  of  Kenneth  May), 
Muriel  Simmonds,  Eleanor  Mitchell,  and  Gothard  W.  Sorensen. 

The  North  Berkeley  Branch  of  the  Communist  Party  has  Beatrice 
Morgan  and  James  E.  Kalman  as  functionaries. 

The  South  Berkeley  Club  of  the  Communist  Party  contains  the  fol- 
lowing functionaries:  Dan  Kalgaard,  Calvin  Batiste,  Fred  Williams, 
Leon  Vannier,  Herb  Kalman,  Charles  Drasnin,  and  Jane  Reneker. 

The  Bethune  Branch  of  the  Communist  Party  is  headed  by  Nell 
Sawyer,  lone  Schlaifer,  John  Henry,  and  Georgia  Jones. 

Jane  Sears  and  Nora  McEven  are  members  of  the  Tom  Paine  Club. 

The  Merriman  Clubs  of  the  Communist  Party  are  said  to  include  a 
number  of  professors  from  the  University  of  California  at  Berkeley. 
Helen  Jackins  is  the  organizer  of  Merriman  Club  No.  1  and  Ethel  Landau 
is  the  organizer  of  Merriman  Club  No.  2.  Mary  Sherwood  and  Paul  Peter- 
son are  connected  with  the  Merriman  Clubs. 

Mary  Ann  Cassidy  is  the  president,  and  John  Havel  is  the  member- 
ship secretary  of  the  J.  B.  S.  Haldane  Club  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Alameda  County  has  a  number  of  other  branches  of  the  Communist 
Party  including  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Branch,  John  Reed  Branch,  Art 
Young  Branch,  Thomas  Jefferson  Branch  (said  to  be  composed  for  the 
greater  part  of  government  employees),  and  the  Eugene  Debs  Branch. 

Sidney  Roger,  radio  commentator  over  Radio  Station  KGO  in  San 
Francisco,  is  a  paid  functionary  of  the  Communist  Party.  Many  of  his 
broadcasts  follow,  not  only  the  substance  of  the  propaganda  of  the  Com- 
munist publication,  the  People's  Daily  World,  but  in  many  cases  follow 
the  paper 's  language.  Roger  twists  and  squirms  with  each  change  of  the 
Communist  Party  line  and  spreads  the  Kremlin 's  propaganda  to  anyone 
who  tunes  in  his  program. 

The  following  are  sponsors  of  the  Sidney  Roger  Radio  Fund  (150 
Golden  Gate  Avenue,  San  Francisco,  California)  :  Dr.  and  Mrs.  George 


216  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

P.  Adams,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Addis,  Victor  Arnautoff,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Percy  Baker,  William  A.  P.  White,  Dr.  Arthur  G.  Brodeur,  Rabbi  Elliott 
Burstein,  William  E.  Dodd,  Jr.,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Benjamin  Dreyfus,  David 
Friedenrich,  Dr.  Carleton  Goodlett,  Dr.  Asher  Gordon,  Dr.  Albert  Guer- 
ard,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Leon  Kolb,  Archibald  MacPhail,  Dr.  Jerzy  Neyman, 
Rt.  Rev.  Edward  L.  Parsons,  Dr.  Hubert  Phillips,  Anton  Refregier,  Dr. 
and  Mrs.  Holland  Roberts,  Sidney  Rudy,  Dr.  Maxwell  Savelle,  Sol  Silver- 
man,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  C.  Solomon,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  C.  Tolman, 
Frederick  Thompson,  Edward  Weston,  and  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  Wey- 
mouth.  (Committee  transcript,  Volume  XXXIII,  p.  293.) 

Sidney  Roger's  record,  in  part,  is  as  follows : 

In  1932  the  People's  Daily  World  announced  on  March  18th  that 
Roger  was  scheduled  to  preside  over  a  meeting  of  the  Allied  War  Relief 
Rally  at  Eagle's  Hall  in  San  Francisco  under  the  auspices  of  the  Com- 
munist International  Workers  Order.  In  the  issue  of  August  20, 1942  the 
People 's  Daily  World  announced  that  Roger  was  to  be  the  chairman  at  a 
symposium  on  "What  Union  Organization  Can  Do  for  the  Licensed  Pro- 
fessional Nurse,"  at  the  Oakland  City  Club  Hotel.  (A  subsequent  issue 
of  the  People's  Daily  World  reported  that  Roger  would  be  unable  to 
preside  at  this  meeting.)  The  People's  Daily  World  for  October  31,  1942 
announced  that  Sidney  Roger  was  scheduled  to  lecture  at  the  Communist 
Party  Tom  Mooney  Labor  School  in  San  Francisco.  His  subject  was 
announced  as  "Africa  and  the  Global  War." 

In  the  issue  of  November  12,  1942,  the  People's  Daily  World  ran  an 
advertisement  stating  that  Roger  would  act  as  the  chairman  of  a  mass 
meeting  at  which  General  Victor  A.  Yakhantoff  would  speak,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Communist  International  Workers  Order  at  150  Golden 
Gate  Avenue,  San  Francisco. 

In  the  People's  Daily  World,  issue  of  March  4, 1943  Sidney  Roger  is 
listed  as  a  signatory  to  a  statement  demanding  that  President  Roosevelt 
intercede  in  the  Harry  Bridges  proceedings. 

Most  of  the  following  activities  are  reported  in  the  Communist  Press, 
the  People's  Daily  World.  March  20,  1943,  Roger  spoke  at  a  conference 
called  by  the  Citizens  Committee  for  Democratic  Freedom  in  North 
Africa,  at  the  Sir  Francis  Drake  Hotel  in  San  Francisco.  He  was  a 
speaker  at  the  high  school  auditorium  in  Palo  Alto  for  Russian  War 
Relief  in  March  of  1943.  His  speech,  of  course,  was  emphatically  pro- 
Russian.  In  August  of  1943  Roger  spoke  on  "Racial  and  National  Unity 
in  Wartime"  at  150  Golden  Gate  Avenue  in  the  City  of  San  Francisco. 
In  the  same  month  he  was  a  sponsor  of  a  reception  to  a  Soviet  delegation 
in  the  Civic  Auditorium  in  San  Francisco.  He  chairmaned  a  meeting 
sponsored  by  Russian  War  Relief  at  the  Scottish  Rite  Auditorium  in 
Oakland  when  Nila  Magidoff  spoke. 

In  September  of  1943  Roger  was  scheduled  as  a  teacher  at  the  Com- 
munist Tom  Mooney  Labor  School  on  the  subject  "Press  Propaganda 
and  War." 

In  October,  1943,  Roger  spoke  at  a  Conference  of  Solidarity  With  the 
Spanish  People  at  the  Hotel  Whitcomb  in  San  Francisco.  In  the  same 
month  he  read  a  prepared  statement  by  Louis  Adamic  at  a  Yugoslav 
meeting  held  in  the  Scottish  Rite  Auditorium.  On  November  1st,  he  was 
a  speaker  at  a  meeting  of  the  Communist  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee 
Committee  held  at  the  Hotel  Whitcomb  in  San  Francisco, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  217 

In  January  of  1944,  he  was  an  instructor  in  radio  writing  and  pro- 
duction at  the  Communist  Tom  Mooney  Labor  School,  sponsored  by  the 
American  Federation  of  Radio  Artists.  According  to  the  People's  Daily 
World  of  April  7,  1944,  Roger  and  his  wife  were  among  the  sponsors 
of  a  benefit  for  the  Communist  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Committee, 
held  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Sydney  Joseph  on  April  7th. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  October  4,  1944,  carried  an  adver- 
tisement announcing  that  Roger  was  scheduled  to  speak  on  "Where  Do 
We  Stand  Today"  on  October  llth  at  the  Jewish  Community  Center  in 
San  Francisco  under  the  auspices  of  the  Jewish  American  Lodge  of  the 
Communist  International  Workers  Order. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  February  21,  1945,  carried  an  adver- 
tisement announcing  that  Roger  was  to  be  the  chairman  at  a  celebration 
of  the  27th  anniversary  of  the  Red  Army  on  Washington's  birthday  at 
the  Scottish  Rite  Auditorium.  The  affair  was  to  be  a  benefit  for  the  war 
orphan's  home  in  Smolensk,  Soviet  Russia,  and  was  given  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Russian  American  Society,  Inc. 

On  May  21,  1945  Roger  was  the  speaker  at  a  "Spotlight  on  Spain': 
banquet  for  the  benefit  of  Communist  Spanish  refugees  at  the  Claremont 
Hotel  in  Berkeley.  The  People's  Daily  World  for  June  8,  1945  carried 
an  advertisement  that  Roger  would  speak  on  "The  Road  From  San 
Francisco"  on  the  eighth  of  June  at  the  California  Labor  School  in  San 
Francisco.  He  spoke  at  a  "Wanted — a  Free  Spain"  rally  October  14. 
1945,  under  the  auspices  of  the  East  Bay  Committee  for  Republican 
Spain.  In  October  of  1945  Roger  started  a  regular  broadcast,  Monday 
through  Friday,  at  6.15  p.m.  over  Radio  Station  KYA,  under  the  spon- 
sorship of  the  Communist  controlled  International  Longshoremen  and 
Warehousemen 's  Union,  Local  6. 

In  January  of  1946  Roger  interviewed  Attorney  General  Robert  W. 
Kenny  in  regard  to  the  action  of  the  House  Un-American  Activities 
Committee  in  ordering  the  Communist  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Com- 
mittee officials  to  testify  before  it  and  to  submit  its  records  of  contribu- 
tors. In  that  same  month  he  spoke  on  a  program  at  the  Curran  Theatre 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Communist  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  and  the 
Communist  California  Labor  School.  On  February  3,  1946  he  partici- 
pated in  a  forum  on  "Fascist  Spain — the  Nazi  Valhalla,"  in  Berkeley, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Communist  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  March  8,  1946  carried  an  advertise- 
ment that  Roger  would  speak  at  a  "Franco  Must  Go"  mass  meeting  to 
be  held  at  150  Golden  Gate  Avenue,  in  the  City  of  San  Francisco  on 
March  15th,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Communist  front,  Trade  Union 
Committee  for  Free  Spain.  In  April  of  1946  Roger  spoke  at  a  meeting 
on  the  atomic  bomb,  at  which  Dr.  Harold  C.  Urey  was  the  principal 
speaker. 

Roger  was  the  "Fund  Raising  Speaker"  at  the  Henry  A.  Wallace 
meeting,  April  22,  1946,  in  San  Francisco,  which  was  held  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Northern  California  Division  of  the  National  Citizens 
Political  Action  Committee. 

In  April  of  1946  Roger  was  a  member  of  the  city- wide  campaign 
committee  for  Paul  F.  Schnur,  a  candidate  for  Assembly  in  the  20th 
District,  He  also  participated  in  the  Russian  Relief — American  Russian 


218  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Institute  forum  series  on  the  subject  "What's  on  Tour  Mind  About 
Russia  f*' 

In  May  of  1946  Roger  spoke  at  a  meeting  of  the  Communist  front, 
Northern  California  Win  the  War  Conference,  in  San  Francisco.  In 
the  same  month  he  became  the  chairman  of  the  Communist  inspired  and 
controlled  Northern  California  Chapter  of  the  American  Committee 
for  Yugoslav  Relief. 

William  J.  Bailey,  Communist  Party  organizer  of  the  San  Francisco 
waterfront,  thanked  Roger  for  his  contribution  to  the  maritime  workers. 
(People's  Daily  World,  June  15, 1946.) 

On  July  19,  1946  Roger  spoke  at  a  mass  meeting  against  "Franco 
Spain, ' '  under  the  auspices  of  the  Robert  Merriam  Post  of  the  Communist 
Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade  at  the  Oakland  Civic  Audi- 
torium Theatre.  On  July  17,  the  People's  Daily  World  announced  that 
Roger  was  to  speak  at  a  meeting  of  the  Mission  Chapter  of  the  American 
Veterans  Committee  in  Genova  Hall  in  San  Francisco.  Throughout  1946 
Sidney  Roger  gave  much  of  his  time  to  the  Communist  Win  the  Peace 
Committee.  The  People's  Daily  World  for  October  5,  1946  carried  an 
advertisement  which  stated  that  Roger  would  be  the  chairman  at  a  mass 
meeting  under  the  auspices  of  Branches  119,  476,  and  599  of  the  Com- 
munist International  Workers  Order  in  the  C.I.O.  Hall,  in  San  Francisco. 
At  this  meeting  the  president  of  the  Jewish  People's  Fraternal  Branches 
of  the  Communist  International  Workers  Order,  Albert  E.  Kahn,  was 
the  principal  speaker. 

The  Labor  Herald,  of  the  C.I.O.  for  October  11,  carried  Roger's 
photograph  with  Paul  Robeson  and  Revels  Cayton,  prominent  Negroes 
in  the  Communist  movement,  who  had  spoken  over  Roger's  radio  pro- 
gram. In  October  of  1946  Roger  was  the  chairman  at  a  mass  meeting  in 
the  Scottish  Rite  Auditorium  which  launched  the  National  Conference 
on  China.  On  the  twenty-ninth  of  October,  1946,  Roger  chairmaned  a 
meeting  at  the  Jenny  Lind  Hall  in  Oakland  which  was  addressed  by 
Albert  Kahn  on  "The  Danger  of  a  Third  World  War,"  under  the 
auspices  of  Lodge  180  of  the  Communist  International  Workers  Order. 

The  Dispatcher  for  November  29,  1946,  carries  a  photograph  of 
Roger  with  Jim  San  Jule,  Communist  Party  liner  in  the  Bay  area. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  December  5,  1946,  announced  that 
Roger  was  a  sponsor  of  the  celebration  of  the  third  anniversary  of  the 
Indonesian  Association,  which  was  scheduled  to  be  held  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Free  Indonesian  Committee  at  Booker  T.  Washington 
Community  Center  in  San  Francisco. 

.  In  February  of  1947  Sidney  Roger  was  able  to  get  a  larger  audience 
by  moving  from  Radio  Station  KYA  to  Radio  Station  KGO  in  San 
Francisco. 

In  April  of  1947  Roger  became  a  sponsor  of  the  Communist  Com- 
mittee for  a  Democratic  Far  Eastern  Policy.  He  also  became  a  director 
of  the  Northern  California  Chapter  of  the  Communist  front,  Progres- 
sive Citizens  of  America.  He  chairmaned  a  meeting  on  the  twenty-third 
of  February,  1947,  at  the  Scottish  Rite  Auditorium,  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Communist  Spanish  Refugee  Appeal  Committee.  He  was  the 
chairman  of  the  fifth  anniversary  meeting  of  the  Communist  California 
Labor  School  held  in  the  Whitcomb  Hotel  in  San  Francisco  on  March  2, 
1947.  On  March  21,  1947,  he  spoke  at  a  mass  meeting  under  the  auspices 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  219 

of  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America,  Berkeley  Branch,  and  the  Inde- 
pendent Students'  Political  Action  Committee,  at  Garfield  School,  in 
Berkeley. 

The  committee  finds  that  Sidney  Roger  is  an  important  Communist 
functionary. 

Averill  Berman  and  Alvin  Wilder  are  the  two  main  Communist 
radio  commentators  in  Los  Angeles.  Wilder  is  sponsored  by  the  Sealy 
Mattress  Co.  of  Los  Angeles.  Both  Berman  and  Wilder  follow  the  Com- 
munist press  without  deviation. 

Ruth  McGovney,  former  wife  of  Kenneth  May,  testified  at  the  com- 
mittee's  Oakland  hearing.  The  committee  believes  the  following  testi- 
mony of  Miss  McGovney  significant : 

Q.  (By  Mr.  Combs)  :  And  when  did  you  first  affiliate  with  the 
Communist  Party? 

A.  I  drew  closer  to  the  Communist  Party  over  a  long  period 
of  time.  I  finally  registered  as  "Ruth  McGovney,  Communist 
Party,''  some  time  in  the  spring  of  1942. 

Q.  You  never  at  any  time  made  any  effort  to  conceal  affiliation 
with  the  party. 

A.  I  did  not. 

Q.  You  joined  openly? 

A.  Yes. 

Q.  During  all  the  time  you  were  a  member  of  the  party  you 
made  no  effort  to  conceal  that  fact? 

A.  I  didn  't  go  around  shouting  about  it,  but  I  didn  't  attempt  to 
conceal  it. 

Q.  When  did  you  actually  become  a  member? 

A.  As  I  say,  I  drew  closer  to  the  party,  and  finally  when  I  felt 
I  was  an  open  member  of  the  party,  I  registered.  I  suppose  the  dates 
could  be  ascertained.  It  was  some  time  in  the  spring  of  '42. 

Q.  (By  Senator  Dilworth)  :  Did  you  register  as  a  voter  in  this 
county  ? 

A.  Yes,  I  was  living  in  Alameda  County.  Let  me  see,  in  1942 
I  was  living  in  Berkeley.  I  could  recall  the  exact  address  if  you 
wanted  me  to  think  of  it. 

Q.  And  you  registered  as  a  voter  in  the  Communist  Party? 

A.  That's  right. 

Q.  Did  you  ever  join  the  secret  organization  known  as  the 
Communist  Party? 

A.  I  was  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party,  yes. 

Q.   (By  Chairman  Tenney)  :  And  you  paid  dues  to  the  party? 

A.  That  is  correct. 

Q.  And  received  a  card? 

A.  Yes. 

Q.  Signed  by  Mr.  Schneiderman  ? 

A.  I  don't  remember. 

Q.  First  you  joined  the  party,  making  an  application,  having 
a  sponsor  and  receiving  a  card? 

A.  I  joined  the  Communist  Party,  yes. 

Q.  Subsequent  thereto  you  registered  as  a  Communist? 

A.  In  the  spring  of  1942. 


220  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Carol  Barnes  testified  at  the  Oakland  hearing  in  1947  that  he  was 
the  secretary  of  the  Alameda  County  Communist  Party.  He  stated  that  he 
gave  this  information  under  protest  and  claimed  that  it  was  a  violation 
of  his  "constitutional  rights."  He  contended  that  a  question  concern- 
ing the  length  of  time  he  had  lived  in  Alameda  County  was  also  a 
violation  of  his  "constitutional  rights"  and,  while  he  answered  the 
question,  he  did  so  under  protest.  His  office  is  located  at  1723  Webster 
Street,  Oakland,  which  he  admitted  was  the  headquarters  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  for  Alameda  County.  When  Mr.  Combs  asked  him  what 
his  duties  were  as  secretary  of  the  Party,  he  answered  that  he  "gave  out 
political  opinions. "  ' '  One  of  the  things  that  I  've  done, ' '  he  stated,  " is  to 
advise  people  to  get  out  leaflets  against  the  Tenney  Committee  for  its 
un-American  activity. ' ' 

Eugene  Toopeekoff  was  born  in  the  Soviet  Union  and  became  a 
naturalized  citizen  in  1934. 

Other  Communists  active  in  Alameda  County  are  Paul  Schlipf, 
secretary  and  treasurer  of  the  Alameda  County  C.I.O. ;  Hack  Gleichman 
(alias  Hack  Kelley)  ;  Louis  Gonnick,  Frances  Tandy,  Frank  Slaby,  and 
Barney  Young. 

Among  those  who  are  affiliated  with  the  Communist  Southwest 
Berkeley  Club  are  Rose  Marie  Gray,  Calvin  Batiste,  Ray  Halpern,  Fred 
Williams,  Marcelle  Vannier,  Ray  Thompson,  Jackie  Thompson,  Mar- 
jorie  Hitchcock,  Timothy  Coleman,  Ferdie  Walker,  George  Hitchcock, 
Bob  Neville,  Frank  Parsons,  Laura  Thomas,  Herb  Kalman,  Theresa 
Kalman,  Willie  Loughrey,  I.  Warner  Galloway,  Jane  Reneker,  Marie 
Galloway,  Ozzo  Marrow,  Whittier  Hahn,  Dan  Kalgaard,  Forrest 
Ammons,  Archie  Faster,  J.  0.  Massey,  Andrew  Mays,  Amos  Newton, 
Reuben  May,  Bob  Grover,  William  Montier,  Quin  Montier,  and  Bertha 
Grover. 

Mrs.  Aileen  LaBelle  appeared  before  the  committee  in  Los  Angeles 
on  February  17,  1948.  Mrs.  LaBelle  is  the  business  manager  of  the 
Olympic  Auditorium  in  Los  Angeles.  She  testified  that  a  young  lady, 
who  said  that  she  represented  the  Los  Angeles  Communist  Party, 
requested  the  rental  of  the  Olympic  Auditorium  for  a  Communist  Party 
meeting  featuring  William  Z.  Foster.  The  request  was  made  in  the 
latter  part  of  May  or  June  in  1947.  Mrs.  LaBelle  told  the  young  lady 
that  the  auditorium  was  not  available  for  the  Foster  meeting. 

Subsequently,  Mrs.  LaBelle  stated,  she  received  many  telephone 
calls  and  communications  protesting  her  refusal  to  rent  the  auditorium 
to  the  Communist  Party.  She  stated  that  she  received  a  letter  from 
William  Bidner  of  the  Civil  Rights  Conference  requesting  an  appoint- 
ment to  discuss  the  matter.  She  testified  that  following  her  telephone 
call  to  William  Bidner  denying  his  request,  Bidner  and  a  Mr.  Forrest  of 
the  Communist  Party  and  several  others  called  on  the  Los  Angeles 
Athletic  Club  management  for  the  purpose  of  pressuring  the  Athletic 
Club  (which  owns  the  Olympic  Auditorium)  into  renting  the  building. 
She  stated  that  Bidner  called  her  on  the  telephone  several  times  and 
accused  her  and  the  management  of  denying  people  "civil  rights," 
"free  speech,"  etc.  She  stated  that  the  management  had  refused  to 
permit  Gerald  L.  K.  Smith  to  use  the  auditorium  in  1946,  and  when  she 
conveyed  this  information  to  Bidner  he  replied  by  saying  that  the 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  221 

refusal  to  Smith  was  all  right  but  refusal  to  rent  to  the  Communist 
Party  was  different. 

Mrs.  LaBelle  offered  a  number  of  communications  as  exhibits  which 
were  accepted  by  the  committee.  One  of  these  is  a  letter  from  the  Civil 
Rights  Congress,  Division  of  Mobilization  for  Democracy,  under  date 
of  June  11,  1947.  Another  exhibit  is  a  letter  dated  July  15,  1947,  on  the 
letterhead  of  the  American  Jewish  Congress  and  signed  by  Judge  Ben 
Rosenthal,  president  of  the  Southern  California  division  of  the  organi- 
zation. Another  is  a  letter  under  date  of  July  11,  1947,  signed  by  Gus 
0.  Brown,  international  vice  president  and  business  agent  of  the  United 
Furniture  Workers  of  America,  Local  576 — C.I.O.  Another  is  from 
Henry  Sazer  under  date  of  August  14,  1947.  Exhibit  No.  5  is  signed  by 
George  Hass  of  the  United  Steel  "Workers  of  America.  Exhibit  No.  6  is 
signed  by  George  T.  Altman  of  the  National  Lawyers  Guild.  Exhibit 
No.  7  is  entitled  " Student  Reports"  published  " every  Monday  by  the 
Student  Communist  Club  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  U.  S.  A., 
Box  1943,  Wilshire— LaBrea,  P.  0.,  Los  Angeles  36," California, "  dated 
August  18,  1947.  Exhibit  No.  8  is  signed  Hollywood  Women's  Council 
and  dated  July  9,  1947.  All  of  these  communications,  of  course,  vigor- 
ously protested  the  action  of  the  Olympic  Auditorium  management  in 
refusing  to  rent  the  Olympic  Auditorium  to  the  Communist  Party  for 
the  William  Z.  Foster  rally. 

Mrs.  LaBelle 's  testimony,  in  part,  is  as  follows: 

Q.  (By  Mr.  Combs)  :  Who  tried  to  talk  you  into  changing 
your  opinion  ? 

A.  Well,  they  finally  (by  "they"  I  mean  Mr.  Bidner  and  For- 
rest and  others) — finally  forced  a  meeting  through  the  Athletic 
Club,  and  we  had  this  meeting  really  as  a  courtesy  to  the  owner 
of  the  Athletic  Club,  in  order  to  take  him  out  of  the  "middle." 
Attending  that  meeting  were  Mr.  Philip  Connelly,  who  was  secre- 
tary of  the  C.I.O. ;  Mr.  Forrest  from  the  Communist  Party  and 
Mr.  Marvin,  I  believe,  Communist  Party ;  Mr.  Victor  Shapiro,  who 
claims  to  be  from  the  Hollywood  Democratic  Club,  also  a  matter 
of  opinion ;  Charlotte  Bass  from  the  California  Eagle ;  and  Mr. 
William  Bidner  from  the  Civil  Rights  Congress.  I  think  that  was 
all. 

Q.  And  of  course  you  did  not  allow  the  use  of  the  auditorium 
for  Mr.  Foster  ? 

A.  Definitely  not. 

Q.  Did  he  speak  in  Los  Angeles,  to  your  knowledge  ? 
A.  He  spoke  at  the  Embassy  Auditorium,  which  is  a  smaller 
place  than  ours. 
Q.  Yes. 

A.  However,  we  were  pressured  very  considerably,  not  only  at 
that  meeting,  but  after;  Mr.  Philip  Connelly  was  adamant;  he 
even  went  so  far  as  to  say  that  he  was  in  complete  control  of 
120,000  workers;  I  understand  that  is  exaggerated,  but,  quite  a 
few,  but  that  is  what  he  said,  and  that  he  was  going  to  see  to  it, 
personally,  that  every  member  of  his  organization  boycotted  the 
Olympic  until  we  rented  it  to  the  Communist  Party;  so  we  asked 
him  if  theater  owners  were  anti-Communists ;  if  he  would  prevent 


222  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

his  workers  from  going  to  picture  shows.  He  said,  "  Absolutely , 
they  would  stay  home  seven  nights  a  week/'  so  I  told  him  to  get 
some  good  reading  material  at  home  to  help  them  out. 

Q.  Did  you  ever  notice  any  difference  in  your  income  at  the 
auditorium  after  the  Communist  protests  ? 

A.  No.  (Witness  knocks  on  the  witness  table).  But  as  I  say, 
we  got  a  hundred  letters  a  day  and  possibly  a  phone  call  every 
two  minutes,  for  almost  a  month,  and  then  we  were,  oh,  I  wouldn't 
want  to  use  the  word  " picketed"  exactly,  but  members  of  the 
Communist  Party  distributed  literature  around  every  Monday 
and  Tuesday  nights,  both  on  boxing  and  wrestling  nights,  to  try  to 
prevent  the  people  from  coming  in,  and  on  one  of  the  nights  one 
of  the  people  distributing  literature  was  injured  by  one  of  our 
customers  who  became  very  incensed,  and  Mr.  Connelly  told  us  if 
anybody  was  injured  distributing  Communistic  literature,  that 
he  was  going  to  have  members  of  his  union  come  down  and  protect 
them,  and  so  I  don't  know  whether  he  considers  all  of  his  members 

Communists  or  not. 
******# 

The  Witness:  Once  I  talked  to  Judge  Rosenthal  about  that 
letter,  and  I  think  he  knew  what  he  was  writing,  because  I  gave  him 
every  opportunity  to  edit  it. 

And  also  one  other  thing  about  Mr.  Shapiro,  as  long  as  he  is 
supposedly  representing  the  Democratic  Club,  I  met  the  gentleman 
in  Hollywood  and  was  minding  my  own  business,  believe  me,  and  he 
came  up  and  started  calling  me  a  lot  of  names,  among  which  he 
called  me  a  Nazi. 

Chairman  Tenney :  Q.  Who  called  you  that  ? 

A.  This  Victor  Shapiro,  but  he  prefaced  it  by  a  few  swear  words. 

Mr.  Victor  Shapiro :  Mr.  Chairman 

Chairman  Tenney :  Mr.  Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Mr.  Shapiro :  I  have  a  right  to  answer. 

The  Witness :  Now,  when  I  walked  in  and  saw  Mr.  Shapiro,  I 
mentioned  that  he  was  one  of  the  men  that  came  down  with  the 
Communists,  so  apparently  when  he  heard  the  ''Communists,"  I 
don't  know  whether  his  conscience  hurt  him  or  not,  he  started 
screaming  ' '  Nazi, "  so  he  told  me  he  was  going  to  sue  me  if  I  called 
him  a  Communist.  So  apparently  they  all  feel,  deep  down,  that  it  is 
a  disgrace  or  they  would  not  want  to  start  a  lawsuit. 

Frank  Spector  was  subpenaed  and  appeared  before  the  committee 
in  Los  Angeles  on  Wednesday,  February  18,  1948.  He  stated  that  he  was 
born  in  Russia  and  that  he  is  an  alien.  He  has  lived  in  California  since 
1920,  off  and  on.  He  was  in  the  East  for  some  time  and  returned  to 
Southern  California  in  1942.  Spector  would  not  admit  acquaintance  with 
V.  A.  K.  Tashjian,  alias  Parker,  former  control  commissioner  of  the 
Communist  Party  for  Southern  California.  Likewise  he  refused  to  answer 
questions  concerning  his  official  position  in  the  Communist  Party.  (It  is 
known  that  he  is  the  present  control  commissioner  for  the  party.  This 
position  is  a  most  powerful  one  within  the  Communist  Party  organiza- 
tional structure  as  it  deals  with  disciplinary  measures  for  recalcitrant 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  223 

party  members.)   Spector,  however,  defiantly  admitted  that  he  was  a 
member  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Frank  Spector  was  tried  and  convicted  for  creating  a  disturbance 
in  Imperial  Valley  in  1930.  He  was  charged  with  violation  of  the  Criminal 
Syndicalism  Law  and  served  a  year  in  San  Quentin.  He  was  an  organizer 
for  the  Communist  International  Labor  Defense.  He  was  active  in  Com- 
munist work  in  Cleveland,  New  York,  and  in  1929  he  became  an  organizer 
for  the  Communist  Party  in  Los  Angeles.  On  September  14,  1939,  he  was 
appointed  organizer  for  the  Communist  Party  in  San  Francisco  County. 
He  was  arrested  on  the  eighth  day  of  January,  1937,  in  connection  with 
Communist  activities  before  the  German  consulate.  In  1937  he  was  active 
in  the  Workers  Alliance  of  America.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  May,  1940, 
Communist  Party  state  convention  in  San  Francisco.  In  1944  he  became 
an  official  of  the  C.I.O.  Electrical  Workers  Union,  Local  No.  1421,  and 
was  elected  as  delegate  to  the  state  convention  of  the  C.I.O.  In  1945  he 
was  elected  president  of  the  United  Electrical  Radio  and  Marine  Workers, 
Local  1421.  He  was  in  charge  of  Communist  activities  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  in  1936.  An  order  for  his  deportation  was  issued  on  the  fifteenth 
day  of  October,  1938.  He  was  connected  with  Herbert  K.  Sorrell  in  the 
recent  Hollywood  strikes. 

Indicative  of  the  methods  used  by  Communists  to  wreck  the  Amer- 
ican Federation  of  Labor  or,  for  that  matter,  any  legitimate  group  in  the 
field  of  labor-management  relations,  is  the  following  statement  by  Spector 
(Committee's  transcript  XXXIX,  p.  563)  : 

The  members,  I  am  sure,  are  supporting  financially  as  far  as  the 
occasion  arises  individually,  the  very  fine  fight  the  Di  Giorgio  farm 
workers  are  now  making  under  the  leadership  of  the  American 
Federation  of  Labor.  It  is  a  noble  fight  and  the  Communist  Party  is 
in  full  sympathy  with  that  fight  and  assists  persons  that  assist  this 
strike. 

It  is  apparent  that  Spector  made  the  statement  with  the  full  intention 
of  amalgamating  the  Di  Giorgio  affair  with  the  cause  of  Communism. 

At  the  conclusion  of  Spector 's  testimony  the  committee  adopted  a 
resolution  calling  Specter's  case  to  the  attention  of  the  Department  of 
Immigration  and  Naturalization  in  order  to  expedite  the  Spector  depor- 
tation order. 

Dr.  Leo  Bigelman  was  subpenaed  but  the  process  servers  were  unable 
to  find  him.  He  is  a  physician  with  offices  in  a  building  in  Hollywood 
known  as  the  Cross  Roads  of  the  World. 

The  Western  Worker  for  April  30,  1936,  reports  that  Dr.  Bigelman 
attended  the  state  convention  of  the  American  League  Against  War  and 
Fascism  in  San  Francisco  and  that  he  was  elected  to  its  executive  board. 

In  1945, 1946,  and  1947,  Dr.  Bigelman  was  a  lecturer  at  the  People's 
Educational  Center,  according  to  the  brochures  of  that  institution.  Dur- 
ing the  summer  term  of  1947,  his  name  appears  as  a  member  of  the  board 
of  trustees. 

In  1936  Dr.  Leo  Bigelman  was  registered  as  a  Communist  in  Los 
Angeles  County.  In  this  capacity  he  sponsored  Emil  Freed  on  the  Com- 
munist Party  ticket  for  the  office  of  Assemblyman  for  the  Fifty-seventh 
Assembly  District  in  Los  Angeles  County.  (August,  1936). 


224  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The  Rena  Vale  affidavit  (Committee's  Report  for  1943)  lists  Dr.  Leo 
Bigelman  as  a  member  of  the  professional  section  of  the  Communist 
Party. 

In  the  Communist  publication,  "Two  Decades  of  Progress/'  which 
appeared  in  September  of  1939,  the  committee  finds  the  following : 
' '  Greetings  are  extended  from  the  Hanns  Eisler  Branch  of  the  Communist 
Party  of  Los  Angeles  County. ' '  The  committee  heard  testimony  during  its 
hearing  in  Oakland  to  the  effect  that  no  branch  of  the  party  is  named  after 
an  individual  unless  that  person  is  important  to  the  Communist  Party. 
The  fact  that  a  branch  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Los  Angeles  County 
was  named  after  Hanns  Eisler  indicates  his  extreme  importance  to  the 
Communist  Party. 

COMMUNIST  PARTY  BOOK  STORES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

As  distributing  centers  for  its  publishing  houses  the  Communist 
Party  maintains  book  stores  throughout  the  United  States.  The  principal 
book  stores  of  the  Communist  Party  in  California  are  as  follows :  Proges- 
sive  Book  Shop,  722  West  Sixth  Street,  Los  Angeles ;  International  Book 
Store,  1400  Market  Street,  San  Francisco;  Maritime  Book  Shop,  15 
Embarcadero,  San  Francisco;  20th  Century  Book  Shop,  2475  Bancroft 
Way,  Berkeley ;  20th  Century  Book  Shop,  1721  Webster  Street,  Oakland ; 
Progressive  Book  Shop,  1002  Seventh  Street,  Sacramento ;  Victory  Book 
Store,  635  E  Street,  San  Diego ;  Maritime  Book  Shop,  266  West  Sixth 
Street,  San  Pedro ;  Walt  Whitman  Book  Shop,  277  East  Fourth  Street, 
Long  Beach ;  Lincoln  Book  Shop,  1721  North  Highland  Avenue,  Holly- 
wood; Modern  Book  Shop,  405  West  De  La  Guerra  Street,  Santa 
Barbara. 

In  addition  to  book  stores  the  Communist  Party  maintains  * '  litera- 
ture agents"  in  nearly  every  section  of  the  State  of  California.  Com- 
munist newsboys  in  Los  Angeles  and  San  Francisco  and  other  cities  of 
the  State  are  compelled  to  handle  Communist  periodicals  and  news- 
papers, such  as  the  People's  Daily  World.  The  Newsboys  Union  is  one  of 
the  tightly  controlled  Communist  groups. 

COMMUNIST  PARTY  PUBLICATIONS 

The  committee  has  found  the  following  to  be  Communist  initiated 
and  controlled,  or  so  strongly  influenced  as  to  be  in  the  Stalin  solar 
system:  Action,  Action  Bulletin  (Civil  Rights  Congress),  Action  for 
Today,  Allied  Labor  News  Service,  Amerasia,  American  Quarterly  on  the 
Soviet  Union,  Among  Friends,  A.  Y.  D.  In  Action  (American  Youth  for 
Democracy),  Black  and  White,  Book  Union  Bulletin,  Boston  Chronicle, 
Bulletin  of  Congress  of  American  Women,  Bulletin  on  Education,  Cali- 
fornia Eagle,  Champion,  Champion  of  Youth,  Chart,  Chicago  Star,  China 
Today,  Civil  Rights  News,  Clarity,  Clipper  (Published  by  Black  and 
White  Press,  Inc.),  Communist,  Congress,  Crisis,  Daily  Record  (Chi- 
cago), Daily  Worker  (New  York),  Der  Arleiter  (German  Communist 
Weekly),  Direction,  District  Champion. 

East  side  Journal  ( Al  Waxman) ,  Economic  Notes,  Empros,  Equality, 
Equal  Justice,  Eteenpain  (Finnish  Federation),  Facts  for  Farmers, 


f 
UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  225 

Facts  for  Women,  Fight,  Film  News  (Associated  Film  Audiences),  Fra- 
ternal Outlook  (International  Workers  Order),  Friday,  German-Ameri- 
can, Glos  Ludowy,  Health  and  Hygiene  (Daily  Worker  Medical  Advisory 
Board),  Hollywood  Independent  (Hollywood  Independent  Citizens 
Committee  of  the  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions),  Hour,  I  cor,  Independ- 
ent (Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  Arts,  Sciences  and  Professions), 
Indonesian  Review  (American  Committee  for  Free  Indonesia),  Indus- 
trial Journal,  In  Fact,  Information  Bulletin  (Published  by  the  Embassy 
of  the  Soviet  Union,  Washington,  D.  C.),  Jewish  Life  (Morning  Freiheit 
Association,  Inc.),  Jewish  People's  Voice,  Jewish  Survey,  Jewish  Voice 
(Published  by  the  National  Council  of  Jewish  Communists),  Labor 
Defender  (International  Labor  Defense),  Labor  Herald  (Official  organ 
of  the  Communist  Trade  Union  Education  League),  Labor  Herald  (Cali- 
fornia CIO),  Labors'  News,  Labor  Unity,  Letter,  Liberator,  L'Unita  Del 
Popolo,  Mainstream,  Michigan  Herald. 

Naileben,  Narodni  Glasnik,  National  Issues  (National  Committee  of 
the  Communist  Party),  Negro  Champion,  Negro  Digest,  Negro  Quarterly, 
New  Africa,  New  Currents,  New  Masses,  New  Order  (International 
Workers  Order),  New  Pioneer,  News  of  World  Labor,  News  on  Spain 
(Veterans  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade),  New  Theatre,  New  Times, 
New  World,  Novy  Mir  ("  Workers  of  the  World  Unite "),Ny  Tid,  Obrana, 
Our  World,  Pacific  Weekly,  Pan  Pacific  Monthly,  People's  Daily  World, 
People's  Press,  People's  Songs,  People's  Voice,  Photo-History,  Picture 
Digest,  Picture  Scoop,  Political  Affairs  (Successor  to  The  Communist), 
Protestant,  Protestant  Digest,  Radnik,  Railroad  Workers'  Link,  Reader's 
Scope,  Reporter  (National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship), 
Report  From  Washington  (Independent  Citizens  Committee  of  Arts, 
Sciences  and  Professions),  Report  on  World  Affairs. 

Salute,  Saznanie  (Bulgarian  section  of  the  Communist  Party), 
Science  and  Society,  Scoop,  Social  Work  Today,  Soviet  Culture  (Ameri- 
can Russian  Institute),  Soviet  Russia,  Soviet  Russia  Today,  Soviet  Sports 
(National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship),  Spotlight  (American 
Youth  for  Democracy),  State  of  Affairs,  Student  Advocate,  Student  Out- 
look (American  Youth  for  Democracy),  Student  Review,  Sunday  Worker, 
T  and  T— Trend  and  Time  (Louis  Adamic),  Tac  (Theatre  Arts  Com- 
mittee publication),  Teener's  Topics  (American  Youth  for  Democracy), 
Teen  Life  (American  Youth  for  Democracy),  Theatre  Work  Shop,  Toveri 
(l  l  The  Comrade. ' '  Organ  of  Communist  Finns) ,  Truth  About  Soviet  Rus- 
sia, Trybuna  Robotnicza  (Official  organ  in  Polish  of  the  Communist 
Party),  Tyolaisnainen  ("The  Working  Woman"),  Tyomies  ("The 

Workman"). 

Uj  Elore,  United  Farmer,  U.  8.  Week,  Uus  Ilm  ("The  New  World. " 
Estonian  Communist  Weekly),  Vanguarda  (Portuguese  Communist 
Party  Organ),  Vida  Obrera  ("Workers'  Life"),  Vienybe  (Lithuanian 
tri-weekly),  Vilnis  ((<The  Surge"  Lithuanian  Labor  Daily),  Voice  of 
Freedom,  Voice  of  Working  Women,  Volunteer  for  Liberty  (Abraham 
Lincoln  Brigade),  Weekly  Review,  Woman  Power  (Congress  of  Ameri- 
can Women),  Women  Today,  World  News  and  Views,  Work,  Workers 
Monthly,  Working  Woman,  World  for  Peace  and  Democracy,  Toung 
Comrade,  Toung  Pioneer,  Young  Fraternalist  (International  Workers 
Order),  Youth  (American  Youth  for  Democracy). 

16— L-7088-D 


226  UN-AMEBTCAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

CONFERENCE  ON  CONSTITUTIONAL  LIBERTIES  IN  AMERICA 

This  Communist-inspired  conference  was  called  in  Washington, 
D.  C.,  June  7-9,  1940,  and  launched  the  National  Federation  for  Consti- 
tutional Liberties. 

Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  a  high-ranking  member  of  the  national 
committee  of  the  Communist  Party,  was  one  of  the  featured  speakers  at 
this  conference.  Elmer  Benson,  Joseph  Curran,  James  Dombrowski,  John 
A.  Lapp,  Carey  Me  Williams,  and  Channing  H.  Tobias,  were  affiliated  with 
the  Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties  in  America. 

It  should  be  noted  that  this  Communist  front  came  into  existence 
during  the  Stalin-Hitler  Pact.  Necessarily,  the  Conference  on  Constitu- 
tional Liberties  in  America  followed  the  Communist  line  meticulously. 

The  provisional  committee  included  Prof.  Franz  Boas,  Elmer  Ben- 
son, Herbert  Biberman,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Max  Yergan,  Howard  Costi- 
gan,  George  Marshall,  Robert  MacGregor,  Tom  Mooney,  Jack  McMichael, 
Prof.  Robert  K.  Speer,  and  Merle  D.  Vincent. 

Among  the  sponsors  of  the  Conference  on  Constitutional  Liberties 
in  America,  were  the  following :  Alice  Barrows,  Prof.  Harold  C.  Brown, 
Prof.  John  B.  Tanning,  John  M.  Coffee,  Mrs.  Sarah  Bard  Field,  Dashiell 
Hammett,  Pearl  M.  Hart,  Abraham  J.  Isserman,  Kent  Keller,  Carol  King, 
David  Lasser,  Ira  Latimer,  Prof.  Alain  Locke,  Gerhart  Eisler,  George 
Marston,  Carl  W.  Scott,  Dyson  Carter,  Olive  Sutton,  Michael  Chicureli, 
Robert  Kelley,  Louise  Mitchell,  Allan  L.  Fletcher,  Ben  Rogers,  Moranda 
Smith,  Joseph  Starobin,  Ted  Allen,  Bob  Friedman,  John  Pittman,  Aaron 
Kramer,  William  Z.  Foster,  Olive  Mosby,  Eugene  Dennis,  Morris  Childs, 
Pat  Cush,  Frederick  V.  Field,  Hilda  Weiss,  Merle  Mance,  Otto  Wangerin, 
Murray  Chase,  Milton  Pokorne,  Charles  Stein,  Mary  Southard,  Ruby 
Cooper,  Martha  Millet,  Walter  Lowensels,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Mike 
Gold,  Harold  Hickerson,  Joseph  Leeds,  Peter  J.  Cacchione,  Elizabeth  M. 
Bacon,  Jean  R.  Beck,  Barnard  Rubin,  J.  Kepner,  Peter  Stone,  and  Travis 
K.  Hedrick. 

CONGRESS  OF  AMERICAN-SOVIET  FRIENDSHIP 

(See  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship.) 
CONGRESS  OF  AMERICAN  WOMEN 

The  Communist  Sunday  Worker  for  March  8,  1942,  announced  that 
"U.  S.  Women's  Leaders  Hail  Soviet  and  British  Allies  on  International 
Women 's  Day. ' '  With  Great  Britain  and  China  thrown  in  for  good  meas- 
ure, Ethel  Epstein,  labor  secretary  to  Mayor  LaGuardia  of  New  York 
City ;  Catherine  Earnshaw,  National  President  of  the  Newspaper  Guild 
Auxiliary;  Elizabeth  Haws,  fashion  designer  and  newspaper  woman; 
and  Betty  Hawley,  Vice  President  of  the  New  York  State  Federation  of 
Labor,  followed  by  dozens  of  other  women,  signed  the  following  cable : 

"We,  the  women  of  this  nation,  remembering  our  pioneer  and 
revolutionary  heritage  have  but  one  message  to  you,  our  sisters  across 
the  sea — Fight  on,  women  of  Russia,  of  China,  of  England,  and  all 
freedom-loving  peoples  of  the  earth.  We  are  with  you  to  the  utmost 
of  our  energies  and  if  need  be  with  our  lives  in  the  essential  task  of 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  '227 

crushing  Fascism  and  the  foes  of  human  liberty  throughout  the 
world. " 

Among  other  signers,  representing  a  generous  cross  section  of  red 
fronts,  are  the  following :  Ruth  Appleman,  Ethel  Beach,  Anne  Berenholz, 
Helen  Blanchard,  Nellie  Clapsaddle,  Rachel  Du  Bois,  Dorothy  Funt, 
Stella  Garvin,  Viola  lima,  Betty  Kalish,  Julia  Katz,  Mary  Mattia,  Ger- 
trude Myers,  Winifred  Norman,  Eizabeth  Olds,  Rose  Schneiderman, 
Ruth  Seigel,  Frances  Williams,  Mrs.  Stephen  S.  Wise,  Ruth  Young,  and 
Verna  Young. 

In  1944  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship  created 
a  Committee  of  Women.  The  chairman  of  this  committee  was  Mrs.  Muriel 
Draper  and  the  vice  chairman  was  Mrs.  Elinor  S.  Gimbel.  The  commit- 
tee held  a  conference  at  the  Hotel  Commodore  in  New  York  City  on 
November  18,  1944.  The  occasion  was  billed  as  a  Conference  on  Women 
of  the  U.  S.  A.,  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  in  the  postwar  world.  The  call  announc- 
ing the  conference  stated,  in  effect,  that  since  the  women  of  the  world 
played  such  important  parts  in  the  war,  they  demanded  to  have  an  equally 
important  role  in  shaping  postwar  economy.  The  call  appealed  to  other 
women 's  organizations  to  send  delegates  to  the  conference. 

The  signers  of  the  call  were  Marjorie  Post  Davies  (Mrs.  Joseph 
Davies),  acting  national  honorary  chairman,  and  Muriel  Draper,  head 
of  the  Women 's  Committee  of  the  National  Council  of  American-Soviet 
Friendship.  Mrs.  Ruth  W.  Russ,  Executive  Secretary  of  the  Women's 
Committee,  was  secretary  of  the  conference. 

The  conference  held  three  sessions.  The  principal  topics  of  discus- 
sion were  American-Soviet  women's  issues  and  postwar  rights  for  women 
in  the  United  States.  The  speakers  included  Ruth  Young,  Rose  Schnei- 
derman, Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Mrs.  LaFell  Dickinson,  Dr.  Arnold 
Gessell,  Mrs.  Sidonie  M.  Gruenberg,  D.  Leona  Baumgartner,  and  Mrs. 
Norman  de  R.  Whitehouse. 

Among  the  sponsors  of  the  conference  were  the  following :  Henrietta 
Buckmaster,  Mrs.  Bella  Dodd,  Mrs.  Katherine  Earnshaw,  Mrs.  Sidonie 
M.  Gruenberg,  Josephine  Timms,  Ruth  Young,  Muriel  Draper,  Elinor  S. 
Gimbel,  Dr.  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown,  Mrs.  Sherwood  Anderson,  Mrs. 
Mary  McLeod  Bethune,  Mrs.  Jo  Davidson,  Mildred  Fairchild,  Mrs.  Fred- 
erick V.  Field,  Cornelia  Goldsmith,  Mrs.  Sophie  Gropper,  Mrs.  Sidney 
Hillman,  Mrs.  Stanley  Isaacs,  Mrs.  Julia  Church  Kolar,  Dorothy  Ken- 
yon,  Rosalie  Manning,  Rose  Maurer,  Clarina  Michelson,  Eleanor  Neil- 
son,  Mrs.  David  De  Sola  Pool,  Mrs.  W.  Jay  Schieffelin,  Margaret 
Schlauch,  Mrs.  Frederick  L.  Schuman,  Vida  D.  Scudder,  Mrs.  Gilbert 
Seldes,  Lisa  Segio,  Mary  K.  Simkhovitch,  Irena  Skariatina,  Charlotte 
Stern,  Anna  Louise  Strong,  Genevieve  Taggard,  Katherine  Terrill,  Mrs. 
Albert  Rhys  Williams,  Ella  Winters,  Mrs.  Ellen  S.  Woodward,  Ruth 
Young,  and  Leane  Zugsmith. 

Prior  to  1944  there  had  been  a  number  of  Communist  fronts  for 
women  and  there  were  some  established  as  out-and-out  Communist  sec- 
tions. Some  of  these  had  been  directly  affiliated  with  the  International 
Congress  of  Women,  with  headquarters  in  Moscow.  Others  were  affiliated 
with  the  Women's  International  Congress  Against  War  and  Fascism. 
Active  in  the  leadership  of  these  congresses  were  Ann  Pauker,  Rumanian 
Bolshevik  head;  Mme.  Kollantai  of  Russia;  Clara  Zetkin;  Ella  Reeve 


228  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Bloor ;  Dolores  Ibarruri,  better  known  as  "La  Pasionaria,"  chairman  of 
the  Communist  Party  in  Spain  and  now  in  exile  in  Yugoslavia;  Anna 
Mai  of  Bulgaria;  Mme.  Eugenie  Cotton;  Mme.  Marie-Claude  Vaillant- 
Couturier  (Communist)  of  France;  and  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flymi;  and 
others,  all  Communists. 

Like  many  other  Communist  internationals  these  congresses  were 
inactive  during  World  War  II  because  of  the  complications  involved  in 
travel,  the  holding  of  meetings,  and  the  transmission  of  correspondence. 

Among  sponsors  of  the  Committee  of  Women  of  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship  were  the  following :  Mrs.  Mary  McLeod 
Bethune,  Mrs.  Jo  Davidson,  Mrs.  Joseph  E.  Davies,  Miss  Dorothy  Can- 
field  Fisher,  Mrs.  Arthur  Garfield  Hays,  Mrs.  Sidney  Hillman,  Miss  Edith 
Hurley,  Mrs.  Stanley  M.  Isaacs,  Miss  Dorothy  Kenyon,  Miss  Rose  Maurer, 
Miss  Lisa  Sergio,  Miss  Anna  Louise  Strong,  Miss  Katherine  Terrill,  Miss 
Genevieve  Taggard,  Mrs.  Albert  Rhys  Williams,  Dr.  Mary  Woolley,  and 
Miss  Ruth  Young. 

The  Communist  Party  began  reorganizing  its  international  organ- 
izations and  fronts  as  soon  as  the  war  ended.  Again  the  National  Council 
of  American-Soviet  Friendship  called  its  female  fellow-travelers  into 
action.  The  International  Congress  of  Women  convened  in  Paris  Novem- 
ber 26  to  December  1, 1945,  at  the  call  of  international  Communist  forces. 

Mme.  Eugenie  Cotton  and  Mme.  Marie-Claude  Vaillant-Couturier, 
Communist  members  of  the  French  House  of  Deputies,  were  co-chairmen 
of  the  International  Congress  of  Women.  Dolores  Ibarruri,  Communist 
of  Spain  was  the  keynote  speaker.  Mme.  Nina  Popova,  leader  of  the  Com- 
munist women  of  Russia,  took  a  leading  part  in  the  program.  The  dele- 
gates from  the  United  States  were  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Chairman  of 
the  Women 's  Commission  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States ; 
Dr.  Gene  Weltfish ;  Thelma  Dale,  a  member  of  the  New  York  State  Com- 
mittee of  the  Communist  Party ;  Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  active  in  many 
Communist  fronts;  Eleanor  Vaughan;  Ann  Bradford;  Mrs.  Frederic 
March ;  Mrs.  Gifford  Pinchot ;  Henrietta  Buckmaster ;  Dr.  Beryl  Parker ; 
Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown ;  Vivian  Carter  Mason ;  Jeanette  Stern ;  Muriel 
Draper;  and  Elinor  S.  Gimbel.  Eight  hundred  delegates  were  reported 
in  attendance,  claiming  to  represent  a  hundred  million  women  in  40  coun- 
tries. 

Early  in  1946  a  continuing  committee  of  the  International  Congress 
of  Women  was  set  up  in  the  United  States.  Among  the  members  of  this 
committee  are  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Dr.  Gene  Weltfish,  coauthor  of  Races  of 
Mankind  which  was  barred  by  the  War  Department  from  courses  in  sol- 
dier orientation;  Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  Secretary;  Dr.  Beryl  Parker, 
Treasurer ;  Mrs.  Grace  Allen  Bangs,  Clara  Bodian,  Dr.  Charlotte  Haw- 
kins Brown,  Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Thelma  Dale,  Frances  Damon,  Dr. 
Bella  V.  Dodd,  Muriel  Draper,  Katherine  Earnshaw,  India  Edwards, 
Thyra  Edwards,  Mary  L.  Fledderus,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Daisy 
George,  Esther  Gilwarg,  Dorothy  Gottlieb,  Sidonie  M.  Gruenberg,  Mrs. 
Shippen  Lewis,  Mrs.  Frederic  March,  Vivian  Carter  Mason,  Helen  Phil- 
lips, Mrs.  Gifford  Pinchot,  Anna  Center  Schneiderman,  Natalie  Sherman, 
Josephine  Timms,  Jeanette  Stern  Turner,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Eleanor  T. 
Vaughan,  Mrs.  Stephen  S.  Wise,  and  Ruth  Young. 

This  continuations  committee  eventually  became  the  Congress  of 
American  Women.  The  international  movement  is  called  the  International 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  229 

Democratic  Women's  Federation.  Muriel  Draper,  Vivian  Carter  Mason, 
Mrs.  Frederic  March,  and  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn  are  the  regular  dele- 
gates to  the  Communist  International  Democratic  Women's  Federation 
appointed  by  the  Congress  of  American  Women.  Dr.  Gene  Weltfish,  Dr. 
Beryl  Parker,  and  Ann  Bradford  are  the  Congress  of  American  Women's 
alternate  delegates  to  the  International. 

Ann  Bradford  is  the  Secretary  of  the  C.I.O.  Women's  Auxiliary  of 
Los  Angeles. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  was  incorporated  in  January  of 
1947.  The  incorporators  were  Gene  Weltfish,  Helen  Phillips,  Muriel 
Draper,  Josephine  Timms,  Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  and  Elinor  S.  Gimbel. 
Bella  Dodd,  formerly  a  teacher  and  Communist  leader,  notarized  the 
incorporation  documents  and  Benjamin  M.  Zelman  was  the  attorney  for 
the  organization. 

March  8th  has  been  selected  by  the  Congress  of  American  Women  as 
International  Day,  and  November  29th  has  been  selected  as  Women's  Day 
for  annual  celebrations.  March  8th  was  first  celebrated  as  Communist 
Women 's  Day  in  Moscow. 

Out  of  the  International  Congress  came  the  so-called  charter  for 
women's  rights,  officially  known  as  the  Women's  Status  Amendment. 
Susan  Anthony  II  of  the  United  States'  section  is  the  chairman  of  the 
special  commission  which  has  been  set  up  to  push  this  program,  described 
as  one  aimed  at  * '  establishing  equal  rights. ' '  Supporters  of  this  amend- 
ment will  oppose  "discrimination  against  women,  regardless  of  color 
and  race. ' '  The  Congress  of  American  Women  will  demand  that  women 
be  no  longer  excluded  from  men's  affairs.  The  National  Press  Club  in 
Washington,  D.  C.,  is  cited  as  an  example  of  such  exclusion.  The  club,  it 
is  pointed  out,  permits  women  to  dine  in  the  "small  dining  room"  only. 
The  Congress  of  American  Women  promise  that  these  conditions  will  be 
corrected  through  its  pressure.  It  is  determined  that  the  laws  in  41  states 
which  require  a  woman  to  live  in  the  same  house  with  her  husband,  or 
suffer  the  possibility  of  being  sued  for  divorce  or  separation  shall  be 
repealed.  They  allege  that  several  states  limit  general  contracts  of  mar- 
riage to  a  "discriminatory  degree,"  and  the  Congress  of  American 
Women  announce  that  these  laws  will  be  repealed,  as  well  as  all  laws  pro- 
viding penalties  for  the  birth  of  children  out  of  wedlock.  The  Congress 
of  American  Women  refer  to  such  laws  as  ' '  anti-women  laws. ' ' 

The  organization  is  presently  appealing  to  "help  the  children  sur- 
vive Fascism, ' '  and  a  program  has  been  mapped  out  to  extend  pressure 
in  this  direction.  The  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  chapter,  headed  by  Mrs.  Mary  J. 
Melish  (Mrs.  William  H.  Melish)  has  started  a  drive  to  aid  Tito's 
(Yugoslav)  youth. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  support  the  Pepper  Maternal  and 
Child  Welfare  Bill,  the  Murray- Wagner  Free  Medicine  and  Medical  Bill, 
and  the  Lanham  Act  which  provides  for  child  care  centers  and  nurseries. 
This  Communist  organization  presently  spearheads  the  pressure  groups 
for  permanent  child  care  centers  in  California. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  has  announced  that  it  intends  to 
be  active  in  the  political  action  field  in  both  national  and  local  campaigns. 
Its  representatives  marched  on  Washington,  D.  C.,  storming  Congress 
and  the  State  Department  in  opposition  to  American  aid  to  Greece  and 


230  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Turkey,  and  participated  in  mass  demonstrations  protesting  the  repeal 
of  the  Office  of  Price  Administration. 

The  chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Action  for  Peace  and  Democracy 
of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  is  Muriel  Draper.  Anna  Lee  is  secre- 
tary of  this  committee.  Chairman  of  the  Commission  of  the  Status  of 
Women  of  the  organization  is  Susan  B.  Anthony  II.  Mary  Murphy  is 
the  secretary.  The  Child  Care  and  Education  Commission  is  headed  by 
Elinor  S.  Gimbel.  Its  secretary  is  Dorothy  Gottlieb. 

The  national  headquarters  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  was 
located  at  55  West  Forty-second  Street,  New  York  City.  The  national 
president  is  Gene  Weltfish.  The  executive  vice  president  is  Muriel  Draper. 
Helen  Phillips  is  the  treasurer  and  Josephine  Timms  is  the  secretary. 
Thyra  Edwards  is  the  recording  secretary.  The  following  are  vice  presi- 
dents :  Susan  B.  Anthony  II,  Ann  Bradford,  Charlotte  Hawkins  Brown, 
Henrietta  Buckmaster,  Dorothy  Connolly,  Thelma  Dale,  Mildred  Fair- 
child,  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Elinor  S.  Gimbel,  Mrs.  Frederic  March, 
Vivian  Carter  Mason,  Beryl  Parker,  Mrs.  Gifford  Pinchot,  Ann  Center 
Schneiderman,  Mrs.  Jeanette  Turner,  Eleanor  Vaughan,  and  Ruth 
Young. 

Members  of  the  editorial  board  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women 
are  Eleanor  Vaughan  and  Bert  Sigrid. 

The  Congress  of  American  Women  issued  a  call  to  Mrs.  Rosalind 
Lindsmith,  (Oakland),  and  to  Miriam  Brooks  (Los  Angeles)  former 
organizer  for  the  Young  Communist  League,  to  organize  chapters  in  their 
local  communities. 

The  Los  Angeles  headquarters  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women 
is  located  at  3410J  West  Ninth  Street.  Pamphlets  distributed  in  Los 
Angeles  (copies  of  which  are  in  the  Senate  committee's  files)  give  the 
national  headquarters  as  144  Bleecker  Street,  New  York  City,  and  indi- 
cate that  Elinor  S.  Gimbel  has  been  replaced  by  Helen  Wortis  as  the 
chairman  of  the  Child  Care  and  Education  Commission.  The  pamphlet 
reads,  in  part,  as  follows  : 

1  1  WE  ARE  THE  CONGRESS  OF  AMERICAN  WOMEN 

"*  *  *  a  national  organization  of  American  women.  We  are 
the  American  arm  of  the  Women's  International  Democratic  Feder- 
ation, organized  in  Paris  in  1945  by  women  from  44  countries,  to 
work  for  a  lasting  peace  and  a  world  free  from  Fascism.  Today  the 
WIDF  numbers  81,000,000  women  the  world  over,  and  has  con- 
sultant status  with  the  Economic  and  Social  Commission  of  the 
United  Nations. 

«*  *  *  CAW  has  active  chapters  in  New  York,  Los  Angeles, 
Chicago,  Pittsburgh,  Detroit,  and  other  cities.  Find  out  if  the  CAW 
exists  in  your  town,  and  if  not,  remember  that  Ten  Women  Any- 
where Can  Start  Anything,  including  a  new  CAW  branch. 

"WHAT  WE  ARE  AGAINST  *  *  * 

1  1  Fascism  in  any  form  at  home  or  abroad. 

'  '  Discrimination  because  of  race,  color,  sex,  creed  or  beliefs. 

High  prices. 

Universal  military  training. 

Manufacturing  atom  bombs  as  a  threat  to  world  peace.  '  ' 


" 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  231 

The  Senate  Fact-Finding  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  in 
California  finds  this  organization  one  of  the  most  potentially  dangerous 
of  the  many  active  Communist  fronts. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  October  26,  1946  reports  a  Los  Ange- 
les Conference  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women.  The  issue  of  March 
12,  1947  of  the  People's  Daily  World  reports  the  launching  of  an  inten- 
sive campaign  by  the  Congress  of  American  Women  to  obtain  100,000 
votes  for  three  candidates  for  the  Los  Angeles  Board  of  Education.  The 
candidates,  Dr.  H.  Claude  Hudson,  Walter  Turner,  and  Raphael 
Koenigsburg,  were  left-wing  supported  candidates,  also  backed  by  the 
Citizens'  Committee  for  Better  Education.  The  People's  Daily  World 
for  the  same  issue  also  reported  that  the  organization  had  voted  to  ' '  end 
the  current  'lockout'  of  Herb  Sorrell's  Conference  of  Studio  Unions" 
and  called  for  a  halt  to  the  * '  aid  to  Greece ' '  program. 

The  issue  of  the  People's  Daily  World  for  July  30,  1947,  reports 
that  the  Congress  of  American  Women,  went  on  record  urging  the  aboli- 
tion of  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  and  condemned 
the  sentencing  to  jail  of  members  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Com- 
mittee for  contempt  of  the  congressional  committee. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  February  4,  1948,  reports  that  the 
Congress  of  American  Women  will  act  as  joint  sponsors  with  the 
American-Russian  Institute  of  a  meeting  in  the  First  Unitarian  Church 
in  Los  Angeles  011  February  9th  honoring  Elizabeth  A.  Popova,  and 
Evdokia  I.  Uralova,  of  Russia. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  March  12,  1947  reported  that  the 
previous  Saturday's  meeting  of  the  Congress  of  American  Women  had 
been  chaired  by  Mrs.  Albert  Dekker  and  that  Xenia  Zytomirska,  Cultural 
Attache  of  the  Polish  Embassy  (Stalinist)  for  the  West  Coast  was  the 
guest  speaker.  The  meeting  voted  to  stop  the  United  States '  plan  to  send 
supplies,  arms  and  men  to  Greece.  Dr.  Sanford  Goldner,  California  CIO 
Research  Director  is  also  reported  as  having  spoken. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  April  24,  1947,  reports  that  the  Con- 
gress of  American  Women  is  active,  together  with  the  Long  Beach  Civil 
Rights  Congress,  the  Progressive  Citizens  of  America  and  the  Long  Beach 
Communist  Party,  in  an  effort  to  compel  Long  Beach  employers  to  employ 
Negroes. 

The  People's  Daily  World  for  July  29,  1947,  reports  that  the  Con- 
gress of  American  Women  in  Los  Angeles  hailed  the  leaders  of  the  Com- 
munist front  for  assistance  to  Communist  refugees,  the  Joint  Anti- 
Fascist  Refugee  Committee,  as  *  *  men  who  have  courageously  worked  for 
liberty."  (Dr.  Edward  Barsky,  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Anti-Fascist 
Refugee  Committee,  Howard  Fast,  and  14  members  of  the  national  board 
of  this  organization  had  been  sentenced  to  jail  for  refusing  to^obey  sub- 
penas  of  the  Congressional  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  calling 
for  records  of  the  organization.) 

Mrs.  Frederic  March,  whose  stage  name  is  Florence  Eldridge,  was 
subpenaed  and  testified  before  the  committee  at  its  Los  Angeles  hearing, 
February  18,  1948.  She  denied  that  she  was,  or  had  ever  been,  a  member 
of  the  Communist  Party.  She  stated  that  she  had  been  acquainted  with 
Frank  Tuttle  and  his  wife  for  a  number  of  years  and  that  she  had  been 
a  sponsor  of  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League.  She  testified  that  the 
Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  had  started  with  Herbert  Biberman, 


232  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Dorothy  Parker,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  and  a  group  of  people  who  met 
with  a  man  who  had  come  from  the  German  underground. 

Mrs.  March  stated  that  she  had  been  a  character  witness  for  Herman 
Shumlin,  theatrical  producer  in  New  York,  when  he  was  tried  for 
contempt  of  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  together 
with  other  members  of  the  Communist  Joint  Anti-Fascist  Refugee  Com- 
mittee. 

Mrs.  March  admitted  that  she  was  acquainted  with  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Gurley  Flynn,  a  member  of  the  national  committee  of  the  Communist 
Party,  and  that  she  was  one  of  the  delegates  with  Mrs.  March  who 
attended  the  Congress  in  Paris.  She  stated  that  she  had  not  been  active 
in  the  Congress  of  American  Women  for  some  time  and  that  she  had 
resigned  from  the  board  of  the  organization  a  year  previous.  She  testified 
that  she  had  given  up  her  position  in  the  International  Democratic 
Federation.  She  emphasized  the  point  that  she  had  not  given  up  her 
activities  in  these  groups  because  she  opposed  them  but  because  of 
' '  certain  pressure  of  work. ' ' 

Mrs.  March  appeared  with  Frederic  March,  her  husband,  before 
Congressman  Dies  in  August,  1940.  On  that  occasion  Frederic  March 
was  confronted  with  a  former  secretary  of  the  Communist  Party  in  Los 
Angeles.  At  one  point  of  his  interrogation  Frederic  March  made  the 
following  statement : 

1  'Mr.  Dies,  may  I  ask  one  more  question  in  an  attempt  to  sum 

up?  Assuming  Mr.  Leech  is  attempting  to  tell  the  truth  as  he  sees 

it,  might  it  be  possible  that  my  name  had  been  bandied  about  ? ' ' 

Mrs.  March  was  asked  whether  or  not  she  found  herself  in  a  similar 
position  in  1948 — ' '  that  it  might  be  possible  that ' '  her  name  ' '  had  been 
bandied  about ' ' ;  whether  or  not  she  should  be  held  responsible  for  her 
connection  with  known  Communists,  such  as  Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn, 
or  had  she  been  fooled  because  of  the  purported  objectives  used  by  the 
Communists  in  "window-dressing"  their  causes  and  organizations. 

She  stated  that  she  had  not  been  fooled ' '  into  going  to  the  Congress  in 
Europe."  She  then  read  a  telegram  which  she  alleged  was  sent  to  the 
Congress  in  Paris  by  Eleanor  Roosevelt.  The  communication  read  as 
follows : 

"May  I  take  this  opportunity  to  send  all  those  attending  the 

International  Women's  Conference  my  best  wishes  for  courage  and 

spiritual  guidance  in  your  struggle  to  restore  your  countries. ' ' 

When  Mrs.  March  was  reminded  that  Mrs.  Roosevelt  had  admitted 
on  occasion  that  the  Communists  had  fooled  her,  the  witness  replied  by 
saying  "I  might  be  fooled  into  doing  something  I  thought  was  right  in 
doing,  but  I  couldn  't  be  fooled  into  something  I  thought  was  wrong. ' ' 

DAILY  WORKER 

This  paper  is  the  official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the 
United  States. 

On  August  28,  1923,  Gregory  Zinoviev,  chief  of  the  Communist 
International,  sent  a  cablegram  to  Charles  E.  Ruthenberg,  executive 
secretary  of  the  Workers  Party  (the  American  section  of  the  Communist 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  233 

International  in  1923).  The  cablegram  was  published  by  the  American 
Communists,  and  read  as  follows : 

"August  28,  1923 
"Buthenberg 
"799  Broadway 
"New  York 

"Know  of  no  more  important  task  American  workers  than 
establishment  militant  daily.  This  should  be  rallying  point  for  con- 
centration all  forces  present  time.  Only  after  foundation  daily  will 
Comintern  consider  we  have  real  mass  party  America. 

"Zinoviev." 
(Stalin  had  Gregory  Zinoviev  shot  several  years  ago) . 

The  following  individuals  have  contributed  to  the  Daily  Worker: 
George  Marion,  Art  Shields,  Ben  Field,  W.  E.  B.  DuBois,  Harry  Ray- 
mond,  Samuel  Sillen,  Frank  Lesser,  David  Platt,  Lester  Rodney,  Robert 
F.  Hall,  Mike  Lynn,  Martin  T.  Brown,  Bill  Marko,  E.  Benson,  William 
Allan,  Abner  W.  Berry,  Michael  Singer,  Joseph  Clark,  Arnold  Sroog, 
Fred  Vast,  John  Hudson  Jones,  Bernard  Burton,  Milton  Howard,  James 
S.  Allen,  Rev.  F.  W.  McConnoll,  C.  C.  McCowan,  Albert  Maltz,  Stanley 
Matthews,  Charles  A.  Marlies,  Ann  Meikeljohn,  William  McGee,  Samuel 
Ornitz,  Bishop  Edward  L.  Parsons,  Prof.  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  Edward 
Rosen,  Charles  Rosenthal,  Paul  Robeson,  Olga  K.  Robinson,  Rev.  Lloyd 
I.  Worley,  Art  Young,  Max  Yergan,  Lena  Zugsmith,  Rev.  Hayden  B. 
Sears,  Herman  Shumlin,  Lorna  D.  Smith,  Frederick  Thompson,  Rev. 
D.  R.  Throckmorton,  Dr.  Harry  F.  Ward,  Clara  Weatherwax,  A.  L. 
Wirin,  Rev.  Robert  Whitaker,  and  Rev.  Mary  T.  Whitney. 

EMERGENCY  CIVIL  LIBERTIES  CONFERENCE 

(See  Emergency  Conference  to  Halt  the  Blackout  of  Civil  Liberties 
in  California.) 

EMERGENCY  COMMITTEE  ON  KFI 

(See  Committee's  1947  Report,  pages  180  to  186,  inclusive.) 

EMERGENCY  CONFERENCE  TO  HALT  THE  BLACKOUT  OF 
CIVIL  LIBERTIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

This  Communist-inspired  conference  was  held  Saturday  afternoon 
on  April  5,  1941,  at  the  South  Hall  of  the  Embassy  Auditorium,  Ninth 
and  Grand  in  the  City  of  Los  Angeles.  The  purpose  of  the  call  was  to 
generate  pressure  against  Assembly  Bill  271,  a  measure  which  ultimately 
became  the  law  and  is  known  as  the  Subversive  Registration  Act  of  1941. 

Carey  Me  Williams  was  chairman  of  the  conference.  The  following 
signed  the  call  for  the  conference :  John  Barilone,  Louise  Bennett,  James 
Daugherty,  Dr.  George  Day,  Harry  Dickey,  Howard  Goddard,  Howard 
Hardy,  Jacob  Lehman,  Frank  Lopez,  Prof.  Broadus  Mitchell,  J.  W. 
McNair,  La  Rue  McCormick,  Charles  Pfeiffer,  Fred  Rausch,  Robert 
Robinson,  Dr.  E.  P.  Ryland,  Dr.  Clinton  Taft,  Clore  Warne,  Sol  Wiesal- 
man,  Ramon  Welch,  and  Hugh  Wilkins. 


234  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

An  Emergency  Civil  Liberties  Conference  was  established  at  room 
511,  C.  C.  Chapman  Building,  756  South  Broadway,  Los  Angeles. 

EXILED  WRITERS  COMMITTEE 

This  front  was  established  by  the  Communist  League  of  American 
Writers  to  bolster  the  Communist  front,  American  Committee  to  Save 
Refugees.  The  Exiled  Writers  Committee  worked  with  other  Communist 
fronts  in  the  Spanish  Communist  refugee  agitation.  Earl  Browder,  then 
the  General  Secretary  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the  United  States, 
openly  urged  support  of  these  Communist  fronts  in  his  report  to  his 
national  committee  on  November  16,  1940.  He  said : 

"They  (the  American  worker)  must  be  rallied  to  the  most 
immediate  concrete  aid  to  the  rescue  of  the  Spanish  Republican 
Refugee  plan,  and  their  transportation  and  resettlement  in  Latin 
America,  supporting  the  campaign  already  launched  by  the  United 
Spanish  Aid  Committee." 

Lillian  Hellman  and  Ernest  Hemingway  headed  a  committee  of 
sponsors  for  a  dinner-forum  for  Communist  refugees  at  the  Hotel  Biit- 
more  in  New  York  City,  in  October,  1941.  Governor  Herbert  H.  Lehman 
revoked  his  sponsorship  of  the  dinner-forum  when  he  learned  that  many 
of  the  sponsors  had  been  connected  with  Communist  activities. 

Lillian  Hellman  was  the  chairman  of  the  dinner-forum  and  Diana 
Forbes-Robertson,  Eric  Knight,  Emil  Lengyel,  Edgar  Snow,  Johannes 
Steel,  Pierre  van  Paassen,  and  Max  Werner  were  announced  as  guest 
speakers.  The  dinner-forum  was  held  under  the  joint  auspices  of  the 
American  Committee  to  Save  Refugees,  Exiled  Writers  Committee  of  the 
League  of  American  Writers  and  the  United  Spanish  Aid  Committee. 

Among  the  sponsors  of  the  dinner-forum  were  the  following :  Dr. 
Edward  K.  Barsky,  Louis  Bromfield,  Stuart  Chase,  Kyle  Crichton  (alias 
Robert  Forsythe),  Martha  Dodd,  Dashiell  Hammett,  Ben  Hecht,  Rock- 
well Kent,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Corliss  Lament,  Ruth  McKenney,  Clifford  Odets, 
Professor  Walter  Rautenstrauch,  George  Seldes,  Maxwell  S.  Stewart,  and 
Orson  Welles. 

FEDERATION  OF  ARCHITECTS,  ENGINEERS,  CHEMISTS 
AND  TECHNICIANS 

The  Communist  character  and  activities  of  this  organization  has 
been  covered  rather  thoroughly  in  the  former  Reports  of  Legislative 
Committees  investigating  un-American  activities  in  California.  (See, 
particularly,  the  committee's  1947  report.)  The  Federation  of  Architects, 
Engineers,  Chemists  and  Technicians  was  absorbed  by  the  Communist 
United  Office  and  Professional  Workers. 

Rose  Segure,  who  has  been  referred  to  in  previous  reports,  testified 
before  the  committee  in  Oakland,  1947.  She  stated,  at  the  time  of  testify- 
ing, that  she  was  working  with  the  Organizing  Committee  of  the  Inde- 
pendent Progressive  Party  of  California,  the  new  vehicle  for  the  Com- 
munist Party  in  this  State.  She  stated  that  she  knew  Alexander  Noral, 
the  registered  Communist  functionary  who  was  formerly  in  charge  of 
the  Communist  Workers'  Alliance  of  America.  She  admitted  that  she 
had  been  a  close  associate  of  Communist  John  E.  Jeffrey,  former  State 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  235 

head  of  the  Communist  State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers  of  Amer- 
ica. Miss  Segure  stated  that  she  was  international  representative  for  the 
State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers  of  America  (now  the  United 
Public  Workers).  She  was  also  acquainted  with  Communist  Bronislaus 
Joseph  Zukas.  (See  committee's  previous  reports.)  She  also  admitted 
that  she  was  acquainted  with  Communist  Mrs.  La  Rue  McCormick.  She 
has  been  a  consistent  subscriber  to  the  People 's  Daily  World. 

Eose  Segure  stated  that  Communist  William  Plunkert  had  formerly 
been  a  Federal  Transit  Administrator  for  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment as  an  assistant  to  Harry  Hopkins.  She  testified  that  after  the 
Federal  Transit  Service  was  dissolved  and  William  Plunker  became  the 
director  of  the  State  Survey  for  Social  Workers  in  the  State  of  Cali- 
fornia, that  she  became  his  assistant.  Later,  she  stated,  William  Plunkert 
was  connected  with  the  State  Relief  Administration  under  the  Olson 
regime.  She  worked  for  the  State  Relief  Administration  but  not  directly 
under  William  Plunkert. 

When  Carey  McWilliams  became  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Immi- 
gration and  Housing,  Rose  Segure  stated  that  she  was  associated  with 
McWilliams  as  immigration  inspector.  She  was  concerned  with  the  ' '  pro- 
tection of  the  interests  of  foreign  born  citizens  and  aliens  within "  Cali- 
fornia. On  occasion,  when  she  was  connected  with  the  State  Relief 
Administration,  she  held  conferences  with  representatives  of  the  Com- 
munist Workers '  Alliance  of  America.  During  the  war  she  was  a  member 
of  the  Regional  War  Labor  Board  and  sat  on  panels  as  a  labor  repre- 
sentative. 

When  Miss  Segure  left  the  State,  County,  and  Municipal  Workers 
she  became  an  international  representative  for  the  Federation  of  Archi- 
tects, Engineers,  Chemists  and  Technicians. 

She  stated  that  she  had  known  David  Jenkins  of  the  Communist 
California  Labor  School  for  about  five  ye'ars.  She  stated  that  she  was 
community  services  director  for  the  Communist  school  for  a  short  time. 
She  testified  that  she  conducted  a  war  course  in  Oakland  for  public  health 
officials,  Community  Chest  officials,  and  school  people.  Her  classes  aver- 
aged around  30  people. 

Miss  Segure  admitted  that  she  knew  Dorothy  Ray  (now  Dorothy 
Healy,  organizing  secretary  for  the  Communist  Party  of  Los  Angeles 
County)  and  that  she  had  met  her  when  she  was  organizing  for  the 
Communist  United  Cannery,  Packing,  and  Allied  Workers  of  America. 

The  record  indicates  that  Rose  Segure  is  one  of  the  most  active  and 
faithful  agents  of  the  Kremlin  in  California. 

R.  E.  Combs,  counsel  for  the  committee,  summarized  the  evidence 
concerning  the  Federation  of  Architects,  Engineers,  Chemists  and  Tech- 
nicians, as  follows  (committee's  transcript,  Volume  XXXIII,  pages  370 
to  373)  : 

''Mr.  Combs:  The  F.A.E.C.T.  was  gone  into  for  the  purpose 
of  showing  by  documented  material,  the  citations  of  which  have  all 
been  read  into  the  record,  that  a  man  by  the  name  of  Marcel  Scherer 
went  to  the  Soviet  Union  and  he  there  spent  two  years  studying  at 
the  school  known  as  the  Lenin  school  for  training  espionage  agents 
for  the  Communist  Party  throughout  the  world ;  that  his  wife,  Lena 
Davis,  was  secretary  of  the  Communist  Party  of  New  Jersey.  Imme- 
diately after  Mr.  Scherer  returned  to  the  United  States,  he  started 


236  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

what  become  known  as  the  F.A.E.C.T.,  which  was  a  union  whose 
membership  consisted  of  scientists  and  technicians,  including  of 
course,  nuclear  physicists.  In  1939  a  chapter  of  that  union  was 
established  in  Berkeley.  It  was  established  by  Mr.  Paul  Pinsky,  as 
the  record  has  already  shown.  Now,  until  1942  and  1943,  that 
chapter  assumed  no  particular  significance,  but  with  the  develop- 
ment of  atomic  research  out  comes  Mr.  Marcel  Scherer  to  the  Pacific 
Coast  and  here  he  stays  for  18  months,  and  when  he  leaves,  Miss  Rose 
Segure  becomes  international  representative  for  that  union  and 
organized,  as  she  has  testified,  people  who  were  working  at  the 
Radiation  Laboratory  at  Berkeley. 

"Now,  the  committee  already  has  all  of  the  publications  of  that 
chapter,  Chapter  25,  over  a  period  of  years,  and  from  their  own 
records  their  cleavage  to  the  Communist  Party  line  is  established 
without  any  question  of  a  doubt.  Their  handbills,  their  booklets, 
their  pamphlets,  their  weekly  bulletins,  were  all  placed  in  the  record, 
together  with  the  minutes  of  their  own  executive  meeting  in  which 
they  say  'Look  out  for  the  F.B.I.  We  have  to  put  our  propaganda 
in  envelopes  to  make  them  look  like  checks. '  Now,  those  minutes — 
I  don't  remember  what  the  rest  of  them  provided,  but  they  were 
introduced  as  exhibits  before  this  committee,  and  were  introduced 
a  year  ago. 

"Now,  to  get  back  to  the  California  Labor  School  for  a  minute. 
The  director  of  that  school,  Jenkins,  is  a  member  of  the  Marine 
Cooks  and  Stewards  Union.  He's  also  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party  by  his  own  admission.  He  first  denied  it  when  we  showed  him 
a  certified  copy  of  his  registration  in  New  York  and  his  record  of 
serving  a  sentence  for  Communist  agitation.  He  admitted  he  served 
the  sentence  and  then  admitted  he  was  a  member  of  the  Communist 
Party. 

"Hazel  Grossman,  wife  of  Aubrey  Grossman,  who  is  the  edu- 
cational director  for  the  Communist  Party  in  San  Francisco,  has 
long  taught  in  that  school.  We  have  introduced  into  the  record  an 
example  of  the  kind  of  literature  distributed  there  and  who  attended 
those  courses.  From  witnesses  we  have  learned  that  the  dispatcher 
at  the  Marine  Cooks  and  Stewards  Union,  who  is  a  member  of  the 
Communist  Party,  has  the  sole  discretion  of  assigning  any  member 
of  that  union  to  any  boat  bound  for  any  port  in  the  world.  He  has 
that  sole  discretion.  *  *  * 

"Now,  to  get  to  the  Chevalier  situation.  The  statement  made 
by  a  former  agent  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  in  Wash- 
ington, according  to  the  newspapers,  was  in  effect,  that  he  had  been 
contacted  by  a  vice  consul  of  the  Soviet  Union  from  San  Francisco, 
asked  to  contact  J.  Robert  Oppenheimer,  who  as  we  all  know,  prob- 
ably had  more  over-all  knowledge  of  the  atomic  research  bomb  than 
any  other  scientist  in  the  world. 

"Now,  this  committee  had  an  executive  session  yesterday  in 
which  it  was  determined  that  if  Chevalier  were  asked  specifically 
and  categorically  exactly  what  he  said  to  Dr.  Oppenheimer,  that  it 
might  be  he  would  be  given  immunity  from  prosecution  for  any 
offense  he  may  have  been  guilty  of.  In  addition  to  that  there  was 
some  feeling  that  this  committee  was  not  entitled,  as  a  matter  of 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  237 

jurisdiction,  to  go  into  that  particular  phase  of  the  thing,  but  the 
committee  did  feel  that  it  was  the  duty  of  this  committee  to  give  to 
the  people  of  California  the  record  of  affiliations  of  Haakon  Cheva- 
lier, and  that  is  what  we  did  attempt  to  do  this  morning,  and  Mr. 
Chevalier  admitted  his  affiliations.  Now,  there  are  many  people  on 
the  faculty  of  the  University  of  California,  and  out  of  all  those 
people  one  man  was  selected  to  make  that  contact.  What  he  said  we 
don't  know.  We  have  reason  to  believe  that  he  may  make  a  press 
release  after  this  hearing,  and  reveal  what  he  did  say,  which  of 
course,  is  his  privilege.  His  contact  with  Eltenton,  his  contact  with 
the  American-Russian  Institute,  his  contact  with  and  membership  in 
all  of  those  Russian  organizations  since,  I  think  it  was  1934,  some- 
where around  there,  make  a  continuous  pattern  over  a  period  of 
years.  His  participation  in  the  29th  Anniversary  of  the  Russian 
revolution ;  his  visiting  in  the  home  of  the  Soviet  Vice  Consul,  are 
things  the  committee  felt  should  be  publicized  so  the  people  know 
the  situation/' 

FILM  AND  PHOTO  LEAGUE 

Willi  Muenzenberg,  in  the  Daily  Worker  for  July  23,  1925,  under 
the  caption  ' '  Capture  the  Film ! ' '  wrote,  in  part,  as  follows : 

"We  must  develop  the  tremendous  cultural  possibilities  of  the 
motion  picture  in  a  revolutionary  sense  *  *  *  One  of  the  most 
pressing  tasks  confronting  Communist  parties  in  the  field  of  agita- 
tion and  propaganda  is  the  conquest  of  this  supremely  important 
propaganda  weapon  until  now  the  monopoly  of  the  ruling  class.  We 
must  wrest  it  from  them  and  turn  it  against  them. ' ' 

The  Cinema  Bureau  of  the  International  Union  of  the  Revolutionary 
Theater  was  organized  in  Moscow  and  laid  down  a  detailed  program  for 
affiliated  communist  bodies  throughout  the  world.  Two  important  direc- 
tives were  emphasized:  Section  5(c)  was  an  order  "organizing  mass 
protest  demonstrations  and  rallying  audiences  in  protest  against  reaction- 
ary films,  and  sub-section  (d)  of  the  same  section  ordered  the  "populariz- 
ing of  all  revolutionary  films. ' '  Among  other  orders  of  the  Moscow  Cinema 
Bureau  was  the  overall  command  to  "unite  the  creative  and  technical 
workers  of  the  film  industry,  professionals  and  amateurs,  with  the  aim 
of  forming  film  organizations  in  different  countries  on  an  international 
scale."  Section  3  ordered  the  comrades  "to  gather  all  experiences  for  the 
purpose  of  creating  revolutionary  professional  and  amateur  films  in 
various  countries."  Section  7  is  a  directive  "to  establish  a  repertory  of 
revolutionary  films  by  *  *  *  (c)  producing  our  own  films,  starting  with 
documentary,  etc.,  films." 

The  New  Theater  for  May,  1934,  stated :  ' '  The  existing  police  regu- 
lations and  decrees  must  be  studied  and  remembered.  The  film  section 
can  organize  under  the  innocuous  name  of  some  club.  It  is  certainly 
advisable  to  find  a  neutral  name  for  your  organization. ' ' 

Workers'  Theater,  predecessor  of  the  New  Theater,  in  its  August, 
1933,  issue  made  the  following  announcement :  "We  call  upon  you  to  join 
with  us  in  organizing  movies  and  camera  clubs,  film  forums,  better  film 


238  UN- AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

groups  in  cities  and  towns  all  over  the  United  States,  for  the  purpose  of 
exposing  and  combating  the  capitalist  film  industry. ' ' 

The  Film  and  Photo  League,  a  Communist-front  in  every  respect, 
was  the  result.  Ralph  Steiner,  photographer  for  the  New  Masses,  wrote  in 
the  September,  1934,  issue  of  New  Theater:  ''We  must  start  by  defining 
the  revolutionary  film.  It  is  one  which  clearly  and  forcefully  reflects  and 
directs  the  class  struggle  *  *  *.  The  first  requires  of  the  film  maker  a 
clear  political  knowledge  (note — a  basic  comprehension  of  politics, 
economics,  history  and  sociology  from  a  Marxian  point  of  view)  *  *  *. 
For  a  clear  political  understanding  it  is  obvious  that  the  producer  must 
have  a  basic  foundation  in  the  principles  of  the  class  struggle  *  *  *." 

The  headquarters  of  the  Film  and  Photo  League,  together  with  the 
Workers  Theater  of  San  Francisco,  were  located  in  the  Ruthenberg 
House.  (Charles  E.  Ruthenberg  was  the  first  general  secretary  of  the 
Communist  Party.) 

The  Congressional  study  of  the  Film  and  Photo  League  points  out 
the  dishonest  methods  used  by  the  Film  and  Photo  League.  Leo  T.  Hur- 
witz,  reporting  on  New  York  Film  and  Photo  League  activity  in  New 
Theater  for  May,  1934,  writes  as  follows : 

"By  virtue  of  splicing  the  shot  of  the  warships  just  after  Roose- 
velt signs  the  paper,  and  following  the  threatening  ships  of  war, 
with  the  rest  of  the  first  shot  (Roosevelt  looks  up  and  smiles),  a  new 
meaning  not  contained  in  either  shot  *  *  *  is  achieved — the  mean- 
ing of  the  huge  war  preparation  program  of  the  demagogic  Roosevelt 
government. ' ' 

The  Los  Angeles  Film  and  Photo  League  was  particularly  urged  "to 
wedge  its  way  more  sharply  into  the  film  industry."  (New  Theater, 
November,  1934.) 

Among  those  who  have  been  connected  in  one  way  or  an  other  with 
the  various  branches  of  the  Film  and  Photo  League  are  the  following : 
Margaret  Bourke-White,  Ralph  Steiner,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Sidney 
Howard,  John  Wexley,  Ashley  Jettis,  Bernice  Abbott,  Reginald  Marsh, 
William  Fitelson,  Hall  Johnson,  Erskine  Caldwell,  Mordecai  Gorelick, 
Lee  Strassberg,  Virgil  Geddes,  George  Gershwin,  Elmer  Rice,  Burgess 
Meredith,  and  James  Cagney. 

Film  and  Photo  League  merged  with  Nykino  to  form  the  New  Film 
Alliance  according  to  New  Theater  for  September,  1935.  Merritt  Craw- 
ford was  the  executive  secretary. 

FILM  AUDIENCES  FOR  DEMOCRACY 

The  Communist  fronts,  Film  Audiences  and  Films  for  Democracy, 
merged  in  1939  to  form  a  new  front,  Film  Audiences  for  Democracy. 
(Film  Survey,  May,  1939.) 

The  new  front,  thus  created,  carried  on  the  activities  of  Film  Audi- 
ences and  Films  for  Democracy.  (See  these  titles.) 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  239 

FILMS  FOR  DEMOCRACY 

The  publication,  Films  for  Democracy,  for  April  1939,  outlined  the 
aims  of  the  Communist  front  by  the  same  name : 

"  Films  for  Democracy  was  launched  four  months  ago,  on 
November  18,  1938  *  *  *.  Progressive  Americans  are  glad  to  assist 
us  in  reaching  friends,  by  arranging  parlor  meetings  at  which  the 
aims  and  purposes  of  the  organization  are  presented  by  one  of  our 
speakers  *  *  *.  Chapters  of  Films  for  Democracy  have  organized 
in  recent  weeks  in  the  following  communities:  on  the  campus  of 
Princeton  University,  Rutgers  University ;  Flatbush,  Eastern  Park- 
way, New  Rochelle  and  Washington  *  *  *.  The  Washington  branch 
headed  by  Mr.  Donald  Montgomery  of  the  Consumers  Council  of  the 
Department  of  Agriculture,  has  set  itself  the  task  of  enrolling  one 
thousand  members  within  the  next  few  months  *  *  *.  Trained  field 
workers  are  being  sent  from  this  office  into  communities  where  a 
nucleus  of  members  already  exists  *  *  *.  Motion  Pictures  Apprecia- 
tion Circles  can  be  formed  *  *  *.  We  now  have  members  in  115 
cities  in  34  states  of  the  Union. ' ' 

The  Advisory  Board  of  Films  for  Democracy  included  the  following : 
William  E.  Dodd,  Franz  Boas,  Rexford  G.  Tugwell,  Mary  E.  Woolley, 
Frederic  March,  Dudley  Nichols,  Thomas  Mann,  Marc  Connolly,  Heywood 
Broun,  Theodore  Dreiser,  Lillian  Hellman,  Louis  Adamic,  William  R. 
Benet,  Dashiell  Hammett,  Rex  Ingram,  and  Fritz  Lang. 

FIRST  STATE-WIDE  EMERGENCY  LEGISLATIVE  CONFERENCE 

The  Los  Angeles  Labor  Herald  for  November  23,  1945,  announced 
that  Attorney  General  Robert  W.  Kenny  and  Bartley  Crum  had  called 
for  a  state-wide  legislative  conference  to  be  held  at  the  Memorial  Audi- 
torium in  Sacramento,  January  5  and  6,  1946.  The  Los  Angeles  sponsors 
of  the  conference  included  Eleanor  Abowitz,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Dr. 
Franklin  Fearing,  Isaac  Pacht,  Reuben  Borough,  Harry  Braverman, 
John  Anson  Ford,  George  Campbell,  John  Cromwell,  Dr.  E.G.  Farnham, 
George  Moore,  Norman  Houston,  Rollin  McNitt,  Seniel  Ostrow,  Frank 
Pellett,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Julian  Sieroty,  Robert  L.  Smith,  Mrs.  Ralph  Van- 
dervort,  Col.  Evans  Carlson,  and  John  Howard  Lawson. 

FREEDOM  FROM  FEAR  COMMITTEE 

This  is  one  of  the  Communist  Party's  latest  fronts. 

The  Freedom  from  Fear  Committee  apparently  came  into  being  in 
New  York  and  in  Hollywood  simultaneously. 

A  testimonial  dinner  was  given  at  the  Beverly  Wilshire  Hotel, 
Beverly  Hills,  on  March  5,  1948,  for  the  "  Holly  wood  Ten  "— John  How- 
ard Lawson,  Dalton  Trumbo,  Albert  Maltz,  Alvah  Bessie,  Samuel 
Ornitz,  Herbert  Joseph  Biberman,  Edward  Dmytryk,  Adrian  Scott, 
Ring  Lardner,  Jr.,  and  Lester  Cole; — the  10  Hollywood  Communists 
who  refused  to  testify  before  the  House  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities  in  Washington,  D.  C. 


240  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

The   following   communication   was   addressed   to   John   Huston, 
Chairman  of  the  Testimonial  Dinner  for  the  "Hollywood  Ten": 
DEAR  MR.  HUSTON: 

"At  a  meeting  called  by  Oscar  Hammerstein,  II,  James  Thur- 
ber,  Arthur  Garfield  Hays,  Leon  Kroll,  Norman  Rockwell,  Cheryl 
Crawford,  Christopher  La  Forge,  Moss  Hart  and  Walter  Huston, 
it  was  unanimously  voted  by  the  200  actors,  dramatists  and  others 
associated  with  the  arts  that  the  enclosed  resolutions  be  sent  to  the 
dinner  on  March  5th  for  the  Hollywood  Ten. 

"Belt  Resolved,  That  this  meeting  considers  that  all  the  issues 
involved  in  the  present  fight  for  freedom  from  censorship,  freedom 
from  blacklist,  freedom  from  dictation — plain  human  freedom  of 
expression  in  every  branch  of  creative  work — are  bound  up  in  the 
case  of  the  Ten  Hollywood  writers,  who  are  charged  with  con- 
tempt of  Congress,  and  who  will  stand  trial  on  that  charge  within 
the  next  few  weeks; 

"That  the  cause  of  these  ten  is  the  cause,  not  only  of  men 
and  women  in  the  creative  professions,  stage,  radio,  motion  pictures, 
newspapers  and  literature,  but  of  all  citizens  of  America  wishing 
to  defend  their  constitutional  rights; 

"That  these  ten  are  the  shock  troops,  representing  all  of  us 
in  the  struggle  against  censorship ;  and  that  one  of  our  first  purposes 
must  be  to  give  support  to  these  Ten  who  stand  in  urgent  need  of  it 
— their  own  personal  savings  having  been  exhausted  in  this  public 
fight  so  far ;  and  that  funds  be  raised  for  the  Freedom  From  Fear 
Committee  which  has  been  formed  and  is  now  at  work  for  the 
specific  end  of  meeting  costs  of  the  trials  of  these  Ten  in  Wash- 
ington. 

"In  no  way  can  we  strengthen  free  speech  more  quickly  and 
more  directly  than  by  reinforcing  those  who  now  stand  in  the  front 
line  of  the  fight. 

"Among  those  present  at  the  meeting  which  passed  this  reso- 
lution were: 

"Oscar  Hammerstein  II,  James  Thurber,  Arthur  Garfield 
Hays,  Leon  Kroll,  Norman  Rockwell,  Cheryl  Crawford,  Christopher 
La  Farge,  Moss  Hart,  Walter  Huston,  John  Hersey,  Richard  Lau- 
terbach,  Audrey  Wood,  Canada  Lee,  Faye  Emerson  Roosevelt,  Kim 
Hunter,  Irwin  Shaw,  Herman  Shumlin,  Agnes  DeMille,  Gene  Star 
Untermeyer,  Louis  Utermeyer,  John  Garfield,  Mark  Van  Doren, 
Gerald  Savory,  Lyn  Murray,  Oscar  Serlin,  Alan  Corelli,  William 
Rose  Benet,  Al  Hirshfield,  Sidney  Fleisher,  Prof.  Douglas  Moore, 
Morton  Gould,  Howard  Taubman,  John  Martin,  Edna  Ferber,  John 
Lardner,  Henry  Morgan,  David  Brooks,  Pert  Kelton,  Theodore  H. 
White,  William  Zorach,  Arline  MacMahon,  Kermit  Bloomgarden, 
and  John  O'Hara." 

The  communication  was  signed  by  Christopher  La  Farge,  as  the 
Chairman  pro  tern;  and  Edward  Choates,  secretary,  pro  tern,  Stop 
Censorship  Meetings. 

The  following  Western  Union  telegram  was  dispatched  to  John 
Huston,  chairman  of  the  testimonial  dinner  for  the  ' '  Hollywood  Ten. ' ' 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  241 

The  undersigned  greet  your  meeting  as  members  of  the  Free- 
dom from  Fear  Committee  of  New  York,  organized  for  the  sole 
purpose  of  raising  funds  for  the  legal  case  of  the  Hollywood  Ten. 
Best  wishes  for  a  very  successful  evening. 

The  telegram  was  signed  by  Marc  Connelly,  Cheryl  Crawford,  Moss 
Hart,  Oscar  Hammerstein  II,  Elia  Kazan,  George  S.  Kaufman,  David 
Kay,  Bill  Mauldin,  William  L.  Shirer,  Deems  Taylor,  Mark  Van  Doren, 
and  Richard  Watts,  Jr. 

Dr.  Harlow  Shapley,  director  of  the  Harvard  Observatory,  stated : 
"The  fight  for  the  Hollywood  Ten  must  stop  the  Thomas 
Committee  and  quash  all  the  little  un-American  activities  com- 
mittees which  it  has  spawned  in  various  states,  industries  and  even 
universities. ' ' 

It  is  estimated  that  the  testimonial  dinner  was  attended  by  around 
three  hundred  Hollywood  "liberals."  Contributions  for  the  defense  of 
the  "Hollywood  Ten"  totaled  $15,110.  Checks  ranged  from  $10  to 
$1,000  and  the  total  was  turned  over  to  Robert  W.  Kenny.  Film  pro- 
ducer-director John  Huston  was  the  banquet  chairman.  Lena  Home 
sang  and  Larry  Parks  introduced  producer  Adrian  Scott,  one  of  the  10 
defendants  who  were  seated  at  a  table  of  honor. 

"We  must  dramatize  our  fight,"  said  Scott. 

This  he  did  by  likening  the  Thomas  Committee's  actions  to  the 
Reichstag  fire  which  put  the  Nazis  in  power  in  Germany. 

Among  the  sponsors  of  the  dinner  benefit  rally  for  the  *  *  Hollywood 
Ten"  are  Norman  Corwin,  Chairman;  Dr.  David  Appleman,  Richard 
Brooks,  Clarence  C.  Carlson,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  John  Cromwell,  Dr. 
George  Day,  Joseph  DaSilva,  Rev.  Stephen  Fritchman,  Rev.  Owen  M. 
Greer,  Mrs.  Paul  Henreid,  John  Huston,  Dr.  H.  Claude  Hudson,  Richard 
Ibanez,  Garson  Kanin,  Michael  Kanin,  Howard  Koch,  Millard  Lamp- 
bell,  Burt  Lancaster,  Jerome  W.  McNair,  Thomas  Mann,  Clifford  Odets, 
Mrs.  Fred  Pollack,  Vincent  Sherman,  Mrs.  Ben  Solnit,  Donald  Ogden 
Stewart,  Dr.  Donald  H.  Tippett,  Walter  Turner,  Dr.  Fritz  W.  Went, 
and  Mrs.  Phyllis  Ziffrin. 

FREE  ITALY  SOCIETY 

A  chapter  of  the  national  organization  is  located  at  3220  North 
Broadway  in  Los  Angeles. 

Vito  Marcantonio  is  active  in  behalf  of  this  Communist  group.  He 
addressed  a  meeting  of  the  Free  Italy  Society  in  the  Shrine  Auditorium 
in  Los  Angeles,  in  December  of  1946.  The  announcement  of  the  affair 
was  entitled  "Support  the  Tito-Togliatti  Proposals  for  Trieste,"  and  it 
was  printed  in  English  and  Italian.  It  called  on  Italians  to  protest  to 
the  Italian  Embassy  in  Washington,  D.  C.,  the  Secretary  of  State  of  the 
United  States,  and  the  Counsel  of  Foreign  Ministers  in  New  York,  and 
demand  that  Tito  and  Togliatti  (both  Communists)  be  permitted  to 
settle  the  future  of  Trieste.  It  attacked  American-British  diplomacy  as 
'  *  Imperialistic. ' ' 


17— L-7088-D 


242  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

FREIHEIT 

This  is  the  official  Communist  newspaper  published  in  the  Yiddish 
tongue.  For  many  years,  M.  J.  Olgin  was  the  editor  of  Freiheit.  Olgin 
was  one  of  the  outstanding  leaders  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the 
United  States  for  20  years.  Sidney  Hillman  made  a  donation  of  $3,000 
to  the  Communist  newspaper  Freiheit  in  the  name  of  his  wife,  Bessie 
Abramowitz. 

FRIENDS  OF  SOVIET  RUSSIA 

Organizations  for  admiration  and  support  of  Soviet  Russia  were 
among  the  first  Communists  fronts  established  in  the  United  States. 
The  Central  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States 
created  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia  in  1921,  in  direct  response  to  directives 
issued  by  the  Communist  International.  According  to  Joseph  Stalin, 
"the  United  Front  tactics  were  set  up  by  Lenin  in  order  to  make  it 
easier  for  the  millions  of  workers  in  capitalist  countries  *  *  *  to  come 
over  to  Communism  "  (Die  Internationale,  1932,  p.  312) . 

Willi  Muenzenberg  was  the  organizing  genius  of  a  huge  solar  sys- 
tem of  these  united  front  movements  which  he  aptly  termed  ' '  innocent 
clubs."  Through  them  he  hoped,  while  "the  action  of  the  revolution 
was  hanging  fire,  to  extend  the  basis  under  cover  of  the  United  Front 
slogan. ' '  Among  the  organizations  formed  for  this  purpose  on  an  inter- 
national scale  was  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia,  intended  as  Muenzen- 
berg announced  to  "penetrate  every  conceivable  milieu,  get  hold  of 
artists  and  professors,  make  use  of  theatres  and  cinemas,  spread  abroad 
the  doctrine  that  Russia  is  prepared  to  sacrifice  everything  to  keep  the 
world  at  peace." 

The  Russian  famine  of  1921  furnished  a  convenient  opportunity 
for  arousing  widespread  sympathy  outside  of  the  ranks  of  the  Com- 
munist Parties.  To  this  end  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Communist 
International  issued  the  following  appeal  to  the  workers  of  the  United 
States : 

"The  famine  raging  through  the  Volga  districts  of  Russia 
has  called  forth  the  sympathies  of  all  honest  workers  throughout 
the  world.  The  Communist  International  has  called  upon  the  work- 
ers of  the  world  irrespective  of  creed  and  party  to  organize  relief 
for  the  famine-stricken  districts  in  Soviet  Russia  *  *  *.  Today  the 
Communist  International  is  especially  appealing  to  you,  workers 
of  America  *  *  *.  Organize  everywhere  and  immediately  committees 
for  the  relief  of  the  hungry  in  Russia."  (The  Toiler,  predecessor  of 
the  Daily  Worker,  December  3,  1921,  p.  11.) 

The  American  affiliate  of  the  Communist  International  was  known 
as  the  Workers  Party  of  America  in  1921.  Moritz  Loeb,  in  his  report  to 
the  district  convention  of  the  party  in  Chicago,  March  12,  1922, 
announced  that  he  had  made  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia  an  order  of 
business  at  all  branch  meetings. 

The  members  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Friends  of  Soviet 
Russia  included  the  following  members  of  the  central  executive  com- 
mittee of  the  Workers  Party  (Communist  Party)  :  James  P.  Cannon, 
J.  Welenkin,  and  Caleb  Harrison.  The  advisory  committee  included  the 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  243 

following  members  of  the  central  executive  committee  of  the  Workers 
Party:  Ludwig  Lore,  J.  Louis  Engdahl,  Marguerite  Prevey,  Elmer  T. 
Allison,  Robert  Minor,  Charles  Baker,  Jack  Carney,  and  Edgar  Owens. 
Other  members  of  these  committees  were  either  party  members  or  very 
close  sympathizers. 

Benjamin  Gitlow,  vice  presidential  candidate  on  the  Communist 
ticket  in  1924  and  1928  and  a  former  member  of  the  executive  committee 
of  the  Communist  International,  told  a  congressional  committee  that 
over  a  million  dollars  had  been  raised  for  the  famine-stricken  victims 
in  Russia  but  that  the  money  was  used  for  Communist  purposes  in 
capitalist  countries.  ' '  If  the  party  found  itself  pinched  for  a  few  thou- 
sand dollars, ' '  said  Gitlow,  *  *  we  would  call  to  the  meeting  of  the  political 
committee  Rose  Karsner,  Secretary  of  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia,  to 
make  a  loan,  and  she  *  *  *  would  enter  the  necessary  bookkeeping  entries 
that  would  show  that  the  money  was  spent  for  a  legitimate  purpose.  At 
that  time  we  put  a  number  of  the  members  of  the  political  party  *  *  * 
on  the  payroll  of  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia/' 

The  magazine  "Soviet  Russia,  official  organ  of  the  Russian  Soviet 
Government  Bureau,"  became  the  official  organ  of  the  Friends  of  Soviet 
Russia  (The  Toiler,  January  21,  1922). 

The  purpose  of  the  Communist  International  in  appealing  for  relief 
for  the  famine-stricken  victims  of  Russia  was,  of  course,  only  a  ruse. 
The  real  purpose  was  disclosed  by  Willi  Muenzenberg  in  his  report  to 
the  Fourth  Congress  of  the  Communist  International: 

"In  America  there  is  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia,  which  is 
closely  connected  with  the  Communist  International  *  *  *.  In  the 
United  States  there  is  also  the  Society  for  Technical  Aid  to  Soviet 
Russia  *  *  *.  Then  we  have  Comrade  Hillman 's  plan,  which  proposes 
to  raise  a  loan  of  $1,000,000  for  Russia  and  which  has  arranged  with 
the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  to  found  large-scale  clothing 
factories  in  Russia  *  *  *.  The  campaign  for  the  famine  relief  enabled 
us  for  the  first  time  to  conduct  Communist  propaganda  among  the 
trade-union  workers  of  North  America  and  to  write  these  workers 
in  a  relief  action  under  the  control  of  the  Communist  Party  *  *  *. 
In  this  way  we  were  able  to  bring  for  the  first  time  before  the  masses 
the  questions  of  Soviet  Russia,  proletarian  revolution,  etc.  (Inter- 
national Press  Correspondence,  December  22,  1922.) 

The  $1,000,000  loan  mentioned  above  was  undertaken  by  the  Rus- 
sian-American Industrial  Corporation  headed  by  Sidney  Hillman  (Inter- 
national Press  Correspondence,  January  16,  1923).  Sidney  Hillman, 
together  with  Communist  M.  J.  Olgin,  was  a  featured  speaker  for  the 
Friends  of  Soviet  Russia. 

Soviet  Pictorial,  carrying  glorified  photographs  of  life  in  the  Soviet 
Union,  was  a  publication  of  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia. 

In  1929  the  Friends  of  Soviet  Russia  was  reorganized  and  revita- 
lized under  the  name  of  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union. 


244  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

FRIENDS  OF  THE  ABRAHAM  LINCOLN  BRIGADE 

This  organization,  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade, 
was  organized  and  controlled  by  the  Communist  Party  from  the  begin- 
ning. Phil  Bard  was  the  secretary  of  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade. 

Among  those  affiliated  with  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln 
Brigade  are  the  following :  William  Rose  Benet,  Ernest  P.  Boas,  Langston 
Hughes,  Orson  Welles,  A.  F.  Whitney,  James  Waterman  Wise,  Francis 
J.  Gorman,  Miguel  Garriga,  Irving  Potash,  John  Rey,  Stanley  M. 
Isaacs,  Heywood  Broun,  Jerry  O'Connell,  Harry  Sherman,  Kyle  Crich- 
ton,  Jerome  Davis,  Lillian  Hellman,  H.  V.  Kaltenborn,  Clifford  Odets, 
Ursula  Parrott,  George  Seldes,  Herman  Shumlin,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart, 
James  Cagney,  Muriel  Draper,  Henry  Hart,  Arthur  Kober,  Archibald 
MacLeish,  Dr.  Mary  E.  Woolley,  Albert  Einstein,  Dorothy  Parker,  Lester 
Cohen,  Martha  Dodd,  Dashiell  Hammett,  Mrs.  George  Marshall,  Vincent 
Sheean,  Max  Yergan,  Reuben  Borough,  Harold  Buchman,  John  Anson 
Ford,  Leo  Gallagher,  Lee  E.  Geyer,  Robert  W.  Kenny,  Carey  Me  Wil- 
liams, Ben  Rosenthal,  Frank  Scully,  Oliver  Thornton,  and  Clara 
Weatherwax. 

The  headquarters  of  the  Friends  of  the  Abraham  Lincoln  Brigade 
was  located  at  617  Union  League  Bldg.,  in  the  City  of  Los  Angeles. 

FRIENDS  OF  THE  SOVIET  UNION 

The  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  succeeded  the  Friends  of  Soviet 
Russia  in  1929.  The  Daily  Worker  of  October  25,  1929,  stated : 

"With  the  aid  of  such  organizations  as  "The  Friends  of  the 
Soviet  Union,"  which  must  be  more  firmly  anchored  among  the 
working  masses,  the  sending  of  delegations  to  Russia  must  be  organ- 
ized and  they  must  be  utilized  for  propaganda  for  the  twelfth  anni- 
versary (of  the  Russian  revolution)." 

Delegations  of  American  workers  to  the  Soviet  Union  to  participate 
in  the  May  Day  and  November  7th  anniversary  celebrations  was  a  major 
task  of  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  later  became  known  as  the  Ameri- 
can Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union.  The  official  publication  of  the  organi- 
zation is  Soviet  Russia  Today. 

The  national  committee  of  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union,  endors- 
ing the  call  for  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  convention  in  New  York 
City,  January  26,  27,  28,  1934,  are  as  follows :  Thomas  R.  Amlie,  Roger 
Baldwin,  Carlton  Beals,  Alfred  M.  Bingham,  Frank  Borich,  Bishop  W. 
M.  Brown,  Earl  Browder,  Julian  Bryan,  Anne  Burlak,  George  S.  Counts, 
Malcolm  Cowley,  Edward  Dahlberg,  H.  W.  L.  Dana,  Floyd  Dell,  James 
W.  Ford,  Richard  Farber,  William  Z.  Foster,  Waldo  Frank,  Joseph 
Freeman,  Ben  Gold,  Lem  Harris,  Clarence  Hathaway,  Donald  Hender- 
son, Granville  Hicks,  John  Haynes  Homes,  Roy  Hudson,  Langston 
Hughes,  William  N.  Jones,  Howard  Kester,  Mary  Van  Kleeck,  Corliss 
Lamont,  Katherine  Lewis,  Margaret  Lamont,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  J.  B. 
Matthews,  John  Meldon,  Robert  Minor,  Scott  Nearing,  A.  Overgaard, 
William  Patterson,  Philip  Raymond,  Jack  Stachel,  Maxwell  Stewart, 
Genevieve  Taggard,  Justine  Wise  Tulin,  Charles  R.  Walker,  Dr.  Harry 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  245 

F.  Ward,  Louis  Weinstock,  Susan  H.  Woodruff,  Albert  Rhys  Williams, 
and  Walter  Wilson. 

Of  the  foregoing,  Carlton  Beals,  Earl  Browder,  Bishop  William 
Montgomery  Brown,  James  W.  Ford,  William  Z.  Foster,  Waldo  Frank, 
Michael  Gold,  Clarence  Albert  Hathaway,  Granville  Hicks,  Roy  Hudson, 
Langston  Hughes,  John  Meldon,  Robert  Minor,  Scott  Nearing,  William 
L.  Patterson,  Philip  Raymond,  and  Jack  Stachel  have  avowed  publicly 
their  Communist  sympathies. 

Carlton  Beals  is  the  author  of  a  section  of  a  symposium  "Recovery 
through  Revolution,"  in  which  the  editor  states:  "Life  and  creation 
belong  henceforth  to  Communism." 

Earl  Browder  headed  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States 
until  1945. 

"Bishop"  William  Montgomery  Brown  was  unfrocked  by  the  Epis- 
copal Church  for  heresy  in  1924.  He  stated  in  1933  that ' '  In  these  days  of 
my  heresy,  I  am  trying  to  make  more  members  for  the  Communist 
Party  *  *  *." 

James  W.  Ford,  Negro,  was  a  candidate  for  Vice  President  of  the 
United  States  on  the  Communist  ticket. 

William  Z.  Foster  is  presently  the  head  of  the  Communist  Party 
of  the  United  States. 

Waldo  Frank  in  an  article  "How  I  Came  to  Communism"  (New 
Masses,  September,  1932)  stated:  "The  revolution  tomorrow  must  be 
prepared  today.  Otherwise  it  may  come  too  late  to  save  mankind  from 
the  destruction  of  capitalistic  war  or  still  worse,  from  the  moral  syphilis 
of  capitalistic  peace. "  (Eugene  Lyons  in  The  Red  Decade  indicated  that 
the  Stalin-Hitler  pact  was  too  much  for  Waldo  Frank  and  that  he  broke 
with  the  party. ) 

Michael  Gold  has  long  been  active  in  the  Communist  Party.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  Revolutionary  Writers  Federation  and  was  on  the  Com- 
munist New  Masses  staff  in  1933. 

Clarence  Albert  Hathaway  was  formerly  the  District  Organizer  for 
the  Communist  Party  for  District  8  (Chicago)  and  District  2  (New 
York).  He  has  been  the  editor  of  the  Communist  Party's  Daily  Worker 
and  a  member  of  the  Central  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party. 

Granville  Hicks  left  the  Communist  Party  after  the  Stalin-Hitler 
pact  of  August,  1939,  stating  that  in  joining  the  Communist  Party  he 
had  committed  his  * '  future  to  a  group  of  politicians. ' ' 

Roy  Hudson  has  been  the  Communist  Commissar  of  the  Red  trade 
union  movement. 

Langston  Hughes'  record  is  so  notorious  that  additional  comment 
should  be  unnecessary.  (See  Committee's  previous  reports.) 

John  Meldon  was  a  candidate  for  the  Pittsburg  City  Council  on  the 
Communist  ticket  in  1933. 

Robert  Minor  is  a  charter  member  of  the  Central  Committee  of  the 
Communist  Party  of  the  United  States. 

Scott  Nearing  was  indicted  in  1918  under  the  Espionage  Act  for 
authoring  a  pamphlet  The  Great  Madness.  He  paid  a  $3,000  fine  for  the 
publication,  circulation  and  distribution  of  the  pamphlet.  He  was  dis- 
missed from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  University  of  Toledo 
for  Communist  teachings. 


246  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

William  L.  Patterson  has  been  a  member  of  the  Central  Committee 
of  the  Communist  Party  of  the  United  States. 

Philip  Raymond  was  a  candidate  on  the  Communist  ticket  for  the 
City  Council  of  Detroit  in  1933. 

Jack  Stachel  is  a  member  of  the  Central  Committee  of  the  Com- 
munist Party.  In  1937  he  was  on  the  editorial  board  of  The  Communist. 

The  Communist  affiliation  of  Harry  F.  Ward  is  indicative  of  the 
Communist  sympathies  of  the  members  and  sponsors  of  the  Friends  of 
the  Soviet  Union.  Ward  was  a  signer  of  a  call  for  the  Fourth  American 
Writers'  Congress  (The  Clipper,  May,  1941).  Formerly  chairman  of  the 
American  Civil  Liberties  Union  and  the  American  League  for  Peace  and 
Democracy  (Soviet  Russia  Today) .  He  was  formerly  Professor  of  Chris- 
tian Ethics  at  the  Union  Theological  Seminary.  His  writings  include  In 
Place  of  Profit  and  Democracy  and  Social  Change.  He  is  a  contributor  to 
the  Communist  Soviet  Russia  Today.  He  was  born  in  England.  He  was  a 
Methodist  Episcopal  minister  in  Chicago  and  resident  Northwestern 
University  Settlement,  1898  to  1900. 

He  was  a  director  of  the  Garland  Fund  and  vice  president  of  the 
fund  from  July  19,  1922,  to  May  7,  1924.  He  was  one  of  the  founders 
and  the  General  Secretary  of  the  Methodist  Federation  for  Social  Ser- 
vice and  the  co-editor  of  its  bulletin  (with  Winifred  L.  Chappell,  mem- 
ber of  the  Communist  League  of  Professional  Groups  For  Foster  and 
Ford,  1932).  A  statement  in  the  Methodist  Federation  for  Social  Service 
Bulletin  No.  8,  1932,  signed  by  Ward  and  Bishop  McConnell,  admits 
cooperation  with  the  Socialists  and  the  Communists. 

He  was  the  national  chairman  and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Ameri- 
can Civil  Liberties  Union.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Advisory  Council  of 
the  American  Society  for  Cultural  Relations  With  Russia. 

He  has  always  been  a  pro-Soviet  enthusiast.  He  spent  some  time  in 
the  Soviet  Union.  He  was  a  speaker  for  the  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union 
in  October,  1933,  and  also  on  November  1,  1933,  at  Webster  Hall,  New 
York  City,  with  Communist  Henri  Barbusse,  Anna  Louise  Strong,  Robert 
Minor  and  Herbert  Goldfrank.  He  lectured  under  Friends  of  the  Soviet 
Union  auspices  in  1934. 

He  was  a  wartime  anti- American  " peace"  worker,  and  was  active 
in  the  People 's  Council  of  America.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Emergency 
Peace  Conference. 

Ward 's  admiration  for  the  Industrial  Workers  of  the  World  is  cited 
in  the  New  York  Lusk  Reports.  He  presided  over  the  Industrial  Workers 
of  the  World  meeting  February  9,  1920,  held  at  the  Rand  School,  to 
raise  money  for  the  defense  of  members  of  the  Industrial  Workers  of  the 
World  who  had  killed  four  members  of  the  American  Legion  at  Centralia, 
Washington. 

Harry  F.  Ward  was  active  in  aiding  William  Z.  Foster,  C.  E. 
Ruthenberg  and  other  Communists  arrested  at  Bridgman,  Michigan. 

Ward  served  on  the  board  of  directors  of  World  Tomorrow,  and 
was  a  contributor  to  The  Nation  and  the  Christian  Century. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Peace  Patriots  and  Fellowship  of  Recon- 
ciliation. 

Ward  has  been  connected  with  the  Y.  M.  C,  A.  and  the  Y.  W.  C.  A. 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  247 

He  was  one  of  the  signers  of  a  petition  demanding  that  the  ban 
against  the  Communist  Party  in  the  Philippines  be  lifted. 

He  has  been  a  member  of  many  Communist  front  organizations. 

The  Friends  of  the  Soviet  Union  ultimately  became  the  present 
Communist  front,  National  Council  of  American-Soviet  Friendship. 

FRONTIER  FILMS 

This  organization  is  closely  interlocked  through  its  personnel  with 
the  Film  and  Photo  League,  a  Communist  front  for  revolutionary  films. 
Frontier  Films  has  faithfully  followed  the  Communist  Party  line  in 
its  productions.  As  soon  as  Hitler  attacked  the  Soviet  Union,  the  organ- 
ization ceased  its  attacks  on  American  conditions  and  government.  The 
following  description  of  Native  Land,  produced  by  Frontier  Films, 
(CIO  News,  May  11,  1942)  is  as  follows : 

"A  motion  picture  designed  to  create  afresh  those  feelings  of 
basic  American  patriotism  has  just  been  completed  by  Frontier 
Films  *  'f  *.  The  picture  was  directed  by  Leo  Hurwitz  and  Paul 
Strand,  who  have  been  in  the  advance  guard  of  documentary  film 
production  since  1931,  having  collaborated  on  " Heart  of  Spain," 
"The  Plow  That  Broke  the  Plains"  and  "China  Strikes 
Back"  *  *  *.  The  great  actor  and  baritone,  Paul  Robeson,  well- 
known  and  beloved  by  millions  for  his  life-long  struggle  in  the  cause 
of  democracy,  has  narrated  the  deeply  moving  commentary  written 
by  the  fine  American  poet,  David  Wolff. ' ' 

GARLAND  FUND 

This  source  of  revenue  for  Communist  causes  is  generally  referred 
to  as  the  Garland  Fund,  although  it  was  legally  constituted  as  the  Ameri- 
can Fund  for  Public  Service. 

Among  those  who  have  served  as  directors  and  officers  of  the  Garland 
Fund  or  its  subsidiaries,  are  the  following :  Roger  Baldwin,  William  Z. 
Foster,  Lewis  S.  Gannett,  Sidney  Hillman,  James  Weldon  Johnson, 
Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Scott  Nearing,  Mary  E.  McDowell,  Judah  L.  Mag- 
nes,  Norman  Thomas,  Harry  F.  Ward,  Morris  L.  Ernst,  Walter  Nelles, 
Elizabeth  Gurley  Flynn,  Clinton  S.  Golden,  Freda  Kirch wey,  Leo  Wol- 
man,  Clarina  Michelson,  Benjamin  Gitlow,  Robert  W.  Dunn,  Harry 
Elmer  Barnes,  E.  M.  Borchard,  Emanuel  Celler,  Paul  H.  Douglas,  Ken- 
neth Durant,  Edward  Meade  Earle,  Ernest  Gruening,  Manley  0.  Hudson, 
Charles  Clayton  Morrison,  Kirby  Page,  Otto  Schoenrich,  Henrik  Ship- 
stead,  Edgar  Speyer,  Moorfield  Storey,  John  F.  Sinclair,  Oswald  Gar- 
rison Villard,  and  Arthur  Warner. 

GARRISON  FILMS  DISTRIBUTORS,  INC. 

This  Communist  front  acts  for  films  produced  in  the  Soviet  Union 
as  well  as  for  Communist  propaganda  films  produced  in  the  United  States. 
It  has  followed  the  Communist  Party  line  and  the  expediency  of  Soviet 
foreign  policy  in  the  type  of  films  distributed  during  a  given  period. 

Commenting  on  a  so-called  documentary  film  "400,000,000,"  pro- 
duced by  Joris  Ivens  and  John  Ferno,  and  distributed  by  Garrison 


248  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Films,  Films  for  Democracy  (April,  1939)  states:  "This  is  the  second  of 
a  series  of  documentary  films  produced  by  History  Today,  Inc.  *  *  *." 
On  the  Board  of  Directors  of  History  Today,  Inc.,  are :  Lillian  Hell- 
man,  Dorothy  Parker,  Louise  Rainer,  Ernest  Hemingway,  Archibald 
MacLeish,  Dudley  Nichols,  Herman  Shumlin,  and  William  Osgood  Field. 

GOLDEN  BOOK  OF  AMERICAN  FRIENDSHIP  WITH  THE  SOVIET  UNION 

The  signers  of  the  Golden  Book  of  American  Friendship  with  the 
Soviet  Union  may  be  said  to  have  met  the  acid  test  for  admiration  of  a 
totalitarian  dictatorship. 

The  following  appeared  in  Soviet  Russia  Today  for  November,  1937  : 
"I  hereby  inscribe  my  name  in  greeting  to  the  people  of  the 

Soviet  Union  on  the  twentieth  anniversary  of  the  establishment  of 

the  Soviet  Republic." 

The  following  are  the  signatories  to  the  above  greeting:  Lynn  J. 
Frazier,  Robert  Morss  Lovett,  Julian  W.  Mack,  Robert  S.  Lynd,  Elmer 
Rice,  Meta  Berger,  Henry  E.  Sigerist,  Richard  B.  Scandrett,  Jr.,  Irene 
Levinsohn,  Louis  S.  Gannett,  George  Gordon  Battle,  Lynd  "Ward,  James 
H.  Maurer,  Klaus  Mann,  Evelyn  Preston,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Louis 
Lozowick,  Adolph  Dehn,  Harriett  Stanton  Blatch,  Katherine  Anne 
Porter,  Clara  Weather  wax,  Horace  Gregory,  S.  Ralph  Harlow,  Paul  de 
Kruif,  William  S.  Graves,  Henry  E.  Teigan,.  Christopher  Morley,  Upton- 
Sinclair,  Vilhjalmur  Stefanssen,  Vito  Marcantonio,  Dr.  Alfonso  Gold- 
schmidt,  George  Biddle,  Vera  Micheles  Dean,  Ben  Gold,  Thomas  Addis, 
James  Waterman  Wise,  Clifford  Odets,  Raphael  Soyer,  Matthew  Joseph- 
son,  Muriel  Rukeyser,  Ralph  M.  Pearson,  Kyle  Crichton,  Granville  Hicks, 
Art  Young,  Franklin  E.  Harris,  Lillian  D.  Wald,  W.  E.  B.  DuBois, 
William  I.  Sirovich,  Hubert  Wilkins,  Harry  W.  Laidler,  Scott  Nearing, 
Susan  M.  Kingsbury,  Malcolm  Cowley,  David  Pinski,  Fielding  Burke, 
Clyde  Fisher,  B.  W.  Huebsch,  Homer  PI.  Johnson,  Muriel  Draper,  Dr. 
Christian  Brinton,  William  Gropper,  Ida  M.  Tarbell,  Carol  King,  Alain 
Locke,  J.  Moreno  Lasalle,  Ray  Boynton,  Francis  J.  Gorman,  J.  McKeen 
Cattell,  H.  V.  Kaltenborn,  Harry  Elmer  Barnes,  Max  Weber,  Margaret  I. 
Lament,  Van  Wyck  Brooks,  Max  Lerner,  Newton  Arvin,  Joseph  Curran, 
Herman  F.  Reissig,  William  Koslenko,  Ira  S.  Wile,  Vardis  Fisher, 
Edward  Alsworth  Ross,  William  Carlos  Williams,  Josephine  Herbst, 
Wanda  Gag,  Countee  Cullen,  Jan  Matulka,  William  Steig,  and  Har- 
old Coy. 

HARRY  BRIDGES  DEFENSE  COMMITTEE 

This  Communist  front  has  operated  under  several  similar  names.  It 
has  functioned  as  the  Bridges  Defense  Committee,  Citizens  Committee 
for  Harry  Bridges,  etc. 

Among  those  who  have  affiliated  with  the  Bridges  Defense  Commit- 
tees are  Elmer  Benson,  W.  Russell  Bowie,  Joseph  Curran,  Sherman  H. 
Dalrymple,  Zeara  DuPont,  John  Green,  Max  Lerner,  Phillip  Murray, 
Paul  Robeson,  Reid  Robinson,  Orson  Welles,  Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  Shannon 
C.  Allen,  Stella  Adler,  Reuben  W.  Borough,  Prof.  Harold  Chapman 
Brown,  Morris  Carnovsky,  Aaron  Copland,  Frank  Davis,  Hugh  De  Lacy, 
William  E.  Dodd,  Jr.,  Wanda  Gag,  Albert  Halper,  Dashiell  Hammett, 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  249 

Arthur  Garfield  Hays,  Lillian  Hellman,  Paul  Jarrico,  Rockwell  Kent, 
Arthur  Kober,  Alfred  Kreymborg,  John  Howard  Lawson,  Dr.  Max 
Lerner,  Ray  Lev,  Dr.  George  Marshall,  Ruth  McKenney,  Dr.  John  How- 
ard Melish,  Dudley  Nichols,  Clifford  Odets,  Dorothy  Parker,  Prof.  Walter 
Rautenstrauch,  George  Seldes,  Irwin  Shaw,  Herman  Shumlin,  Tess  Sles- 
singer,  Alfred  K.  Stern,  Donald  Ogden  Stewart,  Paul  Strand,  Prof. 
Frank  W.  Weymouth,  Teddy  Wilson,  Ella  Winter,  Nathan  Witt,  Col. 
Charles  Erskine  Scott  Wood,  and  Virginia  Gardner. 

The  Harry  Bridges  Defense  Committee  for  San  Francisco  was 
located  at  593  Market  Street.  Estolv  Ward  was  the  executive  secretary  of 
the  California  Sponsoring  Committee.  Among  the  sponsors  are  the  fol- 
lowing :  J.  Vernon  Burke,  Germain  Bulcke,  Louis  Goldblatt,  Prof.  Robert 
A.  Brady,  George  Hardy,  George  Wilson,  Paul  S.  Schliff,  Herman  Stuy- 
velaar,  C.  L.  Dellums,  George  D.  Collins,  Jr.,  George  Olshausen,  Rabbi 
Jacob  Weinstein,  Dr.  Otis  Linn,  Henry  Schmidt,  Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  Dr. 
E.  P.  Ryland,  Harry  Graham  Baiter,  Loren  Miller,  Herbert  K.  Sorrell, 
Charles  J.  Katz,  Roy  M.  Donnely,  Dr.  A.  A.  Heist,  Frank  Scully,  Ben 
Rosenthal,  Don  Healy,  Philip  M.  Connelly,  J.  C.  Coulter,  Dr.  Melvin 
Rader,  Hugh  De  Lacy,  Eugene  V.  Bennett,  Howard  Grant,  Vera  Harris, 
Rev.  Fred  A.  Hughes,  Ross  N.  Kingston,  Claude  M.  Smith,  Paul  Stumps, 
Dr.  R.  G.  Tyler,  and  Mark  M.  Litchman. 

In  September  of  1942,  the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional 
Liberties  launched  a  campaign  to  defeat  the  deportation  of  Harry 
Bridges. 

This  Communist  front,  the  National  Federation  for  Constitutional 
Liberties,  issued  an  "Open  Letter"  addressed  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States  protesting  the  deportation  proceedings  and  demanding  that 
they  be  dropped.  Among  those  who  signed  this  letter  were  Dr.  Frank  C. 
Davis,  Carey  Me  Williams,  Ernest  Dawson,  Herbert  K.  Sorrell,  Abraham 
Isserman,  Dalton  Trumbo  and  Earl  Robinson. 

HOLLYWOOD  ANTI-NAZI  LEAGUE 

The  Hollywood  League  Against  Nazi-ism,  incorporated  on  June  8, 
1936,  and  became  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  on  September  28, 
1936. 

The  organization  was  conceived  by  the  Communist  Party  and  it 
was  brought  into  being  through  the  activities  of  Louise  Todd,  Los  Angeles 
section  organizer  of  the  Communist  Party,  and  Stanley  Lawrence,  Com- 
munist Party  Hollywood  representative. 

The  purpose  of  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  was,  of  course,  to 
support  the  current  foreign  policy  of  Soviet  Russia,  and  to  capitalize  on 
the  abhorrence  of  motion  picture  stars,  writers,  and  producers  for  the 
persecutions  and  atrocities  of  Hitler.  It  was  an  important  source  of 
funds  to  the  Communist  Party  and  became  an  excellent  vehicle  for 
propaganda. 

Marian  Spitzer  was  the  vice  president  of  the  Hollywood  An ti -Nazi 
League  and  its  chairman  was  Donald  Ogden  Stewart.  Marian  Spitzer 
has  been  an  important  leader  for  the  Communist  Party  in  the  cultural 
field.  The  Communist  Party  affiliation  of  Donald  Ogden  Stewart  is  estab- 
lished by  sworn  testimony  and  his  exceptionally  long  record  of  affiliation 
with  Communist  front  organizations. 


250  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Ursula  Daniels,  Young  Communist  League  member,  was  the  circu- 
lation manager  of  the  Anti-Nazi  News  published  by  the  Hollywood  Anti- 
Nazi  League.  The  name  of  this  publication  was  changed  to  News  of  the 
World,  and  finally  to  Now. 

V.  J.  Jerome,  alias  Isaac  Romaine,  educational  director  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  on  the  national  level,  was  sent  to  Hollywood  by  the  National 
Committee  of  the  Communist  Party  in  1937  to  reorganize  and  revitalize 
the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League.  Communist  Commissar  Jerome  and 
John  Howard  Lawson  put  the  front  on  a  paying  basis.  The  Congressional 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  reported  that  Hollywood  stars, 
writers  and  executives  contributed  $89,892.51  in  two  years  of  the  Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi  League's  existence.  A  bank  account  was  opened  in  the 
name  of  Beatrice  Buckman  and  was  later  changed  to  Bern  Bernard.  The 
Congressional  Report  states:  "The  deposits  of  the  Communist  Party  in 
this  area  rose  from  $600  from  the  period  of  October  19,  1935,  to  Decem- 
ber 11,  1936,  to  $23,140.23  in  the  period  of  February  28,  1936,  to 
November  9, 1936.' ' 

The  secretary  of  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  was  Alan  Camp- 
bell and  the  treasurer  was  Bern  Bernard.  The  sponsors  of  the  organiza- 
tion are  as  follows:  Herbert  Biberman,  Mrs.  Sidney  Buchman,  Eddie 
Cantor,  Florence  Eldridge  (Mrs.  Frederic  March),  Francis  Edwards 
Faragoh,  Oscar  Hammerstein,  II,  Charles  Katz,  Judge  Robert  W.  Kenny, 
H.  S.  Kraft,  Richard  Lert,  Ernst  Lubitsch,  Fredric  March,  Dr.  Rudolf 
Marx,  Edwin  Justus  Mayer,  Ray  Mayer,  Elizabeth  Merrell,  Lewis  Mile- 
stone, Paul  Muni,  Dudley  Nichols,  Judge  Isaac  Pacht,  Mrs.  Charles 
Page,  Dorothy  Parker,  Irving  Pichel,  Frank  Scully,  Viola  Brothers 
Shore,  Sylvia  Sidney,  Gloria  Stuart,  and  Frank  Tuttle. 

The  committee  wishes  to  emphasize  here  that  membership  in  the 
Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  is  in  no  way  a  test  of  the  sponsor's  sym- 
pathy for  Communism.  The  purported  objectives  were  those  of  most 
Americans.  While  the  organization  was  an  important  Communist-front, 
it  was  one  of  the  cleverest.  The  Communists  and  Communist  fellow- 
travelers  are  indicated  by  those  who  stuck  along  after  the  Stalin-Hitler 
pact  in  the  American  Peace  Crusade  and  the  American  Peace  Mobiliza- 
tion. This  test  is  conclusive. 

When  Stalin  and  Hitler  joined  forces  to  conquer  and  divide  Europe 
the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League  went  out  of  business.  The  money  col- 
lected by  the  organization  for  the  purpose  of  fighting  Hitler  and  the 
Nazis  was  probably  used  to  assist  Hitler  during  his  copartnership  with 
Josef  Stalin. 

The  "ironed-disciplined"  comrades  of  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi 
League  soon  emerged  as  members  and  sponsors  of  a  new  front,  the 
Hollywood  Democratic  Committee. 

HOLLYWOOD  DEMOCRATIC  COMMITTEE 

This  Communist-front  grew  out  of  a  series  of  fronts  designed  to 
entrap  Hollywood's  innocents  in  the  motion  picture  industry.  The  first 
was  the  Hollywood  League  Against  Nazi-ism,  which  changed  its  name 
a  few  months  after  its  incorporation  in  June  of  1936,  to  the  Hollywood 
Anti-Nazi  League.  The  Stalin-Hitler  pact  brought  this  front  to  an  abrupt 


UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA  251 

termination  of  activities  in  August  of  1939.  The  Motion  Picture  Demo- 
cratic Committee  was  the  organization  carried  forward  by  the  Commu- 
nists who  had  organized  and  directed  the  Hollywood  Anti-Nazi  League. 
The  Motion  Picture  Democratic  Committee,  after  several  sad  experiences 
which  publicly  disclosed  its  Communist  control,  continued  on  as  the 
Hollywood  League  for  Democratic  Action. 

The  reelection  campaign  of  Governor  Culbert  L.  Olson  in  1942  found 
the  Hollywood  League  for  Democratic  Action  reorganized  as  the  Holly- 
wood Democratic  Committee.  Its  announced  purpose  was  the  reelection 
of  Governor  Olson.  It  had  no  connection  with  the  Democratic  Party  as 
such.  After  the  defeat  of  Governor  Olson  in  1942  the  front  continued  as 
a  permanent  organization  under  the  secretaryship  of  George  Pepper. 

Throughout  all  of  the  twists  and  turns  of  these  Communist-fronts, 
under  one  name  or  another,  was  the  guiding  hand  of  Communist  John 
Howard  Lawson.  The  issue  of  August  3,  1943,  of  the  People's  Daily 
World  states  that  "the  program  of  action  for  the  (Hollywood  Demo- 
cratic) committee,  as  enunciated  by  Screen  Writer  John  Howard 
Lawson.  *  *  *  Lawson,  in  discussing  the  committee 's  program  of  action, 
said  that  the  activities  would  extend  beyond  the  Los  Angeles  community 
and  that  every  resource  would  be  mustered  to  rally  the  people  of  America 
around  the  program  of  the  committee."  Dalton  Trumbo,  incidentally, 
made  the  collection  speech  at  the  meeting.  ( Trumbo 's  Johnny  Get  Tour 
Gun,  an  anti-war  story  during  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact,  ran  serially  in  the 
Daily  Worker.) 

Herbert  Biberman,  a  member  of  the  national  council  of  the  Amer- 
ican Peace  Mobilization  which  picketed  the  White  House  during  the 
Stalin-Hitler  pact,  was  the  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee's  mouth- 
piece in  its  attack  on  Congressman  John  H.  Costello  when  the  congress- 
man was  up  for  reelection.  Biberman  was  a  sponsor  of  the  Hollywood 
League  for  Democratic  Action,  chairman  of  the  Los  Angeles  branch  of 
the  American  Peace  Mobilization,  supporter  of  the  League  of  American 
Writers,  and  has  been  affiliated  in  one  capacity  or  another  with  numerous 
Communist-front  organizations. 

After  Hitler  invaded  Russia  the  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee 
followed  the  new  ' '  line ' '  and  pledged  itself  to  a  *  *  win-the-war ' '  platform. 

A  ballot  for  the  election  of  officers  and  an  executive  board,  "as 
approved  by  the  nominating  committee  and  the  steering  committee," 
under  date  of  July  26,  1944,  listed  the  following  members  of  the  Holly- 
wood Democratic  Committee :  Marc  Connelly,  chairman ;  John  Crom- 
well, Gene  Kelly,  E.  Y.  Harburg,  vice  presidents ;  Norval  Crutcher,  sec- 
retary ;  Albert  Dekker,  treasurer ;  Robert  Andrews,  Hugh  Bennett,  Mar- 
garet Bennett,  Henry  Blankfort,  Edwin  Blum,  Irving  Brecher,  Virginia 
Bruce,  Sidney  Buchman,  George  Campbell,  Teet  Carle,  Florence  Caylor, 
Morris  Cohn,  Marc  Connelly,  John  Cromwell,  Norval  Crutcher,  Olivia 
De  Haviland,  Albert  Dekker,  D.  A.  Doran,  Edward  Dmytryk,  Duke 
Ellington,  Ted  Ellsworth,  Ken  Englund,  Paul  Franklin,  John  Garfield, 
Ira  Gershwin,  Sheridan  Gibney,  Mrs.  Russell  Gleason,  John  Green,  E.  Y. 
Harburg,  Louis  Harris,  Don  Hartman,  Rita  Hayworth,  Miriam  Hopkins, 
Arthur  Hornblow,  John  Houseman,  Walter  Huston,  Rex  Ingram,  Talbot 
Jennings,  Gene  Kelly,  Jerome  Kern,  Evelyn  Keyes,  Don  King,  Edwin 
Knopf,  Harry  Kurnitz,  Jesse  Lasky,  Emmett  Lavery,  John  Howard 


252  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES  IN  CALIFORNIA 

Lawson,  Sol  Lesser,  Kenneth  MaeGowan,  Mary  C.  McCall,  Lewis  Mile- 
stone, Ona  Munson,  Mrs.  Henry  Myers,  Bill  Oliver,  William  Perlberg, 
Nat  Perrin,  Irving  Pichel,  William  Pomerance,  Glenn  Pratt,  Everett 
Riskin,  Edward  G.  Robinson,  Al  Rogell,  Robert  Rossen,  Rev.  Clayton 
Russell,  Oliver  Schwab,  Arthur  Schwartz,  Allan  Scott,  Ashmead  Scott, 
Douglas  Shearer,  Vincent  Sherman,  Herbert  Sorrell,  Al  Speede,  Mrs. 
Mon  Spliterling,  Marian  Spitzer,  Stewart  Sterling,  Gloria  Stuart,  Jo 
Swerling,  Franchot  Tone,  Mrs.  Harry  Tugent,  Frank  Tuttle,  Charles 
Vidor,  Jerry  Wald,  J.  K.  Wallace,  Orson  Welles,  William  Wilder,  Vir- 
ginia Wright,  Mrs.  William  Wyler,  Sam  Zimbalist,  executive  board. 

After  the  invasion  of  Soviet  Russia  by  Hitler,  the  Hollywood  Demo- 
cratic Committee  became  a  very  "patriotic"  organization  and  hailed 
Franklin  D.  Roosevelt  as  the  great  Commander-in-Chief,  instead  of  a 
war-monger  and  trickster  leading  the  country  into  an  unpopular  war 
for  the  benefit  of  Wall  Street,  as  the  Hollywood  Motion  Picture  Demo- 
cratic Committee  had  claimed  during  the  Stalin-Hitler  pact. 

Herbert  K.  Sorrell  emerged  as  a  member  of  the  executive  board  of 
the  Hollywood  Democratic  Committee.  The  executive  board  of  the  Holly- 
wood Democratic  Committee  included,  in  addition  to  Sorrell,  John  Crom- 
well, Norval  Crutcher,  John  Green,  Irving  Pichel,  Gloria  Stuart,  Frank 
Tuttle,  E.  Y.  Harburg,  Edward  Dmytryk,  Ira  Gershwin,  and  the  Rev. 
Clayton  Russell. 

HOLLYWOOD  INDEPENDENT  CITIZENS  COMMITTEE  OF  THE  ARTS, 
SCIENCES  AND  PROFESSIONS  (HICCASP) 

The  1947  Report  of  the  Legislative  Committee  investigating 
Un-American  Activities  in  California  explained  at  some  length  the  twist 
in  the  Communist  Party  line  at  the  beginning  of  World  War  II.  In  con- 
formity with  the  then  current  line  the  name  of  the  Communist  Party 
was  changed  to  the  Communist  Political  Association,  and  the  name  of  the 
Young  Communist  League  was  changed  to  American  Youth  for  Democ- 
racy. The  name  of  the  monthly  ideological  publication,  "  The  Communist" 
was  changed  to  "Political  Affairs." 

After  Germany  was  defeated  and  the  pressure  removed  against  the 
Soviet  Union,  there  was  no  longer  any  reason  for  the  Communist  Party 
of  America  to  continue  its  policy  of  appeasement  toward  United  States 
industry.  The  Communist  Political  Association  was  dissolved  and  the  old 
revolutionary,  world-conquest-seeking  Communist  Party  of  the  United 
States  was  revived.  Every  student  of  Communist  maneuvering  knew  that 
the  American  agents  of  Stalin  would  now  revive  their  long-range  policy 
of  instigating  strikes,  creating  racial  antagonisms  and  intensify  their 
day-to-day  policy  of  gnawin